New Testament

From OrthodoxWiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
(Mostly from wikipedia, with my own additions.)
 
m (link)
 
(17 intermediate revisions by 11 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:NTmanuscript.jpg|right|thumb|A sixth-century Gospel manuscript in Greek with a drawing of Christ healing the blind]]The '''New Testament''' is the second part of [[Holy Scripture]], after the [[Old Testament]]. The New Testament, also called the New Covenant, details Christ's life and the teachings of the Early Church; it is thus a fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament and the most important text in the life of the Church. The New Testaments consists of the [[Gospels]], which detail Christ's earthly life, [[Acts of the Apostles]], the [[Apostolos|Epistles]], and the [[Book of Revelation]]. It is generally acknowledged to have been written by numerous authors between A.D. 48 and 140.
+
[[Image:NTmanuscript.jpg|right|thumb|A sixth-century Gospel manuscript in Greek with a drawing of Christ healing the blind]]The '''New Testament''' is the second part of [[Holy Scripture]], after the [[Old Testament]]. The New Testament, also called the '''New Covenant''', details Christ's life and the teachings of the Early Church; it is thus a fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament and the most important text in the life of the Church. The New Testament consists of the [[Gospels]], which detail Christ's earthly life, [[Acts of the Apostles]], the [[Apostolos|Epistles]], and the [[Book of Revelation]]. It is generally acknowledged to have been written by numerous authors between A.D. 48 and 140.
  
= Books of the New Testament =
+
==Books of the New Testament==
 +
The Gospels and Acts:
 +
:[[Gospel of Matthew]], [[Gospel of Mark]], [[Gospel of Luke]], [[Gospel of John]], and [[Acts of the Apostles]].
  
:The Gospels and Acts:
+
[[Apostle Paul|Pauline]] Epistles:
 +
:[[Romans]], [[I Corinthians]], [[II Corinthians]], [[Galatians]], [[Ephesians]], [[Philippians]], [[Colossians]], [[I Thessalonians]], [[II Thessalonians]], [[I Timothy]], [[II Timothy]], [[Book of Titus|Titus]], [[Book of Philemon|Philemon]], and [[Book of Hebrews|Hebrews]].
  
[[Gospel of Matthew]], [[Gospel of Mark]], [[Gospel of Luke]], [[Gospel of John]], and [[Acts of the Apostles]].
+
The General Epistles:
 +
:[[Book of James|James]], [[I Peter]], [[II Peter]], [[I John]], [[II John]], [[III John]], and [[Book of Jude|Jude]].  
  
:[[Apostle Paul|Pauline]] Epistles:
+
And Revelation:
 +
:[[Book of Revelation]]  
  
[[Romans]], [[I Corinthians]], [[II Corinthians]], [[Galatians]], [[Ephesians]], [[Philippians]], [[Colossians]], [[I Thessalonians]], [[II Thessalonians]], [[I Timothy]], [[II Timothy]], [[Titus]], [[Philemon]], and [[Hebrews]].  
+
The New Testament is comprised of 27 separate works: the four narratives of Jesus Christ's ministry, called "Gospels"; a narrative of the Apostles' ministries, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel, written by [[Apostle Luke|Luke]]; twenty-one early letters, commonly called "epistles" in Biblical context, which were written by various authors and consisted mostly of Christian counsel and instruction; and an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is also technically the twenty-second epistle.
  
:The General Epistles:
+
===The Gospels===
 
+
[[James]], [[I Peter]], [[II Peter]], [[I John]], [[II John]], [[III John]], and [[Jude]].
+
 
+
:And Revelation:
+
 
+
[[Book of Revelation]]
+
 
+
The New Testament is twenty-seven separate works: the four narratives of Jesus Christ's ministry, called "Gospels"; a narrative of the Apostles' ministries, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel, written by [[Apostle Luke|Luke]]; twenty-one early letters, commonly called "epistles" in Biblical context, which were written by various authors and consisted mostly of Christian counsel and instruction; and an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is also technically the twenty-second epistle.
+
 
+
== The Gospels ==
+
 
Each of the Gospels narrates the ministry of Jesus Christ. The traditional author is listed after each entry. Modern scholarship differs on precisely by whom, when, or in what original form the various gospels were written.
 
Each of the Gospels narrates the ministry of Jesus Christ. The traditional author is listed after each entry. Modern scholarship differs on precisely by whom, when, or in what original form the various gospels were written.
  
The [[Gospel of Matthew]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Matthew]], son of Alphaeus.  
+
*The [[Gospel of Matthew]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Matthew]], son of Alphaeus.
 +
*The [[Gospel of Mark]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Mark]], who wrote down the narrative given by the [[Apostle Peter]].
 +
*The [[Gospel of Luke]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Luke]], who wrote down the narrative given by the [[Apostle Paul]], who was formerly called Saul.
 +
*The [[Gospel of John]], traditionally the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.  
  
The [[Gospel of Mark]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Mark]], who wrote down the narrative given by the [[Apostle Peter]].
+
===Acts===
 
+
The [[Acts of the Apostles]], also called the Book of Acts or just Acts, is a narrative of the Apostles' ministry after Christ's death and a sequel to the third [[Gospel of Luke|Gospel]]. [[Holy Tradition]], as well as style, phraseology, and other evidence, say that Acts and Luke have the same author, the [[Apostle Luke]]. Luke wrote down his narrative from the words of the [[Apostle Paul]], with whom he travelled to Rome.
The [[Gospel of Luke]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Luke]], who wrote down the narrative given by the [[Apostle Paul]], who was formerly called Saul.
+
 
+
The [[Gospel of John]], traditionally the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.
+
 
+
== Acts ==
+
 
+
The [[Acts of the Apostles]], also called the Book of Acts or just Acts, is a narrative of the Apostles' ministry after Christ's death and a sequel to the third [[Gospel of Luke|Gospel]]. [[Holy Tradition]], as well as style, phraseology, and other evidence, say that Acts and Luke have the same author, the [[Apostle Luke]]. Luke wrote down his narrative from the words of the [[Apostle Paul]], with whom he traveled to Rome.
+
 
+
== Pauline Epistles ==
+
  
 +
===Pauline epistles===
 
The Pauline Epistles constitute those epistles traditionally attributed to [[Apostle Paul|Paul]], though his authorship of some is disputed (such as Hebrews, which is oft attributed to Paul, though there was a debate even in the Early Church about its authorship). They consist mostly of moral counsel and behavioral instruction, though they do include other elements as well. Paul appears to have dictated the epistles to a scribe and some specifically mention his habit of appending a salutation in his own handwriting.  
 
The Pauline Epistles constitute those epistles traditionally attributed to [[Apostle Paul|Paul]], though his authorship of some is disputed (such as Hebrews, which is oft attributed to Paul, though there was a debate even in the Early Church about its authorship). They consist mostly of moral counsel and behavioral instruction, though they do include other elements as well. Paul appears to have dictated the epistles to a scribe and some specifically mention his habit of appending a salutation in his own handwriting.  
  
== General Epistles ==
+
===General epistles===
 +
The General or Catholic Epistles are those written to the church at large ("catholic" in this sense simply means "universal").
 +
*[[Book of James|Epistle of James]], traditionally by [[James the Just]], brother of Jesus and Jude Thomas.
 +
*[[I Peter]] and [[II Peter]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Peter|Apostle Simon]], called Peter.
 +
*[[I John]], [[II John]], and [[III John]], traditionally by the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.
 +
*[[Book of Jude|Jude]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Jude]] Thomas, brother of Jesus and James.
  
The General or Catholic Epistles are those written to the church at large (Catholic in this sense simply means universal).
+
===Prophecy===
 
+
The Book of Revelation often called just Revelation, traditionally by the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.  
[[James|Epistle of James]], traditionally by [[James the Just]], brother of Jesus and Jude Thomas.
+
 
+
[[I Peter]] and [[II Peter]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Peter|Apostle Simon]], called Peter.
+
 
+
[[I John]], [[II John]], and [[III John]], traditionally by the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.
+
 
+
[[Jude]], traditionally by the [[Apostle Jude]] Thomas, brother of Jesus and James.
+
 
+
== Prophecy ==
+
 
+
[[The Book of Revelation]] often called just Revelation, traditionally by the [[Apostle John]], son of Zebedee.  
+
 
Revelation is sometimes called The Apocalypse of John. It is the only book of the New Testament which is not read during Orthodox church services, because of various reasons such as its capacity for misinterpretation.
 
Revelation is sometimes called The Apocalypse of John. It is the only book of the New Testament which is not read during Orthodox church services, because of various reasons such as its capacity for misinterpretation.
  
= New Testament Apocrypha =
+
==New Testament Apocrypha==
 
+
In ancient times there were dozens—perhaps hundreds—of Christian writings claiming Apostolic authorship, but which were ultimately rejected by the [[Church Fathers]] in the 27-book New Testament canon. These works are considered "[[Apocrypha|apocryphal]]", and are therefore referred to in singular as the New Testament Apocrypha. The Apocrypha include a large amount of gnostic writings, spurious prophecy, fantasy, and in general a number of other [[heresy|heretical teachings]].
In ancient times there were dozens—perhaps hundreds—of Christian writings claiming Apostolic authorship, but which were ultimately rejects by the [[Church Fathers]] in the 27-book New Testament canon. These works are considered "apocryphal", and are therefore referred to in singular as the New Testament Apocrypha. This Apocrypha includes a large amount of gnostic writings, spurious prophecy, fantasy, and in general a number of other [[heresy|heretical teachings]].
+
 
Below are some examples of early apocryphal works (please note this short list is by no means exhaustive):
 
Below are some examples of early apocryphal works (please note this short list is by no means exhaustive):
  
Didache, anonymous instructional text which is considered Orthodox and studied by [[patristics|patristic]] scholars; written c. AD 50–120.  
+
*[[Didache]], anonymous instructional text which is considered Orthodox and studied by [[patristics|patristic]] scholars; written c. AD 50–120.  
 +
*Gospel of Thomas - anonymous collection of (Gnostic) sayings attributed to Jesus Christ; written c. AD 50–140.
 +
*Gospel of Peter, anonymous Synoptic narrative; written c. AD 70–160.
 +
*Epistle of Barnabas - anonymous letter of counsel to an unknown audience; written c. AD 80–120.
 +
*Greek Gospel of the Egyptians, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
 +
*Gospel of the Hebrews, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
 +
*[[First Epistle of Clement]], letter of counsel probably composed by Clement, Bishop of Rome, and addressed to the church in Corinth, whose teaching is orthodox but not as worthy of inclusion in the canon as the other epistles; written c. AD 95–96.
 +
*Apocalypse of Peter, anonymous prophecy concerning the end times; written c. AD 100–150.
 +
*The Shepherd of Hermas, anonymous Christian text purportedly by the [[Apostle Hermas]]; contains a broad range of content, including prophecy, direct instruction and parables; written c. AD 100–160.
 +
*Gospel of Judas, anonymous gospel narrative attributed to [[Judas Iscariot]]; written c. AD 130–170. This "gospel," as well as several of the above like the Shepherd of Hermas, are part of the pseudepigrapha, or writings claiming to be by someone else other than their real author (generally someone more prestigious).
 +
*[[Protoevangelion of James]], a second-century text purported to have been written by [[James the Just]], the brother of the Lord. [[image:CodexUsserianusPrimusFol149vCross.jpg|right|thumb|Image of a cross from a seventh-century manuscript in Greek, the language of the New Testament.]]
  
Gospel of Thomas - anonymous collection of (Gnostic) sayings attributed to Jesus Christ; written c. AD 50–140.  
+
==Language==
 +
The common language spoken in the [[Holy Land]] at the time of Jesus was [[Aramaic]]. However, the original text of the New Testament was most likely written in [[Koine Greek]], the vernacular dialect in 1st century Roman provinces, and has since been widely translated into other languages, most notably, Latin, Syriac, and Coptic. (However, some of the Church Fathers seem to imply that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew or more likely Aramaic, and there is another contention that the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews wrote in Hebrew, which was translated into Greek by Luke. Neither view holds much support among contemporary scholars, who argue that the literary facets of Matthew and Hebrews suggest that they were composed directly in Greek, rather than being translated.)
  
Gospel of Peter, anonymous Synoptic narrative; written c. AD 70–160.  
+
It is notable that many books of the New Testament, especially the [[Gospel of Mark]] and the Book of Revelation, are written in relatively poor Greek. They are far from the refined Attic Greek or Classical Greek found composed by the higher classes, ruling elites, and trained philosophers of the time. Relative exceptions to this include the gospels of Luke and John and the [[Acts of the Apostles]].
  
Epistle of Barnabas - anonymous letter of counsel to an unknown audience; written c. AD 80–120.
+
==Sources==
 
+
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Testament&oldid=56155507 ''New Testament'' at Wikipedia]
Greek Gospel of the Egyptians, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
+
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/biblical/ Our Faith: Biblical Studies] ([[GOARCH]])
 
+
Gospel of the Hebrews, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
+
 
+
1 Clement, letter of counsel probably composed by Clement, Bishop of Rome, and addressed to the church in Corinth, whose teaching is orthodox but not as worthy of inclusion in the canon as the other epistles; written c. AD 95–96.
+
 
+
Apocalypse of Peter, anonymous prophecy concerning the end times; written c. AD 100–150.
+
 
+
The Shepherd of Hermas, anonymous Christian text purportedly by the [[Apostle Hermas]]; contains a broad range of content, including prophecy, direct instruction and parables; written c. AD 100–160.
+
 
+
Gospel of Judas, anonymous gospel narrative attributed to [[Judas Iscariot]]; written c. AD 130–170. This "gospel," as well as several of the above like the Shepherd of Hermas, are part of the pseudepigrapha, or writings claiming to be by someone else other than their real author (generally someone more prestigious).
+
[[image:CodexUsserianusPrimusFol149vCross.jpg|right|thumb|Image of a cross from a seventh-century manuscript in Greek, the language of the New Testament.]]
+
= Language =
+
The common language spoken in the Holy Land at the time of Jesus was Aramaic. However, the original text of the New Testament was most likely written in Koine Greek, the vernacular dialect in 1st-century Roman provinces, and has since been widely translated into other languages, most notably, Latin, Syriac, and Coptic. (However, some of the church fathers seem to imply that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew or more likely Aramaic, and there is another contention that the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews wrote in Hebrew, which was translated into Greek by Luke. Neither view holds much support among contemporary scholars, who argue that the literary facets of Matthew and Hebrews suggest that they were composed directly in Greek, rather than being translated.)
+
 
+
It is notable that many books of the New Testament, especially the [[Gospel of Mark]] and the book of [[Revelation]], are written in relatively poor Greek. They are far from the refined Attic Greek or Classical Greek found composed by the higher classes, ruling elites, and trained philosophers of the time. Relative exceptions to this include the gospels of Luke and John and the [[Acts of the Apostles]].
+
 
+
= Sources and External Links =
+
 
+
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament Wikipedia:New Testament]
+
* [http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/biblical/ Our Faith: Biblical Studies] ([[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|GOARCH]])
+
  
 
[[Category:New Testament]]
 
[[Category:New Testament]]
 
[[Category:Scripture]]
 
[[Category:Scripture]]
 +
 +
[[ar:عهد جديد]]
 +
[[el:Καινή Διαθήκη]]
 +
[[ro:Noul Testament]]

Latest revision as of 18:26, December 9, 2010

A sixth-century Gospel manuscript in Greek with a drawing of Christ healing the blind
The New Testament is the second part of Holy Scripture, after the Old Testament. The New Testament, also called the New Covenant, details Christ's life and the teachings of the Early Church; it is thus a fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament and the most important text in the life of the Church. The New Testament consists of the Gospels, which detail Christ's earthly life, Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, and the Book of Revelation. It is generally acknowledged to have been written by numerous authors between A.D. 48 and 140.

Contents

Books of the New Testament

The Gospels and Acts:

Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of John, and Acts of the Apostles.

Pauline Epistles:

Romans, I Corinthians, II Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, I Thessalonians, II Thessalonians, I Timothy, II Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Hebrews.

The General Epistles:

James, I Peter, II Peter, I John, II John, III John, and Jude.

And Revelation:

Book of Revelation

The New Testament is comprised of 27 separate works: the four narratives of Jesus Christ's ministry, called "Gospels"; a narrative of the Apostles' ministries, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel, written by Luke; twenty-one early letters, commonly called "epistles" in Biblical context, which were written by various authors and consisted mostly of Christian counsel and instruction; and an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is also technically the twenty-second epistle.

The Gospels

Each of the Gospels narrates the ministry of Jesus Christ. The traditional author is listed after each entry. Modern scholarship differs on precisely by whom, when, or in what original form the various gospels were written.

Acts

The Acts of the Apostles, also called the Book of Acts or just Acts, is a narrative of the Apostles' ministry after Christ's death and a sequel to the third Gospel. Holy Tradition, as well as style, phraseology, and other evidence, say that Acts and Luke have the same author, the Apostle Luke. Luke wrote down his narrative from the words of the Apostle Paul, with whom he travelled to Rome.

Pauline epistles

The Pauline Epistles constitute those epistles traditionally attributed to Paul, though his authorship of some is disputed (such as Hebrews, which is oft attributed to Paul, though there was a debate even in the Early Church about its authorship). They consist mostly of moral counsel and behavioral instruction, though they do include other elements as well. Paul appears to have dictated the epistles to a scribe and some specifically mention his habit of appending a salutation in his own handwriting.

General epistles

The General or Catholic Epistles are those written to the church at large ("catholic" in this sense simply means "universal").

Prophecy

The Book of Revelation often called just Revelation, traditionally by the Apostle John, son of Zebedee. Revelation is sometimes called The Apocalypse of John. It is the only book of the New Testament which is not read during Orthodox church services, because of various reasons such as its capacity for misinterpretation.

New Testament Apocrypha

In ancient times there were dozens—perhaps hundreds—of Christian writings claiming Apostolic authorship, but which were ultimately rejected by the Church Fathers in the 27-book New Testament canon. These works are considered "apocryphal", and are therefore referred to in singular as the New Testament Apocrypha. The Apocrypha include a large amount of gnostic writings, spurious prophecy, fantasy, and in general a number of other heretical teachings. Below are some examples of early apocryphal works (please note this short list is by no means exhaustive):

  • Didache, anonymous instructional text which is considered Orthodox and studied by patristic scholars; written c. AD 50–120.
  • Gospel of Thomas - anonymous collection of (Gnostic) sayings attributed to Jesus Christ; written c. AD 50–140.
  • Gospel of Peter, anonymous Synoptic narrative; written c. AD 70–160.
  • Epistle of Barnabas - anonymous letter of counsel to an unknown audience; written c. AD 80–120.
  • Greek Gospel of the Egyptians, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
  • Gospel of the Hebrews, anonymous Gospel narrative; written c. AD 80–150.
  • First Epistle of Clement, letter of counsel probably composed by Clement, Bishop of Rome, and addressed to the church in Corinth, whose teaching is orthodox but not as worthy of inclusion in the canon as the other epistles; written c. AD 95–96.
  • Apocalypse of Peter, anonymous prophecy concerning the end times; written c. AD 100–150.
  • The Shepherd of Hermas, anonymous Christian text purportedly by the Apostle Hermas; contains a broad range of content, including prophecy, direct instruction and parables; written c. AD 100–160.
  • Gospel of Judas, anonymous gospel narrative attributed to Judas Iscariot; written c. AD 130–170. This "gospel," as well as several of the above like the Shepherd of Hermas, are part of the pseudepigrapha, or writings claiming to be by someone else other than their real author (generally someone more prestigious).
  • Protoevangelion of James, a second-century text purported to have been written by James the Just, the brother of the Lord.
    Image of a cross from a seventh-century manuscript in Greek, the language of the New Testament.

Language

The common language spoken in the Holy Land at the time of Jesus was Aramaic. However, the original text of the New Testament was most likely written in Koine Greek, the vernacular dialect in 1st century Roman provinces, and has since been widely translated into other languages, most notably, Latin, Syriac, and Coptic. (However, some of the Church Fathers seem to imply that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew or more likely Aramaic, and there is another contention that the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews wrote in Hebrew, which was translated into Greek by Luke. Neither view holds much support among contemporary scholars, who argue that the literary facets of Matthew and Hebrews suggest that they were composed directly in Greek, rather than being translated.)

It is notable that many books of the New Testament, especially the Gospel of Mark and the Book of Revelation, are written in relatively poor Greek. They are far from the refined Attic Greek or Classical Greek found composed by the higher classes, ruling elites, and trained philosophers of the time. Relative exceptions to this include the gospels of Luke and John and the Acts of the Apostles.

Sources

Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox
In other languages