Timeline of Church History

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*107 Martyrdom of [[Ignatius of Antioch]]; death of [[Apostle Symeon]].  
 
*107 Martyrdom of [[Ignatius of Antioch]]; death of [[Apostle Symeon]].  
*108-124 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Trajan]], continuing under Emepror Hadrian (3rd).
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*108-124 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Trajan]], continuing under Emperor Hadrian (3rd).
 
*120 Beginning of time of the Apologists: [[Justin Martyr]], [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]], [[Tatian]], [[Athenagoras of Athens]], [[Theophilus]], [[Minucius Felix]], [[Tertullian]] and [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]].
 
*120 Beginning of time of the Apologists: [[Justin Martyr]], [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]], [[Tatian]], [[Athenagoras of Athens]], [[Theophilus]], [[Minucius Felix]], [[Tertullian]] and [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]].
 
*124 Apostles [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]] and [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]] present Christian apologies to Emperor Hadrian at Athens.  
 
*124 Apostles [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]] and [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]] present Christian apologies to Emperor Hadrian at Athens.  
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*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].   
 
*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].   
 
*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]].   
 
*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]].   
*166 Pope [[Soter]] inaugurates in Rome a separate annual feast for [[Pascha]], in addition to the weekly [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] celebrations of the [[Resurrection]], which is also held on a Sunday, in contrast to the [[Quartodeciman|Quartodecimans]].  
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*166 Pope [[Soter of Rome|Soter]] inaugurates in Rome a separate annual feast for [[Pascha]], in addition to the weekly [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] celebrations of the [[Resurrection]], which is also held on a Sunday, in contrast to the [[Quartodeciman|Quartodecimans]].  
 
*ca. 175 Tatian's [[w:Diatessaron|Diatessaron]] harmonizes the four canonical gospels into single narrative.
 
*ca. 175 Tatian's [[w:Diatessaron|Diatessaron]] harmonizes the four canonical gospels into single narrative.
 
*177-180 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Marcus_Aurelius|Persection under Emperor Marcus Aurelius]] (161-180) (4th).
 
*177-180 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Marcus_Aurelius|Persection under Emperor Marcus Aurelius]] (161-180) (4th).
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*312 [[Labarum|Vision]] and conversion of [[Constantine the Great]]; defeat of Maxentius at the [[Battle of Milvian Bridge]], making Constantine Emperor of the West; martyrdom of [[Lucian of Antioch]].
 
*312 [[Labarum|Vision]] and conversion of [[Constantine the Great]]; defeat of Maxentius at the [[Battle of Milvian Bridge]], making Constantine Emperor of the West; martyrdom of [[Lucian of Antioch]].
 
*313 [[Edict of Milan]] issued by [[Constantine the Great]] and co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire.   
 
*313 [[Edict of Milan]] issued by [[Constantine the Great]] and co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire.   
*314 [[Council of Ancyra]] held; [[Council of Arles]] condemns [[Donatism]].   
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*314 [[Council of Ancyra]] held; [[Council of Arles of 314|Council of Arles]] condemns [[Donatism]].   
 
*315 [[Council of Neo-Caesaria]] held.  
 
*315 [[Council of Neo-Caesaria]] held.  
 
*318 Publication of ''[[On the Incarnation]]'' by [[Athanasius the Great]]; beginnings of [[Arianism|Arian Controversy]].   
 
*318 Publication of ''[[On the Incarnation]]'' by [[Athanasius the Great]]; beginnings of [[Arianism|Arian Controversy]].   
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*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; placing of the cincture of the [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople.   
 
*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; placing of the cincture of the [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople.   
 
*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great.   
 
*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great.   
*397 [[Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]] and [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
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*397 [[Councils of Carthage|Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]] and [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
 
*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.   
 
*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.   
 
*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]].   
 
*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]].   
*399 [[Anastasius of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]].   
+
*399 [[Anastasius I of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]].   
 
*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]].   
 
*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]].   
 
*402 [[Porphyry of Gaza]] obtains imperial decree ordering closing of pagan temples in Gaza.   
 
*402 [[Porphyry of Gaza]] obtains imperial decree ordering closing of pagan temples in Gaza.   
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*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].   
 
*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].   
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.   
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.   
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York.       
+
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York.       
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.   
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.   
 
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]].   
 
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]].   
 
*672 First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adopting of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.   
 
*672 First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adopting of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.   
 
*673 Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]].   
 
*673 Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]].   
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius I of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.     
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*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius I of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius I of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.     
 
*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England.   
 
*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England.   
 
*685 First monastics come to [[Mount Athos]]; death of [[Anastasius of Sinai]].   
 
*685 First monastics come to [[Mount Athos]]; death of [[Anastasius of Sinai]].   
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*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
 
*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
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*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
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*1022 Death of [[Simeon the New Theologian]].       
 
*1022 Death of [[Simeon the New Theologian]].       
 
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].  
 
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].  
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].  
+
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I Studites of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].  
 
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.  
 
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.  
 
*1043 [[Edward the Confessor|Edward the Confessor]] crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral.
 
*1043 [[Edward the Confessor|Edward the Confessor]] crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral.
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==Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)==
 
==Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)==
 
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))|Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))]]''
 
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))|Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))]]''
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch.   
+
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert of Silva Candida|Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch.   
 
*1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term ''transubstantiation'' begins to come in to use, ascribed to [[Peter Damian]].   
 
*1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term ''transubstantiation'' begins to come in to use, ascribed to [[Peter Damian]].   
 
*1064 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia.   
 
*1064 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia.   
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*1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.   
 
*1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.   
 
*1071 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] defeat Byzantines at the [[w:Battle of Manzikert|Battle of Manzikert]], beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by [[w:Robert Guiscard|Robert Guiscard]] capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of [[w:Catapanate of Italy|Byzantine rule in the south]].     
 
*1071 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] defeat Byzantines at the [[w:Battle of Manzikert|Battle of Manzikert]], beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by [[w:Robert Guiscard|Robert Guiscard]] capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of [[w:Catapanate of Italy|Byzantine rule in the south]].     
*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Grgeory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the [[w:Gregorian Reform|Gregorian reforms]] (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.   
+
*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Gregory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the [[w:Gregorian Reform|Gregorian reforms]] (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.   
 
*1074 Death of [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].   
 
*1074 Death of [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].   
 
*1075 ''[[w:Dictatus papae|Dictatus Papae]]'' document advances Papal supremacy.   
 
*1075 ''[[w:Dictatus papae|Dictatus Papae]]'' document advances Papal supremacy.   
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*1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the [[Theotokos]] "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Roman Catholic Normans.     
 
*1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the [[Theotokos]] "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Roman Catholic Normans.     
 
*1176 [[w:Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm|Sultanate of Rum]] defeats Byzantine Empire in the [[w:Battle of Myriokephalon|Battle of Myriokephalon]], marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them.         
 
*1176 [[w:Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm|Sultanate of Rum]] defeats Byzantine Empire in the [[w:Battle of Myriokephalon|Battle of Myriokephalon]], marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them.         
 +
* 1179 Pope Alexander III convened the [[w:Third Council of the Lateran|Third Lateran Council]], which was attended by a certain Nectarios of the important [[w:Basilian monks|Basilian]] Monastery of St. Nicholas of Kasoulon near [[w:Otranto|Otranto]], under Norman patronage, who made himself the champion of the Greek Church, and vigorously supported their [[Byzantine Rite|customs and doctrines]].<ref>K. Lake. ''"The Greek Monasteries in South Italy III."'' '''J Theol Studies''' (1903) os-V(17): 22-41. p. 35.</ref>
 
*1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch.   
 
*1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch.   
 
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of [[w:Monreale#The_Cathedral|Monreale Cathedral]] in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy.     
 
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of [[w:Monreale#The_Cathedral|Monreale Cathedral]] in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy.     
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*1235 Death of [[Sava of Serbia]].   
 
*1235 Death of [[Sava of Serbia]].   
 
*1237 Golden Horde begin [[Church of Russia#Mongol Tartars over Russia (1237-1448)|subjugation of Russia]].   
 
*1237 Golden Horde begin [[Church of Russia#Mongol Tartars over Russia (1237-1448)|subjugation of Russia]].   
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince [[Alexander Nevsky]] defeats Swedish army at [[Battle of the Neva]].   
+
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince [[Alexander Nevsky]] defeats Swedish army at Battle of the Neva.   
 
*1242 [[Alexander Nevsky]]'s Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in [[w:Battle of the Ice|Battle of Lake Peipus]], a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders.   
 
*1242 [[Alexander Nevsky]]'s Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in [[w:Battle of the Ice|Battle of Lake Peipus]], a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders.   
 
*1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by [[w:Khwarezm|Khwarezmian]] mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid]] ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade.       
 
*1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by [[w:Khwarezm|Khwarezmian]] mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid]] ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade.       
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*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.   
 
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.   
 
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.  
 
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.  
*1274 Second [[Council of Lyons]] held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East.
+
*1274 Second [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]] held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East.
*1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople [[John XI Beccus of Constantinople|John XI Beccus]] elected to replace Patriarch [[Joseph I Galesiotes of Constantinople|Joseph I Galesiotes]], who opposed [[Council of Lyons]]; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on [[Mount Athos|Mt. Athos]], martyred by the Latins.   
+
*1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople [[John XI Bekkos of Constantinople|John XI Bekkos]] elected to replace Patriarch [[Joseph I Galesiotes of Constantinople|Joseph I Galesiotes]], who opposed [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]]; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on [[Mount Athos|Mt. Athos]], martyred by the Latins.   
 
*ca. 1280 ''[[w:Kebra Nagast|Kebra Nagast]]'' ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings.   
 
*ca. 1280 ''[[w:Kebra Nagast|Kebra Nagast]]'' ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings.   
 
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].       
 
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].       
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*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.   
 
*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.   
 
*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule.     
 
*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule.     
*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans.   
+
*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II (Tranos) of Constantinople|Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans.   
 
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].         
 
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].         
 
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII.
 
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII.
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*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.           
 
*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.           
 
*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written.   
 
*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written.   
*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lukaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping.   
+
*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lucaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping.   
 
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.   
 
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.   
 
*1642 [[Council of Jassy]] (Iaşi) revises [[Peter Mogila]]'s confession to remove overtly Roman Catholic theology and confirms canonicity of certain [[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical]] books.       
 
*1642 [[Council of Jassy]] (Iaşi) revises [[Peter Mogila]]'s confession to remove overtly Roman Catholic theology and confirms canonicity of certain [[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical]] books.       
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*1652-1658 Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]] revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek liturgical customs, leading to mass excommunication and schism of dissenters, who become known as [[Old Believers]].             
 
*1652-1658 Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]] revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek liturgical customs, leading to mass excommunication and schism of dissenters, who become known as [[Old Believers]].             
 
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheos II of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).  
 
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheos II of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).  
*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared a common [[Typikon]].  
+
*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared a common [[Typikon]].
 +
*1685-87 The [[w:Slavic Greek Latin Academy|Slavic Greek Latin Academy]] is organized as the first higher education establishment in Moscow, under the guidance of two Greek brothers, [[Joannicus and Sophronius Likhud]], on the premises of the [[w:Zaikonospassky monastery|Zaikonospassky Monastery]] with over 70 students. 
 
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].       
 
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].       
 
*1698 Consecration of the first Orthodox [[Church of China|Church in China]], in the name of Sophia (Divine Wisdom), when Emperor Kangxi ordered a Buddhist temple to be cleared for Russian inhabitants in Beijing.
 
*1698 Consecration of the first Orthodox [[Church of China|Church in China]], in the name of Sophia (Divine Wisdom), when Emperor Kangxi ordered a Buddhist temple to be cleared for Russian inhabitants in Beijing.
 
*1700 The ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' calendar in Russia, in use since AD 988 was changed to the [[Julian Calendar]] by Peter the Great; Peter the Great published an ''Ukase''  on [[June 18|June 18th]] that made a resounding appeal for the propagation of the faith in Siberia and China.
 
*1700 The ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' calendar in Russia, in use since AD 988 was changed to the [[Julian Calendar]] by Peter the Great; Peter the Great published an ''Ukase''  on [[June 18|June 18th]] that made a resounding appeal for the propagation of the faith in Siberia and China.
*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic.    
+
*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic.  
 
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.
 
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.
 
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
 
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
 
*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors.   
 
*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors.   
 
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[holy synod]].   
 
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[holy synod]].   
*1724 [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.  
+
*1724 [[Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.  
 
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the ''[[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]]'' (AD).
 
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the ''[[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]]'' (AD).
 
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]].   
 
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]].   
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*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.   
 
*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.   
 
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.   
 
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.   
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimios of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
+
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimus of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
 
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.         
 
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.         
*1805 Death of [[Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.       
+
*1805 Death of [[Macarius Notaras of Corinth|Makarius of Corinth]], a central figure in the [[Kollyvades Movement|Kollyvades]] movement.       
 
*1811 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]] revoked by the Russian imperial state after Georgia's annexation, making it subject to the [[Church of Russia]].       
 
*1811 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]] revoked by the Russian imperial state after Georgia's annexation, making it subject to the [[Church of Russia]].       
 
*1819 Council at Constantinople endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
 
*1819 Council at Constantinople endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
Line 593: Line 595:
 
*1854 [[Immaculate Conception]] declared [[dogma]] by [[Roman Catholic Church]].   
 
*1854 [[Immaculate Conception]] declared [[dogma]] by [[Roman Catholic Church]].   
 
*1859 [[w:Constantin von Tischendorf|Constantin von Tischendorf]] discovers [[w:Codex Sinaiticus|Codex Sinaiticus]] at [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]].
 
*1859 [[w:Constantin von Tischendorf|Constantin von Tischendorf]] discovers [[w:Codex Sinaiticus|Codex Sinaiticus]] at [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]].
*1860 Death of [[Alexei Khomiakov]], co-founder of the [[Slavophile movement]].   
+
*1860 Death of [[Alexei Stepanovich Khomiakov|Alexei Khomiakov]], co-founder of the [[Slavophile movement]].   
 
*1864 First Orthodox [[parish]] established on American soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks; death of [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1864 First Orthodox [[parish]] established on American soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks; death of [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].   
 
*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].   
Line 617: Line 619:
 
*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America.   
 
*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America.   
 
*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Commission on Anglican and Old Catholic Affairs of Russian synod reports in favor of adaptation of services from Book of Common Prayer and sets out criteria.   
 
*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Commission on Anglican and Old Catholic Affairs of Russian synod reports in favor of adaptation of services from Book of Common Prayer and sets out criteria.   
*1908 Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans.   
+
*1908 Fr. [[Nikodemos Sarikas]] sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans.   
 
*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].       
 
*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].       
 
*1912 Death of [[Nicholas of Japan]].
 
*1912 Death of [[Nicholas of Japan]].
Line 637: Line 639:
 
*1929 Kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]].   
 
*1929 Kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]].   
 
*1931 Reception of [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]].   
 
*1931 Reception of [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]].   
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to Uganda to meet Reuben Spartas, establishing African Orthodox Church there.   
+
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to [[Uganda]] to meet [[Christopher Reuben Spartas|Reuben Spartas]], establishing African Orthodox Church there.   
 
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]].   
 
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]].   
 
*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; episcopal consecration of [[John Maximovitch]].   
 
*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; episcopal consecration of [[John Maximovitch]].   
Line 650: Line 652:
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.   
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.   
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA.   
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA.   
*1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]].   
+
*1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Divine Liturgy according to St. Germanus of Paris|Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]].   
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].   
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].   
 
*1945-90 Persecution of the [[Church of Albania|Orthodox Church in Albania]].   
 
*1945-90 Persecution of the [[Church of Albania|Orthodox Church in Albania]].   
Line 700: Line 702:
 
*1999 Numerous Serbian Orthodox sites in Kosovo and Metohia destroyed and desecrated during NATO peacekeeping presence.
 
*1999 Numerous Serbian Orthodox sites in Kosovo and Metohia destroyed and desecrated during NATO peacekeeping presence.
 
*2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, discusses text on ''"The Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism,"'' but is suspended; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Word and Sacraments (Mysteria) in the Life of the Church"''.  
 
*2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, discusses text on ''"The Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism,"'' but is suspended; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Word and Sacraments (Mysteria) in the Life of the Church"''.  
*2001 Pope John Paul II of Rome [[Fourth Crusade#Papal Apology to Orthodox Church|apologizes to Orthodox Church]] for Fourth Crusade; [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian]] and [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Non-Chalcedonian]] Patriarchates of Alexandria agree to mutually recognize baptisms and marriages performed in each other's churches.   
+
*2001 [[Church of Armenia]] celebrates 1700th Anniversary of Christianity in Armenia (in 301 AD, King Tiridates III declared Christianity as Armenia’s state religion); Pope John Paul II of Rome [[Fourth Crusade#Papal Apology to Orthodox Church|apologizes to Orthodox Church]] for Fourth Crusade; [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian]] and [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Non-Chalcedonian]] Patriarchates of Alexandria agree to mutually recognize baptisms and marriages performed in each other's churches.   
 
*2002 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] and Pope [[John Paul II]] co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Mysteria/Sacraments as Means of Salvation."''     
 
*2002 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] and Pope [[John Paul II]] co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Mysteria/Sacraments as Means of Salvation."''     
 
*2003 Orthodox Churches in Europe commemorated the 550th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople in May; [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch]]; Coptic priest Fr. [[Zakaria Botros]] begins his television and internet mission to Muslims in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and western countries, resulting in thousands of conversions.
 
*2003 Orthodox Churches in Europe commemorated the 550th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople in May; [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch]]; Coptic priest Fr. [[Zakaria Botros]] begins his television and internet mission to Muslims in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and western countries, resulting in thousands of conversions.

Latest revision as of 16:24, September 20, 2013

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Main article: Timeline of Church History (New Testament Era)

Apostolic era (33-100)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))

Nicene era (325-451)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))

Byzantine era (451-843)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))

Late Byzantine era (843-1054)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))

Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))

Media:Example.ogg

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))

Modern era (1821-1917)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Modern Era (1821-1917))

Communist era (1917-1991)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))

Post-Communist era (1991-Present)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Communist Era (1991-Present))
  • 1991 Representatives of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches meet in Chambesy, Switzerland, discussing relations with World Council of Churches.
  • 1992 Synaxis of primates of Orthodox churches in Constantinople.
  • 1993 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document "Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion" (the "Balamand document"); Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "The Ecumenical Councils."
  • 1993 Church of Cyprus condemns Freemasonry; Orthodox Study Bible: New Testament and Psalms published; Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church becomes autocephalous.
  • 1994 Ligonier Meeting in Western Pennsylvania at Antiochian Village held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with the notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "diaspora".
  • 1995 Patr. Bartholomew I visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Understanding of Salvation in the Light of the Ecumenical Councils"; Pope John Paul II issues encyclical Orientale Lumen, encouraging reunion between East and West.
  • 1996 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America reorganized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, dividing the administration of the two continents into four parts.
  • 1998 Church of Constantinople, not recognizing Russia's right to issue a tomos of autocephaly in 1951, issues its own tomos for the Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia; Thessaloniki Summit held to discuss Orthodox participation in WCC; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Salvation: Grace, Justification and Synergy."
  • 1999 Numerous Serbian Orthodox sites in Kosovo and Metohia destroyed and desecrated during NATO peacekeeping presence.
  • 2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, discusses text on "The Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism," but is suspended; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Word and Sacraments (Mysteria) in the Life of the Church".
  • 2001 Church of Armenia celebrates 1700th Anniversary of Christianity in Armenia (in 301 AD, King Tiridates III declared Christianity as Armenia’s state religion); Pope John Paul II of Rome apologizes to Orthodox Church for Fourth Crusade; Chalcedonian and Non-Chalcedonian Patriarchates of Alexandria agree to mutually recognize baptisms and marriages performed in each other's churches.
  • 2002 Patr. Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople and Pope John Paul II co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Mysteria/Sacraments as Means of Salvation."
  • 2003 Orthodox Churches in Europe commemorated the 550th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople in May; Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to autonomy) by Church of Antioch; Coptic priest Fr. Zakaria Botros begins his television and internet mission to Muslims in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and western countries, resulting in thousands of conversions.
  • 2004 Pope John Paul II returns relics of John Chrysostom and Gregory the Theologian to Church of Constantinople; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission statement "Baptism and Chrismation as Sacraments of Initiation into the Church."
  • 2006 Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from Mount Athos; Abp. Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "The Holy Eucharist in the Life of the Church."
  • 2007 Restoration of full communion between Moscow Patriarchate and ROCOR; synod of over 50 bishops of the Church of Ukraine announce that the UOC-MP is "an autonomous, historical part of the Russian Orthodox Church"; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal Walter Kasper and Metr. John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon, agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union; Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation (EP).
  • 2008 Orthodox Study Bible (with Septuagint) published; Pan-Orthodox meeting in Constantinople in October of the Primates of the fourteen Orthodox Churches, signing a document calling for inter-orthodox unity and collaboration and "the continuation of preparations for the Holy and Great Council".
  • 2009 The 4th Pan-Orthodox pre-conciliar consultation was held in Chambésy on June 6-13; Death of popular Elder Joseph of Vatopedi, July 1.
Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective



From a Heterodox perspective

  • Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005. (ISBN 9780802831675)
  • Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Cambridge 2006.
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

External links


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