Psalter

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{{OldTestament}}
 
The '''Psalter''' (also known as the ''Psalms of David'') is the [[Old Testament]] book that contains hymns and poems traditionally ascribed to the [[David|Holy Prophet and King David]], ancestor of our [[Jesus Christ|Lord Jesus Christ]].  Virtually every aspect of worship—praise, thanksgiving, penitence, intercession—is covered in the Psalter.
 
The '''Psalter''' (also known as the ''Psalms of David'') is the [[Old Testament]] book that contains hymns and poems traditionally ascribed to the [[David|Holy Prophet and King David]], ancestor of our [[Jesus Christ|Lord Jesus Christ]].  Virtually every aspect of worship—praise, thanksgiving, penitence, intercession—is covered in the Psalter.
  
 
== The Psalter in Orthodox worship ==
 
== The Psalter in Orthodox worship ==
One modern commentator has described the Psalter as a golden thread running through the beautiful garment that is the divine services of the [[Orthodox Church]].  Indeed, the Psalter forms the core of each of the services of the [[Daily Cycle]], the [[Divine Liturgy]], and the other sacramental offices of the Church.
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One modern commentator, Bp. [[Demetri (Khoury) of Jableh|Demetri]], in his foreword to ''Christ in the Psalms'', has described the Psalter as a "golden thread [which runs] through the beautiful garment of [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] worship." Indeed, the Psalter forms the core of each of the services of the [[Daily Cycle]], the [[Divine Liturgy]], and the other sacramental offices of the Church.
  
 
The Psalter is so prevalent in Orthodox worship that St. [[John Chrysostom]] said that wherever one looks in the Church, he finds the Psalter "first, last, and central."
 
The Psalter is so prevalent in Orthodox worship that St. [[John Chrysostom]] said that wherever one looks in the Church, he finds the Psalter "first, last, and central."
Line 8: Line 9:
 
== Structure of the Psalter ==
 
== Structure of the Psalter ==
 
=== Chapter Divisions—Septuagint vs. Masoretic Text ===
 
=== Chapter Divisions—Septuagint vs. Masoretic Text ===
The [[Septuagint]] (LXX) is the version of the Old Testament used by the Orthodox Church.  The LXX Psalter differs in several respects from [[Masoretic Text]] (MT), which forms the basis for the King James Version and most modern English translations of the Bible.
+
The [[Septuagint]] (LXX) is the version of the Old Testament used by the Orthodox Church.  The LXX Psalter differs in several respects from [[Masoretic text]] (MT), which forms the basis for the King James Version and most modern English translations of the Bible.
  
 
In addition to substantive, textual differences, the LXX and MT versions of the Psalter differ most obviously in their chapter divisions.  This can cause confusion to readers who do not understand the differences between the two versions.
 
In addition to substantive, textual differences, the LXX and MT versions of the Psalter differ most obviously in their chapter divisions.  This can cause confusion to readers who do not understand the differences between the two versions.
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During the lenten fast, the kathisma readings are accelerated so that the Psalter is read through in its entirety twice each week.
 
During the lenten fast, the kathisma readings are accelerated so that the Psalter is read through in its entirety twice each week.
  
=== Order of Kathisma Readings ===
+
=== Order of Kathisma Readings (based on ''The Typicon'', Chapter 17) ===
 
*'''''Outside of Great Lent'''''
 
*'''''Outside of Great Lent'''''
 
:Outside Great Lent the kathismata are appointed to be read according to the following cycle:<br><br>
 
:Outside Great Lent the kathismata are appointed to be read according to the following cycle:<br><br>
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==Editions==
 
==Editions==
*''A Comparative Psalter'', John Kohlenberger, ed., Oxford, 2006. (ISBN 978-0195297607). This contains the Masoretic Text with translation in the Revised Standard Version, and the Septuagint with translation in the New English Translation of the Septuagint.
+
=== Liturgical Editions: Traditional English===
 
*''The Psalter According to the Seventy'', Holy Transfiguration Monastery (ISBN 0943405009)
 
*''The Psalter According to the Seventy'', Holy Transfiguration Monastery (ISBN 0943405009)
*[http://www.lulu.com/product/hardcover/the-russian-orthodox-psalter/5997109 ''The Russian Orthodox Psalter''], translated by David Mitchell James from the 1959 St. Job of Pochaev Press Slavonic edition, compared with the Rahlfs Septuagint, Latin and Gallican psalters; uses the Coverdale Psalter as a template. Approved for use by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.
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*''A Psalter for Prayer'', Holy Trinity Publications, Jordanville, NY, 2011, (ISBN 978-0884651888). A Psalter for Prayer is the first major English edition to include all the prayers needed to read the Psalter at home according to an Orthodox tradition that reaches back to the time of the desert fathers, known popularly as the 'cell rule'. In addition, the contents include many texts, traditionally printed in Orthodox Psalters, that are not easily found in English, such as the Rite for Singing the Twelve Psalms, directions for reading the Psalter for the Departed and much more. Approved for use by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.
 +
*''The Psalter of the Prophet and King David with the Nine Biblical Odes'', compiled by Michael Asser, ed. by St. Gregory Palamas Monastery, Center For Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, Etna, CA, 2008 (ISBN 978-0-911165-68-5). Septuagint translation using the King James Version as a template.
 +
*''The Orthodox Psalter: The Psalterion According to the Seventy, With the Nine Odes, and Patristic Commentary'', translated by Holy Apostles Convent, Buena Vista, CO, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-944359-35-8). Available as a pocket edition and a full-size edition with patristic commentary.
 +
=== Liturgical Editions: Contemporary English===
 +
*''Kathisma Psalter with Canticles'', [[Holy Myrrhbearers Monastery (Otego, New York)|Holy Myrrhbearers Monastery]], Otego, NY.
 +
*''The Psalter'', [[New Skete (Cambridge, New York)|New Skete]], Cambridge, NY, 1984. (ISBN 978-0960792450)
 +
*''The Holy Psalter of Prophet and King David'', arranged and edited by Archimandrite Roman Braga, HDM Press ([[Monastery of the Dormition of the Mother of God (Rives Junction, Michigan)|Holy Dormition Monastery]] ), MI, 2012.
 +
 
 +
=== Scholarly Editions===
 +
*''A Comparative Psalter'', John Kohlenberger, ed., Oxford, 2006. (ISBN 978-0195297607). This contains the Masoretic Text with translation in the Revised Standard Version, and the Septuagint with translation in the New English Translation of the Septuagint.  
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
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[[ro:Psaltirea]]
 
[[ro:Psaltirea]]
 +
[[el:Ψαλμοί]]

Revision as of 05:15, May 31, 2013

This article forms part of the series on the
The Old Testament - Septuagint
or simply "LXX", the Koine Greek version
of the Hebrew Bible.
Pentateuch or "the Law"
1.Genesis | 2.Exodus | 3.Leviticus | 4.Numbers | 5.Deuteronomy
Historical Books
6.Joshua | 7.Judges | 8.Ruth

9.I Kingdoms | 10.II Kingdoms | 11.III Kingdoms | 12.IV Kingdoms
13.I Chronicles | 14.II Chronicles | 15.I Esdras | 16.II Esdras
17.Nehemiah | 18.Tobit | 19.Judith | 20.Esther with additions
21.I Maccabees | 22.II Maccabees | 23.III Maccabees

Books of Wisdom
24.Book of Psalms | 25.Job | 26.Proverbs
27.Ecclesiastes | 28.Song of Solomon
29.Wisdom of Solomon | 30.Wisdom of Sirach
The Prophets
The Minor Prophets, or "The Twelve"

31.Hosea | 32.Amos | 33.Micah | 34.Joel | 35.Obadiah | 36.Jonah
37.Nahum | 38.Habakkuk | 39.Zephania | 40.Haggai | 41.Zachariah
42.Malachi

The Major Prophets

43.Isaiah | 44.Jeremiah | 45.Baruch | 46.Lamentations
47.Letter of Jeremiah | 48.Ezekiel | 49.Daniel with additions

Appendix
IV Maccabees


The Psalter (also known as the Psalms of David) is the Old Testament book that contains hymns and poems traditionally ascribed to the Holy Prophet and King David, ancestor of our Lord Jesus Christ. Virtually every aspect of worship—praise, thanksgiving, penitence, intercession—is covered in the Psalter.

Contents

The Psalter in Orthodox worship

One modern commentator, Bp. Demetri, in his foreword to Christ in the Psalms, has described the Psalter as a "golden thread [which runs] through the beautiful garment of Orthodox worship." Indeed, the Psalter forms the core of each of the services of the Daily Cycle, the Divine Liturgy, and the other sacramental offices of the Church.

The Psalter is so prevalent in Orthodox worship that St. John Chrysostom said that wherever one looks in the Church, he finds the Psalter "first, last, and central."

Structure of the Psalter

Chapter Divisions—Septuagint vs. Masoretic Text

The Septuagint (LXX) is the version of the Old Testament used by the Orthodox Church. The LXX Psalter differs in several respects from Masoretic text (MT), which forms the basis for the King James Version and most modern English translations of the Bible.

In addition to substantive, textual differences, the LXX and MT versions of the Psalter differ most obviously in their chapter divisions. This can cause confusion to readers who do not understand the differences between the two versions.

The chapter divisions of the LXX and MT versions of the Psalter correspond as follows:

LXX MT - LXX MT
1-8 1-8 - 115 116:10-19
9 9-10 - 116-145 117-146
10-112 11-113 - 146 147:1-11
113 114-115 - 147 147:12-20
114 116:1-9 - 148-150 148-150


The deuterocanon of the LXX contains an additional Psalm ascribed to David. This 151st Psalm is not numbered with the other 150 and is not included in the Psalter proper.

Kathismata

The Psalter is divided into 20 kathismata. Each kathisma is further divided into three stases. Each stasis contains between one and three chapters. The exception to this is Psalm 118. Due to its great length, this chapter constitutes the entire XVIIth Kathisma.

Each of the divine services contains fixed portions of the Psalter that are read or chanted each time the service is celebrated. In addition, certain services of the Daily Cycle contain prescribed kathisma readings. These prescribed readings rotate daily so that outside of Great Lent the Psalter is read through once in its entirety in a single week.

During the lenten fast, the kathisma readings are accelerated so that the Psalter is read through in its entirety twice each week.

Order of Kathisma Readings (based on The Typicon, Chapter 17)

  • Outside of Great Lent
Outside Great Lent the kathismata are appointed to be read according to the following cycle:

Day Orthros Vespers
Su II, III -
M IV, V VI
Tu VII, VIII IX
W X, XI XII
Th XIII, XIV XV
F XIX, XX XVIII
Sa XVI, XVII I


  • During Great Lent
During the weekdays of Great Lent, kathisma readings are added to the services of the Hours so that the entire Psalter is read through twice each week. The cycle of appointed kathismata readings for Great Lent are as follows:

Day Orthros First Hour Third Hour Sixth Hour Ninth Hour Vespers
Su II, III - - - - -
M IV, V, VI - VII VIII IX XVIII
Tu X, XI, XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVIII
W XIX, XX, I II III IV V XVIII
Th VI, VII, VIII IX X XI XII XVIII
F XIII, XIV, XV - XIX XX - XVIII
Sa XVI, XVII - - - - I


See also

External links

Editions

Liturgical Editions: Traditional English

  • The Psalter According to the Seventy, Holy Transfiguration Monastery (ISBN 0943405009)
  • A Psalter for Prayer, Holy Trinity Publications, Jordanville, NY, 2011, (ISBN 978-0884651888). A Psalter for Prayer is the first major English edition to include all the prayers needed to read the Psalter at home according to an Orthodox tradition that reaches back to the time of the desert fathers, known popularly as the 'cell rule'. In addition, the contents include many texts, traditionally printed in Orthodox Psalters, that are not easily found in English, such as the Rite for Singing the Twelve Psalms, directions for reading the Psalter for the Departed and much more. Approved for use by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.
  • The Psalter of the Prophet and King David with the Nine Biblical Odes, compiled by Michael Asser, ed. by St. Gregory Palamas Monastery, Center For Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, Etna, CA, 2008 (ISBN 978-0-911165-68-5). Septuagint translation using the King James Version as a template.
  • The Orthodox Psalter: The Psalterion According to the Seventy, With the Nine Odes, and Patristic Commentary, translated by Holy Apostles Convent, Buena Vista, CO, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-944359-35-8). Available as a pocket edition and a full-size edition with patristic commentary.

Liturgical Editions: Contemporary English

Scholarly Editions

  • A Comparative Psalter, John Kohlenberger, ed., Oxford, 2006. (ISBN 978-0195297607). This contains the Masoretic Text with translation in the Revised Standard Version, and the Septuagint with translation in the New English Translation of the Septuagint.

Sources

  • Christ in the Psalms, Archpriest Patrick Henry Reardon (ISBN 1888212217)
  • The Psalter According to the Seventy, Holy Transfiguration Monastery (ISBN 0943405009)
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