Tikhon of Moscow

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Our father among the saints Tikhon of Moscow (1865–1925), Enlightener of North America, was Patriarch and Confessor of Moscow and All Russia (1917–1925). "He established his cathedral in New York City, and presided over a vast Archdiocese, encouraging and authorizing many publications in the English language. Among these, he encouraged the translation of the Eastern liturgy into English by Isabel Florence Hapgood, and he wrote an extensive catechism based on the Nicene Creed and the Our Father. For the Western Rite, he established the corrected and authorized version of the eucharistic liturgy from the American Book of Common Prayer for Orthodox worship." [1] His feast day is celebrated on April 7, and his glorification is celebrated on October 9.

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Contents

Early Life

St. Tikhon ( Vasily Ivanovich Belavin) was born on January 19, 1865. His father was Ioann Belavin, a rural priest of the Toropetz district of the Pskov diocese. "From his early years he displayed a particular religious disposition, love for the Church as well as rare meekness and humility. ... From 1878 to 1883, Vasily studied at the Pskov Theological Seminary. ... His fellow students liked and respected him for his piety, brilliant progress in studies, and constant readiness to help comrades, who often turned to him for explanations of lessons, especially for help in drawing up and correcting numerous compositions. Vasily was called 'bishop' and 'patriarch' by his classmates." [2]

"Following graduation from the Pskov Seminary and St Petersburg Theological Academy, he becomes an instructor first at Pskov Seminary (1888-91), then Kholm Seminary (1891-97), where he quickly became Rector. Just prior to his transfer to Kholm he was tonsured a monk with the name Tikhon and ordained." [3]

Life and work after ordination

One of the first Orthodox bishops to do major work in North America, St. Tikhon was the primary founder of St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery in South Canaan, Pennsylvania, naming it for his heavenly patron, St. Tikhon of Zadonsk.

St. Tikhon openly condemned the killings of the Czar's family in 1918, and protested against violent attacks by the Bolsheviks on the Church.

St. Tikhon of Moscow

From 1922 to 1923, Patriarch Tikhon was imprisoned in Donskoy Monastery. Upon being released, he assured the regime of his loyalty, in an apparent attempt to relieve the harsh pressures on the Church. Despite his declaration of loyalty, he continued to enjoy the trust of the Orthodox community in Russia. When he died, he was considered a martyr for the faith.

In 1989, Patriarch Tikhon was glorified by the Church of Russia. This canonization process is generally considered an example of the thaw in Church-Soviet relations in the Glasnost era.

See also


Succession box:
Tikhon of Moscow
Preceded by:
?
Bishop of Lublin
1897-1898
Succeeded by:
?
Preceded by:
Nicholas (Ziorov)
Bishop of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska
1898-1907
Succeeded by:
Platon (Rozhdestvensky)
Preceded by:
Adrian
Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia
1917-1925
Succeeded by:
Serguis I (Stragorodsky)
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