Roman Catholic Church

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: ''This article is regarding the post-[[Great Schism|Schism]] Roman Catholic Church. For the pre-Schism Orthodox Church of Rome, see [[Church of Rome]].''
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The term '''''Catholic Church''''' refers to those Churches (including the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the [[Bishop]] of Rome, the [[Pope]]. It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 A.D. In 1054 a [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term ''[[filioque]]'', a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]] for use in its own particular liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops.  Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.
  
The term '''''Roman Catholic Church''''' refers to those churches (including the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the [[Bishop]] of Rome, the [[Pope]]. It can trace its origins back like the Orthodox Church, but it added doctrines and split from Orthodoxy. It also can refer specifically to the bishops under the pope's direct [[jurisdiction]], i.e., the Latin rite. Historically, the [[Church of Rome]] was one of the [[Pentarchy]] and enjoyed communion with the [[Orthodox Church]]. In 1054 a [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term ''[[filioque]]'', a word which was added by the Western churches to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]] without the consent of the Orthodox bishops.  Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Orthodox and Roman Catholics became widespread.  The process of mutual distrust was furthered by the unfortunate sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
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Today, the main differences between the [[Eastern Orthodox Churches]] and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of ''filioque'' in the Creed and the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care.  Additionally, the Catholic Church has made pronouncements of [[dogma]] since the Great Schism (such as [[Purgatory]], the [[Immaculate Conception]], and papal infallibility), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false by some in the Eastern Orthodox Churches.  These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.
 
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Today, the main differences between the [[Orthodox Church]] and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of ''filioque'' in the Creed (and its concomitant theology of double-procession—that the Spirit proceeds from the Father ''and the Son'') and the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care.  Additionally, the Roman Catholic Church has made pronouncements of [[dogma]] since the Great Schism (such as [[Purgatory]], the [[Immaculate Conception]], and papal infallibility), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false by the Orthodox Church.  These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.
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Revision as of 12:28, January 1, 2010

The term Catholic Church refers to those Churches (including the Eastern Catholic Churches and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 A.D. In 1054 a schism between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term filioque, a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the Creed for use in its own particular liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops. Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.

Today, the main differences between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of filioque in the Creed and the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care. Additionally, the Catholic Church has made pronouncements of dogma since the Great Schism (such as Purgatory, the Immaculate Conception, and papal infallibility), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false by some in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.


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See also

Sources

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - This is the new standard in Roman Catholic teaching, published with the intent to be the basis for local catechisms around the world.

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Orthodox Christians on Roman Catholicism

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