Old Testament

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===Pentateuch===
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{{OldTestament}}
* [[Genesis | Genesis]]<br>
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The '''Old Testament''' is first of the two divisions of [[Holy Scripture]]. According to historians, the Old Testament was composed between the 5th century BC and the 2nd century BC, though parts of it, such as the Torah, and Song of Deborah (Judges 5), date back much earlier.
* [[Exodus | Exodus]]<br>
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* [[Leviticus | Leviticus]]<br>
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* [[Book of Numbers | Numbers]]<br>
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* [[Deuteronomy | Deuteronomy]]<br>
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===Historical books===
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Traditionally the Old Testament is divided into the law books (the Pentateuch and historical books), the Psalms and other wisdom books, and the prophets because of what [[Jesus Christ|Christ]] said in [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%2024:44;&version=9; Luke 24:44]:
* [[Book of Joshua | Joshua]]<br>
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:And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be
* [[Book of Judges | Judges]]<br>
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:fulfilled, which were written in the ''law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms'', concerning me. (KJV)
* [[Book of Ruth | Ruth]]<br>
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* [[Books of Samuel | 1 Samuel]]<br>
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* [[Books of Samuel| 2 Samuel]]<br>
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* [[Books of Kings | 1 Kings]]<br>
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* [[Books of Kings | 2 Kings]]<br>
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* [[Books of Chronicles | 1 Chronicles]]<br>
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* [[Books of Chronicles | 2 Chronicles]]<br>
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* [[Book of Ezra | Ezra]]<br>
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* [[Book of Nehemiah | Nehemiah]]<br>
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* [[Book of Esther | Esther]]<br>
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===Poetical books===
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The term ''Old Testament'' itself is a translation of the Latin ''Vetus Testamentum'', from the Greek Ἡ Παλαιά Διαθήκη (hē Palaia Diathēkē), all meaning "The Old Covenant" (or "Testament"). The Latin rendered testament in English originally came from the Latin for "witness" and from there expanded to mean "to make a will"; thus, though it is purported to be synonymous with "covenant," it has a distinct legal flavoring.  Further semantic extensions in English have made  the English term more ambiguous[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/testament].
* [[Book of Job | Job]]<br>
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* [[Book of Psalms | Psalms]]<br>
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* [[Book of Proverbs | Proverbs]]<br>
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* [[Ecclesiastes | Ecclesiastes]]<br>
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* [[Song of Solomon | Song of Solomon]]<br>
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===Prophets===
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The Orthodox Church also numbers among the genuine books of the Old Testament the so-called ''apocryphal'' books, literally meaning the "secret" or "hidden" writings. A less Protestant-biased term for these parts of Scripture is the ''[[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical writings]]''.
====Major prophets====
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* [[Book of Isaiah | Isaiah]]<br>
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* [[Book of Jeremiah | Jeremiah]]<br>
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* [[Book of Lamentations | Lamentations]]<br>
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* [[Book of Ezekiel | Ezekiel]]<br>
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* [[Book of Daniel | Daniel]]<br>
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====Minor prophets====
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== The Five Books of the Law ==
* [[Book of Hosea | Hosea]]<br>
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The '''Five Books of the Law''' are the first five books of the Old Testament, known jointly as the ''[[Pentateuch]]'' (Gr. Πεντάτευχος, literally ''five volumes''), and they describe God's creation of the world, the rebellion of [[Adam and Eve]] and the fall of man. These books are also called the '''Books of Moses'''. They detail the early history of God's people of Israel from the days of Abraham (ca. 2000 BC) right through to the era of [[Moses]] (ca. 1250 BC).
* [[Book of Joel | Joel]]<br>
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* [[Book of Amos | Amos]]<br>
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The Five Books of the Law are:
* [[Book of Obadiah | Obadiah]]<br>
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* [[Book of Jonah | Jonah]]<br>
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* [[Genesis]], meaning "beginning"
* [[Book of Micah | Micah]]<br>
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* [[Exodus]], meaning "exit" or "departure"
* [[Book of Nahum | Nahum]]<br>
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* [[Leviticus]]
* [[Book of Habakkuk | Habakkuk]]<br>
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* [[Numbers]]
* [[Book of Zephaniah | Zephaniah]]<br>
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* [[Deuteronomy]], meaning "second law"
* [[Book of Haggai | Haggai]]<br>
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* [[Book of Zechariah | Zechariah]]<br>
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Although scholars believe that the Law was not written by the personal hand of Moses, and that the books show evidence of being the result of a number of oral and written traditions and time periods, the Church connects the Law with Moses, the great man of [[God]] to whom "the Lord used to speak ... face to face, as a man speaks to his friend" (Exodus 33:11).
* [[Book of Malachi | Malachi]]
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 +
== The Books of History ==
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The second section of the [[Septuagint|LXX Old Testament]] is known as the '''Historical Books'''. This group covers the history of Israel from the settlement in the promised land of Canaan to the first centuries before Christ.
 +
 
 +
They include: 
 +
*[[Book of Joshua|Joshua]] (Jesus Navi)
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*[[Judges]]
 +
*[[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
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*First and Second Kingdoms
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#[[I Kingdoms]] (I Samuel)
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#[[II Kingdoms]] (II Samuel)
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*Third and Fourth Kingdoms
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#[[III Kingdoms]] (I Kings)
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#[[IV Kingdoms]] (II Kings)
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*First and Second Chronicles
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#[[I Paraleipomenon]] (I Chronicles)
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#[[II Paraleipomenon]] (II Chronicles)
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#[[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
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#[[I Esdras]]
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#[[II Esdras]] (Ezra)
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*The Final Books
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#[[Tobit]] (Tobias)
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#[[Judith]]
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#[[Book of Esther|Esther]]
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#[[I Maccabees]]
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#[[II Maccabees]]
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#[[III Maccabees]] (English bible)
 +
 
 +
In the [[Holy Scripture|canon]] of the Orthodox Church—which is generally that of the [[Septuagint]], the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible—1 & 2 Samuel are called 1 & 2 Kings; and 1 & 2 Kings are called 3 & 4 Kings. Also, the so-called apocryphal books, listed above (I Esdras, II Esdras, Tobit, Judith, I Maccabees, II Maccabees, III Maccabees, IV Maccabees), are considered by the Orthodox as genuine parts of the Bible. The Old Testament apocrypha is a body of writings considered by the non-Orthodox to be of close association with the Bible, but not actually part of its official canonical contents.
 +
 
 +
The historical books of the Bible were written well after the events described in them actually took place.
 +
 
 +
==Wisdom books==
 +
The Wisdom books include Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, as well as the Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach, also called Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon from the so-called apocrypha.
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* [[Psalms]]
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* [[Prayer of Manasseh]]
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* [[Book of Job|Job]]
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* [[Proverbs]]
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* [[Ecclesiastes]]
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* [[Song of Solomon]] (Song of Songs or Canticle of Canticles)
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* [[Wisdom of Solomon]]
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* [[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach, also called Ecclesiasticus)
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Although not technically a ''wisdom'' book, the Prayer of Manasseh from the so-called apocrypha, is a penitential prayer of the King of Judah, which for the Orthodox is part of the Bible. (It is included in the [[Great Compline]] service of the Orthodox Church.)
 +
 
 +
==Prophets==
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16 books in the Old Testament are called by the names of [[prophet]]s, although not necessarily written by their hands.  A prophet is one who speaks the word of God by direct divine inspiration, not just one who foretells the future.
 +
 
 +
===Major prophets===  
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Four of the prophetic books are those of the so-called ''major prophets'':
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* [[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
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* [[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]] includes book of [[Book of Baruch|Baruch]] and the [[Epistle of Jeremiah]]
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* [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
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* [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
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===Minor prophets===
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The books of the 12 so-called ''minor prophets'':
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* [[Book of Hosea|Hosea]]  
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* [[Book of Joel|Joel]]
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* [[Book of Amos|Amos]]  
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* [[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]]  
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* [[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]  
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* [[Book of Micah|Micah]]  
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* [[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]  
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* [[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]]  
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* [[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]]  
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* [[Book of Haggai|Haggai]]
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* [[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]  
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* [[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
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==Others==
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Some Orthodox Churches include:
 +
* [[IV Maccabees]]
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* [[Book of Odes]]
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* [[Psalm 151]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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* [http://www.biblicaltraining.org/old-testament-survey/douglas-stuart/leadership Old Testament Survey], by Douglas Stuart (seminary class)
 +
* [http://st-takla.org/pub_Deuterocanon/Deuterocanon-Apocrypha_El-Asfar_El-Kanoneya_El-Tanya__0-index.html About the Deuterocanon (Second Canonical Books)]
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*[[Wikipedia: Old Testament]]
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 +
[[Category:Scripture]]
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[[Category:Texts]]
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[[Category:Old Testament|*]]
  
* [http://biblicaltraining.org/classes/ots/frame.html Old Testament Survey], by Douglas Stuart (seminary class)
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[[el:Παλαιά Διαθήκη]]
* [http://207.44.232.113/%7Ebible/reference/ot_intro/intro-Index.html An Introduction to the Old Testament], by Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman III
+
[[ro:Vechiul Testament]]
* [http://207.44.232.113/~bible/ot/main.htm Old Testament Studies]
+

Revision as of 20:11, October 17, 2012

This article forms part of the series on the
The Old Testament - Septuagint
or simply "LXX", the Koine Greek version
of the Hebrew Bible.
Pentateuch or "the Law"
1.Genesis | 2.Exodus | 3.Leviticus | 4.Numbers | 5.Deuteronomy
Historical Books
6.Joshua | 7.Judges | 8.Ruth

9.I Kingdoms | 10.II Kingdoms | 11.III Kingdoms | 12.IV Kingdoms
13.I Chronicles | 14.II Chronicles | 15.I Esdras | 16.II Esdras
17.Nehemiah | 18.Tobit | 19.Judith | 20.Esther with additions
21.I Maccabees | 22.II Maccabees | 23.III Maccabees

Books of Wisdom
24.Book of Psalms | 25.Job | 26.Proverbs
27.Ecclesiastes | 28.Song of Solomon
29.Wisdom of Solomon | 30.Wisdom of Sirach
The Prophets
The Minor Prophets, or "The Twelve"

31.Hosea | 32.Amos | 33.Micah | 34.Joel | 35.Obadiah | 36.Jonah
37.Nahum | 38.Habakkuk | 39.Zephania | 40.Haggai | 41.Zachariah
42.Malachi

The Major Prophets

43.Isaiah | 44.Jeremiah | 45.Baruch | 46.Lamentations
47.Letter of Jeremiah | 48.Ezekiel | 49.Daniel with additions

Appendix
IV Maccabees


The Old Testament is first of the two divisions of Holy Scripture. According to historians, the Old Testament was composed between the 5th century BC and the 2nd century BC, though parts of it, such as the Torah, and Song of Deborah (Judges 5), date back much earlier.

Traditionally the Old Testament is divided into the law books (the Pentateuch and historical books), the Psalms and other wisdom books, and the prophets because of what Christ said in Luke 24:44:

And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be
fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. (KJV)

The term Old Testament itself is a translation of the Latin Vetus Testamentum, from the Greek Ἡ Παλαιά Διαθήκη (hē Palaia Diathēkē), all meaning "The Old Covenant" (or "Testament"). The Latin rendered testament in English originally came from the Latin for "witness" and from there expanded to mean "to make a will"; thus, though it is purported to be synonymous with "covenant," it has a distinct legal flavoring. Further semantic extensions in English have made the English term more ambiguous[1].

The Orthodox Church also numbers among the genuine books of the Old Testament the so-called apocryphal books, literally meaning the "secret" or "hidden" writings. A less Protestant-biased term for these parts of Scripture is the deuterocanonical writings.

Contents

The Five Books of the Law

The Five Books of the Law are the first five books of the Old Testament, known jointly as the Pentateuch (Gr. Πεντάτευχος, literally five volumes), and they describe God's creation of the world, the rebellion of Adam and Eve and the fall of man. These books are also called the Books of Moses. They detail the early history of God's people of Israel from the days of Abraham (ca. 2000 BC) right through to the era of Moses (ca. 1250 BC).

The Five Books of the Law are:

Although scholars believe that the Law was not written by the personal hand of Moses, and that the books show evidence of being the result of a number of oral and written traditions and time periods, the Church connects the Law with Moses, the great man of God to whom "the Lord used to speak ... face to face, as a man speaks to his friend" (Exodus 33:11).

The Books of History

The second section of the LXX Old Testament is known as the Historical Books. This group covers the history of Israel from the settlement in the promised land of Canaan to the first centuries before Christ.

They include:

  1. I Kingdoms (I Samuel)
  2. II Kingdoms (II Samuel)
  • Third and Fourth Kingdoms
  1. III Kingdoms (I Kings)
  2. IV Kingdoms (II Kings)
  • First and Second Chronicles
  1. I Paraleipomenon (I Chronicles)
  2. II Paraleipomenon (II Chronicles)
  3. Nehemiah
  4. I Esdras
  5. II Esdras (Ezra)
  • The Final Books
  1. Tobit (Tobias)
  2. Judith
  3. Esther
  4. I Maccabees
  5. II Maccabees
  6. III Maccabees (English bible)

In the canon of the Orthodox Church—which is generally that of the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible—1 & 2 Samuel are called 1 & 2 Kings; and 1 & 2 Kings are called 3 & 4 Kings. Also, the so-called apocryphal books, listed above (I Esdras, II Esdras, Tobit, Judith, I Maccabees, II Maccabees, III Maccabees, IV Maccabees), are considered by the Orthodox as genuine parts of the Bible. The Old Testament apocrypha is a body of writings considered by the non-Orthodox to be of close association with the Bible, but not actually part of its official canonical contents.

The historical books of the Bible were written well after the events described in them actually took place.

Wisdom books

The Wisdom books include Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, as well as the Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach, also called Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon from the so-called apocrypha.

Although not technically a wisdom book, the Prayer of Manasseh from the so-called apocrypha, is a penitential prayer of the King of Judah, which for the Orthodox is part of the Bible. (It is included in the Great Compline service of the Orthodox Church.)

Prophets

16 books in the Old Testament are called by the names of prophets, although not necessarily written by their hands. A prophet is one who speaks the word of God by direct divine inspiration, not just one who foretells the future.

Major prophets

Four of the prophetic books are those of the so-called major prophets:

Minor prophets

The books of the 12 so-called minor prophets:

Others

Some Orthodox Churches include:

External links

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