The first part of the Old Testament is called the Pentateuch which means the five books. It is also called the Torah, which means the Law. These books are also called the Books of Moses. They include:
Although scholars believe that the Law was not written by the personal hand of Moses, and that the books show evidence of being the result of a number of oral and written traditions and time periods, the Church connects the Law with Moses, the great man of God to whom "the Lord used to speak ... face to face, as a man speaks to his friend" (Exodus 33:11).
The next set of books cover the history of Israel from the settlement in the promised land of Canaan to the first centuries before Christ. They include:
- Joshua (Jesus Navi)
- I Kingdoms (I Samuel)
- II Kingdoms (II Samuel)
- III Kingdoms (I Kings)
- IV Kingdoms (II Kings)
- I Paraleipomenon (I Chronicles)
- II Paraleipomenon (II Chronicles)
- I Esdras
- II Esdras
- Tobit (Tobias)
- I Maccabees
- II Maccabees
- III Maccabees (English Bible )
In the canon of the Orthodox Church, which is generally that of the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, 1 and 2 Samuel are called 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Kings are called 3 and 4 Kings. Also, the so-called apocryphal books, listed above after Esther, are considered by the Orthodox as genuine parts of the Bible. The Old Testament apocrypha is a body of writings considered by the non-Orthodox to be of close association with the Bible, but not actually part of its official canonical contents.
The historical books of the Bible were written well after the events described in them actually took place.