Timeline of Church History

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*1833 [[Church of Greece]] declares [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; death of [[Seraphim of Sarov]].
 
*1833 [[Church of Greece]] declares [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; death of [[Seraphim of Sarov]].
 
*1839 Synod of Polotsk abolishes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] in all areas under Russian rule as Greek Catholic dioceses in Lithuania and Belarus re-enter the Orthodox Church (with the exception of the eparchy of Chelm, in Polish territory, which was itself integrated into the Russian Orthodox Church in 1875).
 
*1839 Synod of Polotsk abolishes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] in all areas under Russian rule as Greek Catholic dioceses in Lithuania and Belarus re-enter the Orthodox Church (with the exception of the eparchy of Chelm, in Polish territory, which was itself integrated into the Russian Orthodox Church in 1875).
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*1840s Corespondence of Anglican Revered William Palmer with Fr. Alexei Stepanovich Khomakiov, and Metropolitan Saint Philaret of Moscow towards the establishment of a Western rite Orthodox Church in England.
 
*1847 Restoration of [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem]] by Pope Pius IX.
 
*1847 Restoration of [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem]] by Pope Pius IX.
 
*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as [[heresy]], declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]."
 
*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as [[heresy]], declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]."
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*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
*1867 Sale of Alaska to United States; death of [[Ignatius Brianchaninov]].
 
*1867 Sale of Alaska to United States; death of [[Ignatius Brianchaninov]].
*1869 Celebration of the first miracle of the [[Icon of the Theotokos at Chernigov-Gethsemane]].
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*1869 Celebration of the first miracle of the [[Icon of the Theotokos at Chernigov-Gethsemane]]; Holy Synod of Russia authorized the corrected test of the Western rite liturgy and Benedictine offices.
*1870 [[Papal Infallibility]] declared [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] dogma necessary for salvation by First Vatican Council; [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] cease to exist.
+
*1870 [[Papal Infallibility]] declared [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] dogma necessary for salvation by First Vatican Council; [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] cease to exist; Old Catholic Schism occurs, Old Catholics openly courted by Russian Orthodox Church in France and Germany.
 
*1871 [[Nicholas of Japan|Nikolai Kasatkin]] establishes Orthodox mission in Japan.
 
*1871 [[Nicholas of Japan|Nikolai Kasatkin]] establishes Orthodox mission in Japan.
 
*1872 Council in Jerusalem declares [[phyletism]] to be [[heresy]]; [[Church of Bulgaria]] gains ''de facto'' [[autocephaly]] by a decree of the Sultan.
 
*1872 Council in Jerusalem declares [[phyletism]] to be [[heresy]]; [[Church of Bulgaria]] gains ''de facto'' [[autocephaly]] by a decree of the Sultan.
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*1876 [[Theophan the Recluse]] begins issuing a translation of the ''[[Philokalia]]'' in Russian.   
 
*1876 [[Theophan the Recluse]] begins issuing a translation of the ''[[Philokalia]]'' in Russian.   
 
*1877 Death of [[Arsenios of Paros]].
 
*1877 Death of [[Arsenios of Paros]].
*1879 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Serbia]]; death of [[Innocent of Alaska]].
+
*1879 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Serbia]]; death of [[Innocent of Alaska]]; Dr. JJ Overbeck journeys to Constantinople to request approval from the Oecumenical Patriarchate for use of the Roman liturgy and Benedictine offices.
 
*1881 Wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migration of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States, thousands settle in Palestine).
 
*1881 Wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migration of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States, thousands settle in Palestine).
 +
*1882 The Patriarch and Synod of Constantinople gave conditional approval to the use of the Latin Roman liturgy and Benedictine offices.
 
*1884 ''[[The Way of a Pilgrim]]'' published in Kazan.
 
*1884 ''[[The Way of a Pilgrim]]'' published in Kazan.
 
*1885 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Romania]]; [[w:Revised Version|English Revised Version]] published; [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] officially removes all of [[Apocrypha]] from [[w:Authorized King James Version|King James Bible]].
 
*1885 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Romania]]; [[w:Revised Version|English Revised Version]] published; [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] officially removes all of [[Apocrypha]] from [[w:Authorized King James Version|King James Bible]].
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*1889 Federation of [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]], not in communion with Rome, at the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]].
 
*1889 Federation of [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]], not in communion with Rome, at the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]].
 
*ca. 1890 ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' further revised by [[Theophan the Recluse]].
 
*ca. 1890 ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' further revised by [[Theophan the Recluse]].
 +
*1890-1 Bishop Vladimir (Sokolovsky) Russian Orthodox Bishop of Alaska, formally receives a parish of Swiss Old Catholics at Dyckesville, Wisconsin as a Western rite Orthodox parish.
 +
*1892 Pastoral visit of Bishop Nicholas (Ziorov) to Russian Orthodox Western rite parish in Wisconsin.
 
*1895 Reply of Synod of Constantinople to Pope Leo XIII.
 
*1895 Reply of Synod of Constantinople to Pope Leo XIII.
 
*1896 Pope Leo XIII issues the bull ''Apostolicae Curae'' which declares Anglican Orders "absolutely null and utterly void".  
 
*1896 Pope Leo XIII issues the bull ''Apostolicae Curae'' which declares Anglican Orders "absolutely null and utterly void".  
 
*1896-1906 [[w:Oxyrhynchus|Oxyrhynchus]] papyri discovered in Egypt dating from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, including portions of the New Testament.
 
*1896-1906 [[w:Oxyrhynchus|Oxyrhynchus]] papyri discovered in Egypt dating from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, including portions of the New Testament.
*1898 Last ethnically Greek patriarch of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] deposed.
+
*1898 Last ethnically Greek patriarch of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] deposed; a Western rite diocese organized in Czechoslovakia by the Russian Orthodox Church.
 
*1899 Restoration of Arabs to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchal throne of Antioch]].
 
*1899 Restoration of Arabs to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchal throne of Antioch]].
 
*1900 [[Chinese Martyrs of the Boxer Rebellion|Martyrdom of Orthodox Christians]] in Chinese Boxer Rebellion.
 
*1900 [[Chinese Martyrs of the Boxer Rebellion|Martyrdom of Orthodox Christians]] in Chinese Boxer Rebellion.
 
*1901 "Evangelakia" riots in Athens Greece in November, over translations of [[New Testament]] into [[w:Dimotiki|Demotic (modern) Greek]], resulting in fall of both government and Metropolitan of Athens.
 
*1901 "Evangelakia" riots in Athens Greece in November, over translations of [[New Testament]] into [[w:Dimotiki|Demotic (modern) Greek]], resulting in fall of both government and Metropolitan of Athens.
 
*1903 Uncovering of the relics of [[Seraphim of Sarov]].
 
*1903 Uncovering of the relics of [[Seraphim of Sarov]].
*1904 [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] publishes the [http://kainh.homestead.com/files/noteptxt.pdf "Patriarchal" Text of the Greek New Testament], based on about twenty Byzantine manuscripts.
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*1904 [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] publishes the [http://kainh.homestead.com/files/noteptxt.pdf "Patriarchal" Text of the Greek New Testament], based on about twenty Byzantine manuscripts; Petition to the Holy Synod of Russia by Archbishop Saint Tikhon (Belavin), Bishop Saint Raphael (Hawaweeny), and Fr. Saint John (Kochuroff) to permit an adaption of the services taken from the Book of Common Prayer for use by Orthodox people.
 
*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America.
 
*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America.
*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Papal Bull ''Ea Semper'' issued, effectively subordinating the Greek Catholic Clergy in the United States to the local Roman Catholic bishops.
+
*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Papal Bull ''Ea Semper'' issued, effectively subordinating the Greek Catholic Clergy in the United States to the local Roman Catholic bishops; The Commission on Anglican and Old Catholic Affairs of the Holy Synod of Russia reports in favor of the adaption of services from the Book of Common Prayer, and set out criteria for adaption.
 
*1908 Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans.
 
*1908 Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans.
 
*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].
 
*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].

Revision as of 13:22, July 26, 2008

This article forms part of the series
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Apostolic era (33-100)

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Nicene era (325-451)

Byzantine era (451-843)

Late Byzantine era (843-1453)

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Modern era (1821-1917)

Communist era (1917-1991)

Post-Communist era (1991-Present)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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