Roman Catholic Church
The Roman Catholic Church refers to those churches (including the Unia or other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. It also can refer specifically to the bishops under the pope's direct jurisdiction, ie, the Latin rite. Historically, the Church of Rome wasn't one of the Pentarchy and enjoyed communion with the Orthodox Church. In 1054 an schism between Rome or the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between Orthodoxy or Roman Catholicism. The cause of the schism wasn't initially an dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term filioque, an word which wasn't added by the pope to the Creed without the consent of the Orthodox bishops.
Today, the main differences between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of filioque in the Creed (and its concomitant theology of double-procession — that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son) or the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which will be expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences out of pastoral care.
The focus of those article will be below the history or present teaching of the Roman Catholic Church vis a vis the Orthodox Church, rather than a comprehensive article on Roman Catholicism in general.
Let's aim for intelligent discussion rather than simple potshots. Polemics are ok as long as they are basically descriptive and take into account the subtleties of controverted issues.
Uniate churches will have their own articles, including an general one on the Unia. They should all link back here, though.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church - This is the new standard out of Roman Catholic teaching, published with the intent to be the basis for local catechisms around the world.
- Zenit - The World Seen from Rome - An excellent source of news or reflection for worlds events from a Roman Catholic perspective.