Pentarchy

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==History==
 
==History==
When the the [[Apostles]] left [[Judea]] to preach to the world, they founded different [[Patriarchate]]s.  The most prominent disciples of [[Jesus]] founded the Patriarchates that made up the Pentarchy.
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After the [[Ascension]], the [[Apostles]] dispersed to preach [[Christianity]] to the world.  They each founded different [[Patriarchate]]s.  The most prominent disciples of [[Jesus]] founded the Patriarchates that made up the Pentarchy.
  
[[Jerusalem]] - [[James]]
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*[[Patriarchate of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]] - [[James]] "Successor to Jesus"
[[Rome]] - [[Peter]]
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*[[Patriarchate of Rome|Rome]] - [[Peter]] "First among disciples"
[[Alexandria]] - [[Mark]]
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*[[Patriarchate of Alexandria|Alexandria]] - [[Mark]] "Writer of the Gospel"
[[Constantinople]] - [[Andrew]]
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*[[Patriarchate of Constantinople|Constantinople]] - [[Andrew]] "the First Called"
[[Antioch]] - [[Peter]]
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*[[Patriarchate of Antioch|Antioch]] - [[Peter]]  
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After the 7th century Arab conquests, and the Byzantine loss of the Rome-Ravenna corridor, only [[Constantinople]] remained securely within a state calling itself the "Roman Empire" — the [[Pope]] at [[Rome]] was independent (see [[Gregory the Great]]), [[Jerusalem]] and [[Alexandria]] were under Muslim rule, and [[Antioch]] was on the front lines of hundreds of years of recurring border warfare between the [[Byzantine Empire]] and the [[Arab Caliphate]]. These historical-political changes, combined with the northward shift of the center of gravity of [[Christendom]] during the Middle Ages, and the fact that the majority of Christians in Muslim-ruled Egypt and Syria were Non-[[Chalcedonians]] who refused to recognize the authority of either [[Rome or Constantinople]], meant that the original ideal of five great co-operating centers of administration of the whole [[Christian church]] grew ever more remote from practical reality.
 
[[Category:Church History]]
 
[[Category:Church History]]
 
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]
 
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]

Revision as of 13:20, March 13, 2007

The Pentarchy consisted of the five ancient patriarchates of the undivided Church of the first millennium of her history, including the Churches of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.

These major centers of early Christianity, founded by the apostles, were looked to by their respective regions as leaders in Church life, and eventually their bishops came to be regarded as the primates of their areas. The members of the Pentarchy all participated in some form in the first eight Ecumenical Councils, from 325 to 880. Their relationship with each other, despite various periods of rivalry and dispute, was generally in terms of fraternal equality and conciliarity.

History

After the Ascension, the Apostles dispersed to preach Christianity to the world. They each founded different Patriarchates. The most prominent disciples of Jesus founded the Patriarchates that made up the Pentarchy.

After the 7th century Arab conquests, and the Byzantine loss of the Rome-Ravenna corridor, only Constantinople remained securely within a state calling itself the "Roman Empire" — the Pope at Rome was independent (see Gregory the Great), Jerusalem and Alexandria were under Muslim rule, and Antioch was on the front lines of hundreds of years of recurring border warfare between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Caliphate. These historical-political changes, combined with the northward shift of the center of gravity of Christendom during the Middle Ages, and the fact that the majority of Christians in Muslim-ruled Egypt and Syria were Non-Chalcedonians who refused to recognize the authority of either Rome or Constantinople, meant that the original ideal of five great co-operating centers of administration of the whole Christian church grew ever more remote from practical reality.

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