Subdeacon

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A '''subdeacon''' (or sub-deacon) is the highest of the [[minor orders]] of [[clergy]] in the Church. This is a sub-clerical order which is higher than the [[reader]] and lower than the [[deacon]].  It is an order that is at it's fullest when serving with a [[bishop]] during hierarchical services.
+
A '''subdeacon''' (or sub-deacon, sometimes 'hypodeacon') is the highest of the [[minor orders]] of [[clergy]] in the Church, between [[reader]] and [[deacon]].  It is an order that is at its fullest when serving with a [[bishop]] during hierarchical services.
  
In common practise, an [[acolyte]] or [[reader]] can be blessed to act as a subdeacon during services.
+
==Ordination==
 +
The ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy, as it is a [[minor orders|minor order]].  During the Sixth Hour, after Psalm 90, the reader who is to be ordained subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave.  There he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.  He is then led to stand immediately before the bishop.  The subdeacons present the [[orarion|orar]] to the bishop, who blesses it.  The ordinand then kisses the orar and the bishop's hand, and the subdeacons vest the ordinand in the orar.
 +
 
 +
The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, then lays his right hand upon the ordinand's head and prays the prayer of ordination.  The new subdeacon kisses the bishop's right hand and makes a prostration before the bishop, after which the more senior subdeacons drape a towel over his shoulders and present him with a ewer and basin, with which he washes the bishop's hands after the usual manner.  The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the bishop's blessing and kiss his hands.
 +
 
 +
The senior subdeacons return to the altar while the new subdeacon, still holding the ewer and basin, stands on the [[solea]], facing the icon of the Mother of God and saying particular prayers quietly.  The Sixth Hour is completed and the Divine Liturgy continues as usual.  The subdeacon remains on the solea until the [[Cherubikon]], when he and two senior subdeacons wash the bishop's hands as usual.
 +
 
 +
At the Great Entrance, the new subdeacon joins on the very end of the procession, carrying the ewer and basin and, after the commemorations, takes the blessed water to the people so that they may bless themselves with it.  He returns to his place on the solea until the end of the [[Anaphora]], when he re-enters the altar, lays the ewer and basin aside, and joins the other subdeacons.
 +
 
 +
On the day that a subdeacon is ordained, he may be required to serve at the Liturgy (particularly if there is a shortage of altar servers).  In this case, the taking of the blessed water to the people may be omitted, and he may be asked not to stay on the solea but rather to assist with serving duties in the altar and at the entrances.  This will depend on jurisdictional preferences.
 +
 
 +
===Vestments===
 +
All degrees of clergy wear the [[sticharion]]. The sticharion is a long-sleeved tunic that reaches all the way to the ground. It reminds the wearer that the grace of the Holy Spirit covers him as with a garment of salvation and joy.  In addition to this, a subdeacon will also wear an [[orarion]], representing the grace of the Holy Spirit.  The orarion will be tied around his waist, up over his shoulders (forming an X-shaped cross in back), and with the ends hanging down in front, tucked under the section around the waist in an X-shaped cross.  In jurisdictions where acolytes are able to wear orarions, they are distinct from subdeacons in that an acolytes orarion hangs straight down in front.
  
 
==Duties==
 
==Duties==
 
The ordained subdeacon has the following duties:
 
The ordained subdeacon has the following duties:
 +
* Serving in the altar, generally as the head server
 +
* Co-ordinating and leading the serving team
 +
* Training new altar servers
 +
* Care of the altar area, including
 +
:*Cleaning the altar area
 +
:*Looking after the vestments of clergy
 +
:*Looking after the cloths of the Holy Table, including cleaning, mending and changing them according to feasts, fasts and seasons
 +
 
* To assist the bishop when he is presiding, by:
 
* To assist the bishop when he is presiding, by:
 
:*Vesting the bishop
 
:*Vesting the bishop
Line 10: Line 30:
 
:*Carrying the bishop's staff
 
:*Carrying the bishop's staff
 
:*Presenting the bishop with the [[dikiri]] and [[trikiri]]
 
:*Presenting the bishop with the [[dikiri]] and [[trikiri]]
:*Placing [[eagle rugs]] on the floor
+
:*Placing [[Orlets|eagle rugs]] on the floor
 
:*Operating the veil and the curtain of the Royal Doors
 
:*Operating the veil and the curtain of the Royal Doors
 
:*Other duties that the bishop may assign
 
:*Other duties that the bishop may assign
In the absence of a bishop:
 
* Any of the duties of a [[Reader]]
 
* Serving in the altar as the head server
 
* Co-ordinating and leading the serving team
 
* Training new altar servers
 
* Care of the altar area, including
 
:*Cleaning the altar area
 
:*Looking after the vestments of clergy
 
:*Looking after the cloths of the Holy Table, including cleaning, mending and changing them according to feasts, fasts and seasons
 
  
==Ordination==
+
* Any of the duties of a [[Reader]], if required
The ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy, as it is a [[minor orders|minor order]].  During the Sixth Hour, after Psalm 90, the reader who is to be ordained subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave.  There he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.  He is then led to stand immediately before the bishop.  The subdeacons present the [[orarion|orar]] to the bishop, who blesses it.  The ordinand then kisses the orar and the bishop's hand, and the subdeacons vest the ordinand in the orar.
+
* Other duties that the priest may assign
  
The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, then lays his right hand upon the ordinand's head and prays the prayer of ordination.  The new subdeacon kisses the bishop's right hand and makes a prostration before the bishop, after which the more senior subdeacons drape a towel over his shoulders and present him with a ewer and basin, with which he washes the bishop's hands after the usual manner.  The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the bishop's blessing and kiss his hands.
+
As a member of minor clergy, a subdeacon - according to his abilities - might be entrusted with the duties of:
 +
* Cantor
 +
* Catechist
 +
* Other leadership roles in the community.  
  
The senior subdeacons return to the altar while the new subdeacon, still holding the ewer and basin, stands on the [[soleas|solea]], facing the icon of the Mother of God and saying particular prayers quietly.  The Sixth Hour is completed and the Divine Liturgy continues as usual. The subdeacon remains on the solea until the [[Cherubikon]], when he and two senior subdeacons wash the bishop's hands as usual.
+
==Allowances==
 +
Subdeacons, like readers, are permitted to wear a [[cassock]], although many do so only when attending services; this is done as a sign of his suppression of his own tastes, will and desires, and his canonical obedience to God, his bishop and the liturgical and canonical norms of the Church. In jurisdictions that utilise clergy shirts, subdeacons may wear a clergy shirt without a collar.
  
At the Great Entrance, the new subdeacon joins on the very end of the procession, carrying the ewer and basin and, after the commemorations, takes the blessed water to the people so that they may bless themselves with it.  He returns to his place on the solea until the end of the [[Anaphora]], when he re-enters the altar, lays the ewer and basin aside, and joins the other subdeacons.
+
In addition, to perform his duties in the care of the altar, a subdeacon is able to touch the table of oblation and the altar when necessary; though, he is not able to move between the [[Altar]] and the [[Holy Doors]].
 
+
On occasions when there is a shortage of altar servers, the newly-ordained subdeacon may be required to serve at the Liturgy, in which case the taking of the blessed water to the people may be omitted, and he may be asked not to stay on the solea but rather to assist with serving duties in the altar and at the entrances.  This will depend on jurisdictional preferences.
+
  
 
==Contemporary practise==
 
==Contemporary practise==
 +
In the common event that there is no bishop present, a subdeacon will take the role of acolyte, assisting the priest during religious services in the [[altar]].
 +
 
In some jurisdictions, a seminarian who has discerned that he does not have a calling to pastoral service can be ordained to the subdiaconate.
 
In some jurisdictions, a seminarian who has discerned that he does not have a calling to pastoral service can be ordained to the subdiaconate.
  
Subdeacons are mentioned in canons with age restrictions (of 20 years of age) and prohibitions on marriage after ordinations (like deacons and priests) - e.g., Apostolic canon 26 - resulting in subdeacons who are generally mature men.  A variety of methods of 'getting around' the canons have been employed, from blessing acolytes or readers to vest and act as a subdeacon (for a particular service or permanently), or for reserving the formal ordination service to candidates to the priesthood, or for simply ignoring the canons and permitting subdeacons to marryHowever, it should be noted that a 'blessed' subdeacon may not touch the altar or assume other perogatives of ordained subdeacons outside services.
+
Subdeacons are mentioned in canons with age restrictions (of 20 years of age) and prohibitions on marriage after ordinations (like deacons and priests) - e.g., Apostolic canon 26.  A variety of methods of dealing with these canons have been employed, including:
 
+
* Blessing acolytes or readers to vest and act as a subdeacon temporarily or permanently
==Allowances==
+
:* This causes a new distinction between a 'blessed subdeacon' and an 'ordained subdeacon'It should be noted that a 'blessed subdeacon' may not touch the altar or assume other perogatives of ordained subdeacons outside services.
Subdeacons, like readers, are permitted to wear a [[cassock]], although many do so only when attending services; this is done as a sign of his suppression of his own tastes, will and desires, and his canonical obedience to God, his bishop and the liturgical and canonical norms of the Church. In jurisdictions that utilise clergy shirts, subdeacons may wear a clergy shirt without a collar.
+
* Reserving the formal ordination service to candidates for the diaconate
 +
* Simply ignoring the canons and permitting subdeacons to marry.
  
During services, the subdeacon is vested in a [[sticharion]] with an [[orarion]] tied around his waist, up over his shoulders (forming an X-shaped cross in back), and with the ends hanging down in front, tucked under the section around the waist in an X-shaped cross.  In jurisdictions where acolytes are able to wear orarions, they are distinct from subdeacons in that an acolytes orarion hangs straight down in front.
+
=== Etiquette ===
 +
For formal occasions (for example, in the heading of a letter or when introducing a speaker), one would politely address or refer to a subdeacon as "Subdeacon [John Smith]."  In informal settings, for example, in normal conversation, it is appropriate to simply refer to a subdeacon by his first name.
  
When there is no bishop present, a subdeacon will take the role of acolyte, assisting the priest during religious services in the [[altar]]The only exception to this being that a subdeacon is able to touch the table of oblation and the altar when necessary, though he is not able to move between the [[Altar]] and the [[Holy Doors]].
+
Sacramentally, all subdeacons are equal; if there are multiple subdeacons, they are ranked and serve by seniority according to the date of their ordinationAdditionally, it is not appropriate to kiss a subdeacons hand - this is done for bishops and priests (and in some traditions, deacons).
  
 
==Source==
 
==Source==
Line 52: Line 69:
 
*[http://www.saintelias.com/ca/etiquette/frwho.php Who's Who? in Church Services]
 
*[http://www.saintelias.com/ca/etiquette/frwho.php Who's Who? in Church Services]
 
*[http://images.google.com/images?q=orthodox+subdeacon orthodox subdeacon - Google Image Search]
 
*[http://images.google.com/images?q=orthodox+subdeacon orthodox subdeacon - Google Image Search]
 +
*[http://goarch.org/chapel/liturgical_texts/ordination-subdiaconate-en Ordination text] for the Byzantine tradition.
  
  
Line 57: Line 75:
 
[[Category:Clergy]]
 
[[Category:Clergy]]
  
 +
[[mk:Ипоѓакон]]
 
[[ro:Subdiacon]]
 
[[ro:Subdiacon]]

Latest revision as of 01:26, February 14, 2012

A subdeacon (or sub-deacon, sometimes 'hypodeacon') is the highest of the minor orders of clergy in the Church, between reader and deacon. It is an order that is at its fullest when serving with a bishop during hierarchical services.

Contents

Ordination

The ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy, as it is a minor order. During the Sixth Hour, after Psalm 90, the reader who is to be ordained subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave. There he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one. He is then led to stand immediately before the bishop. The subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand then kisses the orar and the bishop's hand, and the subdeacons vest the ordinand in the orar.

The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, then lays his right hand upon the ordinand's head and prays the prayer of ordination. The new subdeacon kisses the bishop's right hand and makes a prostration before the bishop, after which the more senior subdeacons drape a towel over his shoulders and present him with a ewer and basin, with which he washes the bishop's hands after the usual manner. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the bishop's blessing and kiss his hands.

The senior subdeacons return to the altar while the new subdeacon, still holding the ewer and basin, stands on the solea, facing the icon of the Mother of God and saying particular prayers quietly. The Sixth Hour is completed and the Divine Liturgy continues as usual. The subdeacon remains on the solea until the Cherubikon, when he and two senior subdeacons wash the bishop's hands as usual.

At the Great Entrance, the new subdeacon joins on the very end of the procession, carrying the ewer and basin and, after the commemorations, takes the blessed water to the people so that they may bless themselves with it. He returns to his place on the solea until the end of the Anaphora, when he re-enters the altar, lays the ewer and basin aside, and joins the other subdeacons.

On the day that a subdeacon is ordained, he may be required to serve at the Liturgy (particularly if there is a shortage of altar servers). In this case, the taking of the blessed water to the people may be omitted, and he may be asked not to stay on the solea but rather to assist with serving duties in the altar and at the entrances. This will depend on jurisdictional preferences.

Vestments

All degrees of clergy wear the sticharion. The sticharion is a long-sleeved tunic that reaches all the way to the ground. It reminds the wearer that the grace of the Holy Spirit covers him as with a garment of salvation and joy. In addition to this, a subdeacon will also wear an orarion, representing the grace of the Holy Spirit. The orarion will be tied around his waist, up over his shoulders (forming an X-shaped cross in back), and with the ends hanging down in front, tucked under the section around the waist in an X-shaped cross. In jurisdictions where acolytes are able to wear orarions, they are distinct from subdeacons in that an acolytes orarion hangs straight down in front.

Duties

The ordained subdeacon has the following duties:

  • Serving in the altar, generally as the head server
  • Co-ordinating and leading the serving team
  • Training new altar servers
  • Care of the altar area, including
  • Cleaning the altar area
  • Looking after the vestments of clergy
  • Looking after the cloths of the Holy Table, including cleaning, mending and changing them according to feasts, fasts and seasons
  • To assist the bishop when he is presiding, by:
  • Vesting the bishop
  • Holding the bishop's service book
  • Carrying the bishop's staff
  • Presenting the bishop with the dikiri and trikiri
  • Placing eagle rugs on the floor
  • Operating the veil and the curtain of the Royal Doors
  • Other duties that the bishop may assign
  • Any of the duties of a Reader, if required
  • Other duties that the priest may assign

As a member of minor clergy, a subdeacon - according to his abilities - might be entrusted with the duties of:

  • Cantor
  • Catechist
  • Other leadership roles in the community.

Allowances

Subdeacons, like readers, are permitted to wear a cassock, although many do so only when attending services; this is done as a sign of his suppression of his own tastes, will and desires, and his canonical obedience to God, his bishop and the liturgical and canonical norms of the Church. In jurisdictions that utilise clergy shirts, subdeacons may wear a clergy shirt without a collar.

In addition, to perform his duties in the care of the altar, a subdeacon is able to touch the table of oblation and the altar when necessary; though, he is not able to move between the Altar and the Holy Doors.

Contemporary practise

In the common event that there is no bishop present, a subdeacon will take the role of acolyte, assisting the priest during religious services in the altar.

In some jurisdictions, a seminarian who has discerned that he does not have a calling to pastoral service can be ordained to the subdiaconate.

Subdeacons are mentioned in canons with age restrictions (of 20 years of age) and prohibitions on marriage after ordinations (like deacons and priests) - e.g., Apostolic canon 26. A variety of methods of dealing with these canons have been employed, including:

  • Blessing acolytes or readers to vest and act as a subdeacon temporarily or permanently
  • This causes a new distinction between a 'blessed subdeacon' and an 'ordained subdeacon'. It should be noted that a 'blessed subdeacon' may not touch the altar or assume other perogatives of ordained subdeacons outside services.
  • Reserving the formal ordination service to candidates for the diaconate
  • Simply ignoring the canons and permitting subdeacons to marry.

Etiquette

For formal occasions (for example, in the heading of a letter or when introducing a speaker), one would politely address or refer to a subdeacon as "Subdeacon [John Smith]." In informal settings, for example, in normal conversation, it is appropriate to simply refer to a subdeacon by his first name.

Sacramentally, all subdeacons are equal; if there are multiple subdeacons, they are ranked and serve by seniority according to the date of their ordination. Additionally, it is not appropriate to kiss a subdeacons hand - this is done for bishops and priests (and in some traditions, deacons).

Source

External link


This article forms part of the series
Clergy
Antiochian Local Synod
Major orders Bishop | Priest | Deacon
Minor orders Subdeacon | Reader | Cantor | Acolyte
Other orders Chorepiscopos | Exorcist | Doorkeeper | Deaconess - Presbityde
Episcopal titles Patriarch | Catholicos | Archbishop | Metropolitan | Auxiliary | Titular
Priestly titles Protopresbyter | Archpriest | Protosyngellos | Economos
Diaconal titles Archdeacon | Protodeacon
Minor titles Protopsaltes - Lampadarios
Monastic titles Archimandrite | Abbot - Hegumen
Related Ordination | Vestments | Presbeia | Honorifics | Clergy awards | Exarch | Proistamenos | Vicar
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