Roman Catholic Church

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The '''Roman Catholic Church''' refers to those churches (including the [[Uniate|Unia]] and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the [[Bishop]] of Rome, the [[Pope]]. It also can refer specifically to the bishops under the pope's direct [[jurisdiction]], i.e., the Latin rite. Historically, the [[Church of Rome]] was one of the [[Pentarchy]] and enjoyed communion with the [[Orthodox Church]]. In 1054 a [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term ''[[filioque]]'', a word which was added by the Western churches to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]] without the consent of the Orthodox bishops.
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The term '''''Catholic Church''''' refers to those Churches (including the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the [[Bishop]] of Rome, the [[Pope]]. It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 A.D. In 1054 a [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term ''[[filioque]]'', a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Creed]] for use in its own liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops and contrary to the decision of the First Council of Epheseus (431).  Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.
  
Today, the main differences between the [[Orthodox Church]] and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of ''filioque'' in the Creed (and its concommitant theology of double-procession—that the Spirit proceeds from the Father ''and the Son'') and the scope of papal authority. However, most Orthodox also believe that there is a distinct difference in spirit and attitude, which is expressed in the manner of doing theology as well as concrete differences in pastoral care.  Additionally, the Roman Catholic Church has made pronouncements of dogma since the Great Schism (such as [[Purgatory]], the [[Immaculate Conception]], and papal infallibility), and other matters of doctrine (such as original sin), which are regarded as false.  These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of Catholic and Orthodox.
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Today, the main differences between the [[Orthodox Church]] and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of ''filioque'' in the Creed and the scope of papal authority. Consequent to papal authority, however, the Roman Catholic Church has made pronouncements of [[doctrine]] since the Great Schism (such as [[Purgatory]], the [[Immaculate Conception]], original sin and papal infallibility), which are not sanctioned by the bishops of the Eastern Orthodox Churches.  These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches.
  
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Furthermore, most Orthodox also believe that there has developed a distinct difference in the therapeutic method (Nafpatkos, <i>Illness and Cure of the Soul in the Orthodox Tradition</i>). This difference is rooted in fundamentally different diagnoses of the human condition, including original sin, the fall, human nature, and finally the cure of the soul, which is sanctification or [[theosis]].
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Efforts however have been made by the Pope and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, amongst other Orthodox bishops, to restore unity, including a visit by Pope Benedict XVI to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in 2006.
 
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Let's aim for intelligent discussion rather than simple potshots. Polemics are ok as long as they are basically descriptive and take into account the subtleties of controverted issues.
 
Let's aim for intelligent discussion rather than simple potshots. Polemics are ok as long as they are basically descriptive and take into account the subtleties of controverted issues.
  
[[Uniate]] churches will have their own articles, including a general one on the Unia.  They should all link back to this article.
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[[Eastern Catholic Churches]] will have their own articles, including a general one.  They should all link back to this article.
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
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==See also==
 
==See also==
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* For the pre-Schism Orthodox Church of Rome, see [[Church of Rome]].
 
* [[Maronite Catholic Church]]
 
* [[Maronite Catholic Church]]
 
* [[Melkite Greek Church]]
 
* [[Melkite Greek Church]]
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==External links==
 
==External links==
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* Official website of the [http://www.vatican.va Vatican]
 
* [http://www.zenit.org Zenit - The World Seen from Rome] - An excellent source of news and reflection for worlds events from a Roman Catholic perspective.
 
* [http://www.zenit.org Zenit - The World Seen from Rome] - An excellent source of news and reflection for worlds events from a Roman Catholic perspective.
* [http://en.wikikto.org WikiKto - The English Free Catholic Encyclopedia] - The equivalent project for the English Catholic Community
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* [http://www.cathwiki.org Cathwiki: The Catholic Encyclopedia and Directory] - The equivalent project for the Roman Catholic Community
 
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* [http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Leo13/l13praec.htm PRAECLARA GRATULATIONIS PUBLICAE] THE REUNION OF CHRISTENDOM Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII June 20, 1894
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* Dr. [[w:Anthony Kenny|Anthony Kenny]]. ''[http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/the_tls/article5843760.ece Follies of Roman Catholicism: How the Catholic Church failed to save itself from the Reformation].'' '''TIMESONLINE.''' (From The Times Literary Supplement), March 4, 2009.
 
===Orthodox Christians on Roman Catholicism===
 
===Orthodox Christians on Roman Catholicism===
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*[http://www.orthodoxytoday.org/articles6/HopkoPope.php Roman Presidency and Christian Unity in our Time] by Fr. [[Thomas Hopko]]
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*[http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/milton1_index.html A Survey of the Relations between the Byzantine and the Roman Churches.] – (Milton V. Anastos ) Myriobiblos Library, [[Church of Greece]]
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*[http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/roman_church.htm The Schism of the Roman Church] – (Jοhn Ν. Karmiris) Myriobiblos Library, Church of Greece
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*[http://www.oca.org/Docs.asp?ID=186&SID=12 Primacy theme of Catholic-Orthodox dialogue] - V Rev. [[Leonid Kishkovsky]]
  
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[[Category:Non-Orthodox]]
  
 
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[[ar:كنيسة الروم الكاثوليكي]]
 
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[[es:Iglesia Católica Apostólica Romana]]
 
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[[ro:Biserica Romano-Catolică]]
[[Category:Non-Orthodox]]
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Latest revision as of 15:33, November 23, 2011

The term Catholic Church refers to those Churches (including the Eastern Catholic Churches and other non-Latin rite churches) in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. It arose in Western Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East (particularly in the area of modern day Lebanon) after the Great Schism in 1054 A.D. In 1054 a schism between Rome and the other patriarchal sees resulted from widening differences between the Eastern and Western Churches. The cause of the schism was initially a dispute over papal authority and the soundness of theology surrounding the term filioque, a word which was interpolated by the Western Church to the Creed for use in its own liturgy without the consent of the Eastern bishops and contrary to the decision of the First Council of Epheseus (431). Nevertheless, the effects of the schism were not immediately felt everywhere, and it was only over time that the current complete lack of communion between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Catholic Church became widespread.

Today, the main differences between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church continue to be the inclusion of filioque in the Creed and the scope of papal authority. Consequent to papal authority, however, the Roman Catholic Church has made pronouncements of doctrine since the Great Schism (such as Purgatory, the Immaculate Conception, original sin and papal infallibility), which are not sanctioned by the bishops of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. These pronouncements, and the theological understanding behind them, present another obstacle to the unity of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches.

Furthermore, most Orthodox also believe that there has developed a distinct difference in the therapeutic method (Nafpatkos, Illness and Cure of the Soul in the Orthodox Tradition). This difference is rooted in fundamentally different diagnoses of the human condition, including original sin, the fall, human nature, and finally the cure of the soul, which is sanctification or theosis.

Efforts however have been made by the Pope and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, amongst other Orthodox bishops, to restore unity, including a visit by Pope Benedict XVI to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in 2006.

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Contents

See also

Sources

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - This is the new standard in Roman Catholic teaching, published with the intent to be the basis for local catechisms around the world.

External links

Orthodox Christians on Roman Catholicism

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