Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, ROCOR, or the Synod) is a jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church formed in response against the policy of Bolsheviks with respect to religion in the Soviet Union soon after the Russian Revolution.
Formation and early years
In 1920, the Soviet government had revealed that it was quite hostile to the Russian Orthodox Church. Saint Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow, issued an ukase (decree) that all Russian Orthodox Christians abroad currently under the authority and protection of his Patriarchate organize and govern themselves independently of the Mother Church, until such time that the Patriarchate would again be free.
Among most Russian bishops and other hierarchs, this was interpreted as an authorization to form an emergency synod of all Russian Orthodox hierarchs to permit the Church to continue to function outside Russia and provide spiritual care for nearly three million Russian emigres.To add urgency to the synod's motives, in May of 1922, the Soviet government proclaimed its own "Living Church" as a "reform" of the Russian Orthodox Church.
On September 13, 1922, Russian Orthodox hierarchs in Serbia gave their blessing to the establishment, in Serbia, of a Synod of Bishops of the Russian Church Abroad, the foundation of ROCOR. In November of 1922, Russian Orthodox in North America held a synod and elected Metropolitan Platon as the primate of an autonomous Russian exarchate in the Americas (also known as the Metropolia, which eventually became the Orthodox Church in America). Although the hierarchs of the Metropolia participated as full equals in the Synod Abroad, eventually a three-way conflict in the United States erupted between the patriarchal Exarchate, ROCOR (sometimes known as "the Synod" in this period), and the Living Church, which asserted that it was the legitimate (i.e., Russian-government-recognized) owner of all Orthodox properties in the USA.
The Church of the Refugees (1922-1991)
In 1927, ROCOR declared "The part of the Russian Church that finds itself abroad considers itself an inseparable, spiritually united branch of the Great Russian Church. It does not separate itself from its Mother Church and does not consider itself autocephalous," indicating that ROCOR considered itself to speak for all of the Russian Orthodox outside of Russia. The Church Abroad also considered itself to be the free voice of the enslaved Mother Church in the Soviet Union.
After the end of World War II, the Patriarchate of Moscow broached the possibility of reunification between Moscow and ROCOR, presumably at the behest of the Soviet government, which had adopted a more conciliatory attitude towards religion during the war and was presumably trying to capitalize on its wartime alliances to win a more respectable position internationally. This was not deemed possible at that time by ROCOR, given that Russia was still under communist dictatorship and the Church was still persecuted and controlled by the atheist authorities.
Holy Transfiguration Monastery and ROCOR
In the late 1970s, ROCOR took under its care Holy Transfiguration Monastery (Brookline, Massachusetts) (today the principal monastery of HOCNA) after the latter had broken communion from the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America following sexual abuse scandals regarding the monastery's leadership. At some point later, they gradually assumed responsibility for much of ROCOR's external communications and publications. (The monks of Holy Transfiguration were English-speaking and the ROCOR bishops in America mainly were not.)
It is believed by many that the allegedly sectarian spirit of ROCOR came into its flowering during this time and under the influence of this monastery, which frequently misrepresented the official policies and views of the Synod of Bishops. In the early 1980's the hierarchs of the Synod began to correct and censor the narrow-minded and incorrect views of the followers of Holy Transfiguration Monastery. Subsequently this group broke communion with ROCOR (again regarding allegations of sexual abuse by the monastery's leadership), styling themselves the Holy Orthodox Church in North America (HOCNA). They became affiliated with the True Orthodox Church of Greece, a Greek Old Calendarist group which broke from the Church of Greece. According to Fr. Alexey Young (author of The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia: A History and Chronology), the association of ROCOR and Holy Transfiguration Monastery resulted in deep damage to ROCOR.
After the Soviet Fall
Since the end of the Soviet Union, ROCOR has maintained its independence from the Russian Orthodox Church on the grounds that the Church inside Russia had been unacceptably compromised. Some accusations went so far as to claim that the entire hierarchy within Russia were active KGB agents. ROCOR also attempted to set up missions in post-Soviet Russia, which has not improved relations.
This has not prevented all communication, however. For many years there had been unofficial and warm contacts between the two groups. In 2001, the Synod of the Patriarchate of Moscow and ROCOR exchanged formal correspondence. The Muscovite letter held the position that previous and current separation was over purely political matters. ROCOR's response expressed concern over continued Muscovite involvement in ecumenism, which was seen as compromising Moscow's Orthodoxy. Nevertheless, this was far more friendly discourse than had been seen previously.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued to establish itself in its homeland. It now has about 100 worshiping communities in Russia and other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Currently four bishops oversee these parishes. Two of them broke with Metropolitan Vitaly in New York in April 1994. They founded their own temporary administration called the Free Orthodox Church of Russia and ordained three additional bishops. They were reconciled in November 1994, and the ordination of the three new bishops was declared invalid. However, some tensions remain.
Rapprochement with Moscow
Since the election of Metropolitan Laurus as First Hierarch of ROCOR in 2001, a steady process of rapprochement has been occurring between ROCOR and the Church of Russia. Multiple official visits have been exchanged between hierarchs and other clergy of both churches, and it is generally believed that the restoration of full communion is imminent.
In October 2001 Patriarch Alexei and the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church sent a letter to the Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia calling for reconciliation, but without success. However, there was mutal recognition of grace in the sacraments of each church. Then, in November 2003, a delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia consisting of three bishops and two priests paid an official visit to the Moscow Patriarchate. This signalled a warming in relations, and in May 2004 for the first time in over 80 years, the First Hierarch of ROCOR, Metropolitan Laurus visited Moscow and met with Patriarch Alexei. The two church leaders established a joint committee to examine ways to overcome the division between their churches. This committee has now met successfully on several occasions, working out the details of intercommunion between the two Church bodies.
This possibility of rapprochement has led to schism from ROCOR, taking the self-retired Metropolitan Vitaly (Metropolitan Laurus's predecessor) with it (regarded by many in ROCOR as having been abducted by the schismatics). The resultant body refers to itself as the Russian Orthodox Church in Exile (ROCE), though it often still uses the ROCOR title.
ROCOR currently has over 400 parishes as well as monasteries for men and women in 40 countries throughout the world, served by nearly 600 priests. In North America, it has approximately 133 parishes in the US and 22 in Canada. There are five ROCOR communities in the United Kingdom and 21 in Australia and New Zealand. There are also roughly 100 communities which owe allegiance to ROCOR in Russia and the other nations of the former Soviet Union .
There are five ROCOR monasteries for men and women in North America, the most important and largest of which is Holy Trinity Monastery (Jordanville, New York), to which is attached ROCOR's seminary, Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary.
In concert with the Church of Jerusalem, ROCOR also oversees the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, headed by Hegumen Andronik (Kotliaroff), which acts as caretaker to three holy sites in Palestine, all of which are monasteries.
ROCOR is currently still in ambiguously relative Eucharistic isolation from much of the Orthodox world, not always exchanging full communion with the majority of Orthodox jurisdictions. It maintains good relations, intercommunion, and concelebration with the Church of Serbia, the Church of Jerusalem, and the Church of Sinai.
ROCOR's status with regard to full communion is not entirely clear-cut. There was never a formal declaration of a break in communion made between ROCOR and other Orthodox churches, though in many dioceses concelebration has been suspended. In others, concelebration is active. Generally Orthodox Christians from all local Orthodox churches are welcome to the chalice in ROCOR churches. There has never been a declaration from the ROCOR synod that grace does not exist in the New Calendar jurisdictions, in spite of statements to the contrary by the followers of Holy Transfiguation Monastery in Boston when they were still with the Synod.
ROCOR also maintains communion with a few Old Calendarist jurisdictions, including the Holy Synod in Resistance (True Orthodox Church of Greece, so-called "Cyprianites"), the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania (Synod of Metropolitan Vlasie), and the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Bulgaria (Bishop Photii). In recent years, the relationship with the Cyprianite synod has been strained, and ROCOR has reportedly received threatening letters from the synod of Metropolitan Cyprian regarding the rapprochement between ROCOR and the Moscow Patriarchate, which both Russian bodies regard as an internal matter of the Russian church. Many of the clergy and the faithful of ROCOR believe the Cyprianites to be schismatics and that concelebrations with them should be severed, though this attitude does not extend to the Old Calendarist jurisdictions of Romania and Bulgaria.
- Metropolitan Laurus (Skurla) of New York and Eastern America, First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, Ruling Bishop of the Syracuse-Holy Trinity Diocese, Locum Tenens of the Eastern part of the Diocese of Montreal and Canada
- Archbishop Alypy (Gamanovich) of Chicago and Detroit
- Archbishop Mark (Arndt) of Berlin, Germany and Great Britain
- Archbishop Hilarion (Kapral) of Sydney, Australia and New Zealand
- Archbishop Kyrill (Dmitrieff) of San Francisco and Western America, Locum Tenens of the Western part of the Diocese of Montreal and Canada
- Bishop Ambroise (Cantacuzène) of Geneva and Western Europe
- Bishop Evtikhii (Kurochkin) of Ishim and Siberia
- Bishop Agafangel (Pashkovsky) of Simferopol and Crimea
- Bishop Alexander (Mileant) of Buenos Aires and South America
- Bishop Daniel (Alexandrow) of Erie, Vicar President of the Synod of Bishops for the Old Believers
- Bishop Gabriel (Chemodakov) of Manhattan, Vicar Bishop of the Eastern American and New York Diocese
- Bishop Michael (Donskoff) of Boston, Vicar of the Eastern American and New York Diocese
- Bishop Agapit (Gorachek) of Stuttgart, Vicar of the German Diocese
- Bishop Peter (Loukianoff) of Cleveland, Vicar of the Chicago Diocese
- Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Official site, Russian)
- Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Official site, English)
- ROCA: A collection of Russian Orthodox Materials (Unofficial site)
- The Eastern Christian Churches: The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (by Ronald Roberson, CSP, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar)
- History of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, by St. John Maximovitch