Panagia Blachernitissa

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The '''Panagia of Blachernitissa''' (Gr. ''Παναγία η Βλαχερνίτισσα''), also known as '''Blachernae''' or '''Vlahernon''', is a 7th century Byzantium [[icon]] from Constantinople preserved in the imperial palace of Blachernai. The icon according to tradition was not written rather it was made from a composition of ashes of 6th century martyred Christians and wax. <ref> Wikipedia: Blachernitissa </ref>. Within the church, there is only one other icon of this type - see the icon of [[Archangel Michael of Mantamados]]. The icon of ''Blachernitissa'' is currently located in Russia at the Tretyakov Gallery.
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The ''''Panagia Blachernae''' (Gr. ''Παναγία η Βλαχερνίτισσα'', Turkish: ''Meryem Ana Kilisesi'') <ref> Also known as ''Blachernitissa'' or ''Vlachernae'', or ''Vlahernon''</ref> is a 7th century Byzantine [[Hodegetria]] type [[icon]] from [[Constantinople]] preserved in the imperial palace of [[Church of the Virgin of Blachernae (Istanbul)|Blachernae]]. The icon, according to tradition, was not written; rather, it was made from a composition of wax and the ashes of 6th-century [[martyr]]ed Christians. <ref>[[w:Blachernitissa|''Blachernitissa'' at Wikipedia]]</ref><ref>The Eastern Orthodox [[Church]] tradition is that there is only one ''other'' icon of this type&mdash; the icon of the [[Archangel Michael of Mantamados]].</ref> This icon were defaced during the 1955 Riots in Istanbul. A rare copy of the ''Blachernitissa'' icon is also located in Russia at the [[Tretyakov Gallery]].
  
==Churches around the world==
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==Origins of the name==
* '''The Church of Panagia of Blachernae, Constantinople'''
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There are two geographical places named "Blachernae" and "Vlachernae", respectivaly. The first, and recognised as the origins of the Blachernae icon and church tradition, is a district of Istanbul in Turkey and is spelt with a '''B'''. The second area, is a municipality in the prefecture of Arta, Greece; it is not so well known and is spelt with a '''V'''. The correct spelling for the icon and the Church should therefore begin with a "B".
:The best known and most celebrated [[http://www.ec-patr.org/afieroma/churches/show.php?lang=en&id=02 shrine of the Holy Virgin in Constantinople]] is the church of Panagia of Blacernae.
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:The Shrine of Blachernai
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There are many anecdotes attempting to describe the origins of the name '''Blachernae'' of Istanbul, Turkey:
:Blachernai, near the northern tip of the walls of Theodosios, was the site of major shrine of the Virgin Mary in Constantinople  built by the Empress Pulcheria (ca. 450). A circular chapel (the ''Soros''), was built by Emperor Leo I (457-474) next to the Church to hold the robe of the Virgin Mary, brought from Palestine in 473.  The church was burnt down in 1070. It was rebuilt by 1077 by either Romanos IV Diogenes (1067-71) or Michael VII (1071-87) and then destroyed again 1434. Next to it was a bathhouse where a spring flowed, which still flows in the modern church on the site <ref> Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (ODB) 1:293; Janin, Eglises CP, 161-71 and the end map entitled "Byzance Constantinople", ref. D2; George P. Majeska, Russian Travelers to Constantinople in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, (Washington, D.C.: 1984), 333-337 </ref>
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1) The first is that the origin of the name is derived from a type of fish pronounced in Greek as ''Palamyda''. This type of fish would be fished from the Bosphorus river. In Latin, the same type of fish is pronounced ''Lakernai'' and this anecdote says that the dialect of the region pronounced ''Lakernai'' as ''Blachernai''<ref> This opinion was supported by ''Skarlatos Byzantios'' who refers to this in Volume I of the Constantinople Theofilakton of 1351.</ref>
  
:From the time of the Patriarch Timotheos [511-18] there was a procession - the "panhgur j" - which took place each Friday from Blachernai to the Church of the Chalkoprateia, near Hagia Sophia, at the other end of the city :<ref> Janin, Eglises CP, 177 </ref>.
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==Churches==
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*'''[[Church of Panagia Blachernae (Istanbul)|The first Church of Blachernae: Church of the Virgin of Blachernae, Istanbul (Turkey)]]'''.
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*Church of Blachernae, Pontikonisi (Corfu, Greece)
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*Church of Blachernae, Peloponneso (Greece), ''a 12th century church decorated with beautiful frescoes of St. John the Baptist.''
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*Isle of Dias, village of Kalligata (Kefalonia, Greece)
  
:The Circular Chapel ("Soros")
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==Monasteries==
:The chapel of the Virgin's robe was covered in silver and considered a "reliquary of architectural dimensions". Lay people were not allowed inside but could pray in the main church. <ref> ODB 3:1929 </ref>. There was a specific icon, the [[Panagia Hagiosoritissa]], associated with this shrine. <ref> ODB 3:2171 </ref>
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*Panagia Blahernon (Corfu, Greece), 17th century.
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*[[Panagia Vlahernon Greek Orthodox Monastery (Williston, Florida)]]
  
* Pontikonisi (Corfu, Greece)
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==References==
* isle of Dias, village of Kalligata (Kefalonia, Greece)
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<small><references/></small>
  
==Monasteries around the world==
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==See also==
* Panagia Vlahernon (Corfu, Greece) - 17th century
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* [[Panagia the Life Giving Spring]]
* [[Panagia Vlahernon Greek Orthodox Monastery (Williston, Florida)]]
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* [[Life-giving Fount of the Theotokos]]
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* [[Theotokos of Tikhvin]]
  
==References==
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==Sources==
<references/>
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*[http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started941201/mail-21.html Paul Halsall - Response on Blachernae enquiry]
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*[http://www.paleks.com/icons.htm Russian Traditions]
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*[http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/00019.htm The Virgin of Orans explained]
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==External links==
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blachernitissa Wikipedia Article - the illustrious icon from Blachernae]
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*[http://www.icon.lt/list/blachernae.htm Article on the Blachernae Icon of the Mother of God "Hodegetria"]
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*[http://www.mgr.org/TheVeil.html Article on Protection of the Mother of God] - Church of the Panagia Blachernae
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*[http://www.guide-martine.com/istanbul_3.asp Travel Guide to Turkey]
  
==External Sources==
 
* [[http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started941201/mail-21.html Paul Halsall - Response on Blachernae enquiry]]
 
* [[http://www.icon.lt/list/blachernae.htm Blachernae Icon of the Mother of God "Hodegetria"]]
 
* [[http://www.mgr.org/TheVeil.html Article on The Veil]] at the Church of the Panagia Blachernitissa.
 
  
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[[Category:About Icons]]
 
[[Category:About Icons]]
 
[[Category:Icons of the Theotokos]]
 
[[Category:Icons of the Theotokos]]
 
[[Category:Theotokonymia]]
 
[[Category:Theotokonymia]]
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[[el:Παναγία των Βλαχερνών]]

Latest revision as of 17:58, May 25, 2011

The 'Panagia Blachernae (Gr. Παναγία η Βλαχερνίτισσα, Turkish: Meryem Ana Kilisesi) [1] is a 7th century Byzantine Hodegetria type icon from Constantinople preserved in the imperial palace of Blachernae. The icon, according to tradition, was not written; rather, it was made from a composition of wax and the ashes of 6th-century martyred Christians. [2][3] This icon were defaced during the 1955 Riots in Istanbul. A rare copy of the Blachernitissa icon is also located in Russia at the Tretyakov Gallery.

Contents

Origins of the name

There are two geographical places named "Blachernae" and "Vlachernae", respectivaly. The first, and recognised as the origins of the Blachernae icon and church tradition, is a district of Istanbul in Turkey and is spelt with a B. The second area, is a municipality in the prefecture of Arta, Greece; it is not so well known and is spelt with a V. The correct spelling for the icon and the Church should therefore begin with a "B".

There are many anecdotes attempting to describe the origins of the name 'Blachernae of Istanbul, Turkey: 1) The first is that the origin of the name is derived from a type of fish pronounced in Greek as Palamyda. This type of fish would be fished from the Bosphorus river. In Latin, the same type of fish is pronounced Lakernai and this anecdote says that the dialect of the region pronounced Lakernai as Blachernai[4]

Churches

Monasteries

References

  1. Also known as Blachernitissa or Vlachernae, or Vlahernon
  2. Blachernitissa at Wikipedia
  3. The Eastern Orthodox Church tradition is that there is only one other icon of this type— the icon of the Archangel Michael of Mantamados.
  4. This opinion was supported by Skarlatos Byzantios who refers to this in Volume I of the Constantinople Theofilakton of 1351.

See also

Sources

External links

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