St. Sophia Cathedral (Harbin, China)

From OrthodoxWiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (source)
(revised category)
 
(19 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:Saint Sophia - Harbin, China.jpg|right|thumb|230px|The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God in [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China. Built in 1907, closed during the [[w:Great Leap Forward|Great Leap Forward]] and [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] period, and recently turned into a museum in 1997.]]
+
[[Image:Saint Sophia - Harbin, China.jpg|right|thumb|230px|The Cathedral of the [[Holy Wisdom]] of God in [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China. Built in 1907 and expanded from 1923-32, it was closed during the [[w:Great Leap Forward|Great Leap Forward]] and [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] period, and recently turned into a museum in 1997.]]
[[Image:Saint Sophia1 - Harbin, China.jpg|right|thumb|230px|The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God in [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China.]]
+
[[Image:Christ the Saviour Cathedral (Borki, Ukraine).jpg|thumb|230px|The ornate ''Christ the Savior Cathedral'' in [[w:Borki train disaster|Borki]] ([[w:Kharkiv Oblast|Kharkiv Oblast]] province, Ukraine), ca. 1900, was the inspiration for the St. Sophia Cathedral in Harbin.]]
[[Image:Saint Sophia (Dome) - Harbin, China.jpg|right|thumb|230px|Interior of dome of the Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God in [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China.]]
+
[[Image:Fotiy Huo Desheng.jpg|right|thumb|230px|Fr. Fotiy Huo Desheng was the ninth rector of St. Sophia Church of Harbin.]]
 +
The '''Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God''' or ''Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin'' <br>(Chinese: 聖索菲亜教堂, Russian: Софийский собор в Харбине) is a former Russian Orthodox church located in the central district of [[w:Daoli District|Daoli]], [[w:Harbin City|Harbin City]], Heilongjiang Province, China.  
  
The '''Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God''' or ''Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin'' <br>(Chinese: 聖索菲亜教堂, Russian: Софийский собор в Харбине) is a former Russian Orthodox church located in the central district of [[w:Daoli District|Daoli]], [[w:Harbin City|Harbin City]], Heilongjiang Province, China.
+
==History==
 +
St. Sophia Orthodox Cathedral is one of the most magnificent structures in Harbin. It was built in 1907 after the completion of the [[w:Trans-Siberian Railway|Trans-Siberian Railway]] in 1903, which connected [[w:Vladivostok|Vladivostok]] to northeast China. The Russian No.4 Army Division arrived in this region just after Russia's loss to the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). St. Sophia Church was built and completed of timber in March, 1907 as part of a plan to reconsolidate the confidence of the army by building an imposing spiritual symbol.
  
It was built in 1907, but was closed during the period of the [[w:Great Leap Forward|Great Leap Forward]] and [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]]. In 1997 the cathedral was turned into a museum, showcasing the multi-cultural architecture of Harbin. <ref>[http://baike.baidu.com/view/443658.htm Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin (The Baidu Encyclopedia)] (in Chinese)</ref>
+
In 1921, Harbin had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Russians.<ref>''"[http://books.google.com/books?id=bxFC5ynXN2YC&pg=PA68&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter]"''. Yu-lin Wu (1995). [[w:World Scientific|World Scientific]]. p.68. ISBN 9810222874</ref> The church was expanded and renovated from [[September 23|September 23rd]] 1923, when a ceremony was held to celebrate the laying of the corner stone, to its completion on [[November 25|November 25th]], 1932, after nine years. The present day St. Sophia Church was hailed as a monumental work of art and the largest Orthodox church in the far east.
 +
 
 +
According to Harbin municipal religious and Daoli district archives, Fr. [http://www.orthodox.cn/localchurch/harbin/fotihuo_en.htm Fotiy Huo Desheng] was the ninth rector of St. Sophia Church of Harbin.
 +
 
 +
===Description===
 +
The church is located on the corner of Toulin Street (Toulin jie) and Zhaolin Street (Zhaolin jie). It stands at 53.3 meters (175 feet) tall, occupies an area of 721 square meters (0.18 acres), and is the perfect example of [[Neo-Byzantine architecture]]. The main structure is laid out like a cross with the main hall topped with a huge green tipped dome. Under the bright sun, the church and the square area it lies on looks quite like the Red Square in Moscow.
 +
 
 +
===Closure===
 +
Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China in 1949 by the victorious Communists, who ended all Chrisitan missionary work, treaties were signed between the Soviet and Chinese governments that provided for the turning over of Russian churches to Chinese control. The cathedral was thus closed from the period of the [[w:Great Leap Forward|Great Leap Forward]] (1958-61) and [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] (1966-76).  
 +
:Although the cathedral's sturdy structure withstood its intended destruction during the Cultural Revolution, its empty hull became a warehouse for a nearby state-run department store, its windows were bricked up and saplings grew from the roof. Prefabricated concrete high-rises boxed the church in on all four sides, coming within yards of its walls, making the cathedral inaccessible and invisible from the street. For decades it remained the invisible center of the city, surrounded by decorative material stalls, an auto body shop, a pen factory, and apartments for city government employees, until the Beijing government designated the cathedral a national cultural heritage site in 1996 as part of a nationwide campaign to protect historical sites.<ref name="Koga">Yukiko Koga. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=hkq9tNjsSo8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA221,M1 "The Atmosphere of a Foreign Country": Harbin's Architectural Inheritance].'' In: Anne M. Cronin, Kevin Hetherington. '''Consuming the Entrepreneurial City: Image, Memory, Spectacle'''. Routledge, 2008. p.229.</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Restoration of the Cathedral (Old Harbin Nostalgia)===
 +
Following its designation in 1996 as a national cultural heritage site (First class Preserved Building),<ref>''"[http://www.upp.cn:8084/english/view/Arts/index_1.html PRESERVED BUILDINGS]."'' [http://www.upp.cn/english/ Harbin Urban and Rural Planning Bureau].</ref> a newspaper article about the "hidden" cathedral prompted donations from locals to restore the church. Local corporations, individual businesses as well as workers from nearby department stores donated money to restore the cathedral and renovate the square. A total of 12,000,000 yuan (approximately $1.5 million US) was eventually gathered and the cathedral regained its visibility in 1997, as the surrounding buildings were torn down.
 +
 
 +
A new "Harbin Architecture Square" conspicuously highlighted the cathedral with a huge new fountain at its entrance. The European-looking space was assigned a new meaning as the embodiment of culture and art and was re-presented to the public as the proud heritage of the city.<ref name="Koga"/>
 +
 
 +
===Museum===
 +
As of 1997 the cathedral was turned into the ''Municipal Architecture and Art Museum'' (Harbin Architectural Art Gallery), showcasing the multi-cultural architectural developments of Harbin throughout the ages. At the official ceremony on [[September 2]], 1997 to celebrate the restoration of St. Sophia Cathedral, Mayor Wang Guangdao underlined the cultural and economic benefits expected from the project:
 +
 
 +
:"The restoration of St. Sophia Cathedral inspired the people of Harbin, raised the level of our culture, let the whole of China and foreign friends know China, and opened a way for faster economic development."<ref>Yukiko Koga. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=hkq9tNjsSo8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA221,M1 "The Atmosphere of a Foreign Country": Harbin's Architectural Inheritance].'' In: Anne M. Cronin, Kevin Hetherington. '''Consuming the Entrepreneurial City: Image, Memory, Spectacle'''. Routledge, 2008. p.221.</ref>
 +
 
 +
The restoration was the culmination of the Harbin municipal goverment's attempt to turn the city's colonial era structures into tourist attractions by restoring and granting them landmark status. The restored structures are said to signify civilization (''wenming'') and culture (''wenhua'').
 +
 
 +
==Gallery==
 +
<gallery>
 +
Image:Saint Sophia Cathedral Harbin.jpg
 +
 
 +
Image:Saint Sophia1 - Harbin, China.jpg
 +
 
 +
Image:Saint Sophia (Dome) - Harbin, China.jpg
 +
 
 +
Image:St Sophia, Harbin, (interior).JPG
 +
</gallery>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Church of China]]
 
* [[Church of China]]
 
* [[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
 
* [[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
'''Wikipedia'''
+
* [[Neo-Byzantine architecture]]
* [[w:Church of the Intercession in Harbin|Church of the Intercession in Harbin]]
+
* [[w:Christianity in China|Christianity in China]]
+
 
+
==External links==
+
* [http://image.baidu.com/i?tn=baiduimage&ct=201326592&lm=-1&cl=2&fm=ps&word=%CA%A5%CB%F7%B7%C7%D1%C7%B4%F3%BD%CC%CC%C3 Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin (The Baidu Photo Gallery)] (in Chinese)
+
  
 
==References==  
 
==References==  
 
<div class="small"><references/></div>
 
<div class="small"><references/></div>
  
==Sources==
+
==Sources and further reading==
* [[w:Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin|Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin]] at Wikipedia.
+
* David Wolff. [http://books.google.ca/books?id=5OnhlIo4kKoC To the Harbin Station: The Liberal Alternative in Russian Manchuria, 1898-1914]. Stanford University Press, 1999.
* [http://www.chinaspringtour.com/guide/item.jsp?id=604 St. Sophia Church 圣索非亚教堂 ] China Spring Tour.
+
* Yukiko Koga. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=hkq9tNjsSo8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA221,M1 "The Atmosphere of a Foreign Country": Harbin's Architectural Inheritance].'' In: Anne M. Cronin, Kevin Hetherington. '''Consuming the Entrepreneurial City: Image, Memory, Spectacle'''. Routledge, 2008.
 +
* [http://www.harbin.gov.cn/english/hrb_ywb/display.php?id=53 Saint-Sophia Church]. Government of Harbin website.
 +
* ''"[http://www.upp.cn:8084/english/view/Arts/index_1.html PRESERVED BUILDINGS]."'' Harbin Urban and Rural Planning Bureau.
 +
* "[http://www.chinaspringtour.com/guide/item.jsp?id=604 St. Sophia Church]." China Spring Tour.
 +
 
 +
==External links==
 +
* [http://www.orthodox.cn/localchurch/harbin/sophia_en.htm St Sophia Church of Harbin] at Orthodox.cn.
 +
* [http://image.baidu.com/i?tn=baiduimage&ct=201326592&lm=-1&cl=2&fm=ps&word=%CA%A5%CB%F7%B7%C7%D1%C7%B4%F3%BD%CC%CC%C3 Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin (The Baidu Photo Gallery)] (in Chinese)
 +
* Nutescu Ciprian. [http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/details?mid=126d4e1c1b8444152aafa7b17e7cc09b St. Sophia Church,Harbin,China]. Google 3D Warehouse. June 2, 2008. (''Three-dimensional 360 degree view'').
 +
'''Wikipedia'''
 +
:* [[w:Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin|Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin]]
 +
:* [[w:Byzantine Revival architecture|Byzantine Revival architecture]]
 +
:* [[w:Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire|Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire]]
 +
:* [[w:Harbin Russians|Harbin Russians]]
  
[[Category:Churches]]
+
[[Category:Churches|Sophia]]
 +
[[Category: Churches in China|Sophia]]
 
[[Category:Orthodoxy in China]]
 
[[Category:Orthodoxy in China]]

Latest revision as of 18:00, October 21, 2012

The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God in Harbin, China. Built in 1907 and expanded from 1923-32, it was closed during the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution period, and recently turned into a museum in 1997.
The ornate Christ the Savior Cathedral in Borki (Kharkiv Oblast province, Ukraine), ca. 1900, was the inspiration for the St. Sophia Cathedral in Harbin.
Fr. Fotiy Huo Desheng was the ninth rector of St. Sophia Church of Harbin.

The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God or Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin
(Chinese: 聖索菲亜教堂, Russian: Софийский собор в Харбине) is a former Russian Orthodox church located in the central district of Daoli, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Contents

History

St. Sophia Orthodox Cathedral is one of the most magnificent structures in Harbin. It was built in 1907 after the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1903, which connected Vladivostok to northeast China. The Russian No.4 Army Division arrived in this region just after Russia's loss to the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). St. Sophia Church was built and completed of timber in March, 1907 as part of a plan to reconsolidate the confidence of the army by building an imposing spiritual symbol.

In 1921, Harbin had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Russians.[1] The church was expanded and renovated from September 23rd 1923, when a ceremony was held to celebrate the laying of the corner stone, to its completion on November 25th, 1932, after nine years. The present day St. Sophia Church was hailed as a monumental work of art and the largest Orthodox church in the far east.

According to Harbin municipal religious and Daoli district archives, Fr. Fotiy Huo Desheng was the ninth rector of St. Sophia Church of Harbin.

Description

The church is located on the corner of Toulin Street (Toulin jie) and Zhaolin Street (Zhaolin jie). It stands at 53.3 meters (175 feet) tall, occupies an area of 721 square meters (0.18 acres), and is the perfect example of Neo-Byzantine architecture. The main structure is laid out like a cross with the main hall topped with a huge green tipped dome. Under the bright sun, the church and the square area it lies on looks quite like the Red Square in Moscow.

Closure

Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China in 1949 by the victorious Communists, who ended all Chrisitan missionary work, treaties were signed between the Soviet and Chinese governments that provided for the turning over of Russian churches to Chinese control. The cathedral was thus closed from the period of the Great Leap Forward (1958-61) and Cultural Revolution (1966-76).

Although the cathedral's sturdy structure withstood its intended destruction during the Cultural Revolution, its empty hull became a warehouse for a nearby state-run department store, its windows were bricked up and saplings grew from the roof. Prefabricated concrete high-rises boxed the church in on all four sides, coming within yards of its walls, making the cathedral inaccessible and invisible from the street. For decades it remained the invisible center of the city, surrounded by decorative material stalls, an auto body shop, a pen factory, and apartments for city government employees, until the Beijing government designated the cathedral a national cultural heritage site in 1996 as part of a nationwide campaign to protect historical sites.[2]

Restoration of the Cathedral (Old Harbin Nostalgia)

Following its designation in 1996 as a national cultural heritage site (First class Preserved Building),[3] a newspaper article about the "hidden" cathedral prompted donations from locals to restore the church. Local corporations, individual businesses as well as workers from nearby department stores donated money to restore the cathedral and renovate the square. A total of 12,000,000 yuan (approximately $1.5 million US) was eventually gathered and the cathedral regained its visibility in 1997, as the surrounding buildings were torn down.

A new "Harbin Architecture Square" conspicuously highlighted the cathedral with a huge new fountain at its entrance. The European-looking space was assigned a new meaning as the embodiment of culture and art and was re-presented to the public as the proud heritage of the city.[2]

Museum

As of 1997 the cathedral was turned into the Municipal Architecture and Art Museum (Harbin Architectural Art Gallery), showcasing the multi-cultural architectural developments of Harbin throughout the ages. At the official ceremony on September 2, 1997 to celebrate the restoration of St. Sophia Cathedral, Mayor Wang Guangdao underlined the cultural and economic benefits expected from the project:

"The restoration of St. Sophia Cathedral inspired the people of Harbin, raised the level of our culture, let the whole of China and foreign friends know China, and opened a way for faster economic development."[4]

The restoration was the culmination of the Harbin municipal goverment's attempt to turn the city's colonial era structures into tourist attractions by restoring and granting them landmark status. The restored structures are said to signify civilization (wenming) and culture (wenhua).

Gallery

See also

References

  1. "Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter". Yu-lin Wu (1995). World Scientific. p.68. ISBN 9810222874
  2. 2.0 2.1 Yukiko Koga. "The Atmosphere of a Foreign Country": Harbin's Architectural Inheritance. In: Anne M. Cronin, Kevin Hetherington. Consuming the Entrepreneurial City: Image, Memory, Spectacle. Routledge, 2008. p.229.
  3. "PRESERVED BUILDINGS." Harbin Urban and Rural Planning Bureau.
  4. Yukiko Koga. "The Atmosphere of a Foreign Country": Harbin's Architectural Inheritance. In: Anne M. Cronin, Kevin Hetherington. Consuming the Entrepreneurial City: Image, Memory, Spectacle. Routledge, 2008. p.221.

Sources and further reading

External links

Wikipedia

Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox