Nectarius of Jerusalem

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'''Nectarius of Jerusalem''' was Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1660 to 1669. He was a zealous opponent of [[Cyril Lucaris]] and the Calvinist movement.
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'''Nectarius (Pelopidis) of Jerusalem''' was the [[List of Patriarchs of Jerusalem|Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem]] from 1661 to 1669.<ref name=THE>{{el icon}} ''"Νεκτάριος, Πατριάρχης Ιεροσολύμων."'' '''[http://el.orthodoxwiki.org/%CE%98%CF%81%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9_%CE%97%CE%B8%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%95%CE%B3%CE%BA%CF%85%CE%BA%CE%BB%CE%BF%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%AF%CE%B4%CE%B5%CE%B9%CE%B1 Θρησκευτική και Ηθική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια] (ΘHE)'''. Τόμος 09, Εκδ. Μαρτίνος Αθαν., Αθήναι 1966. σελ. 396-397.</ref> He was a zealous opponent of [[Cyril Lucaris]] and the Calvinist movement.
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
Nectarius was born in Crete in 1605. As a young man, he joined the [[monasticism|monastic]] community at [[Mount Sinai]] where he was educated by the [[monk]]s and subsequently became a monk himself. When he was thirty five years old he journeyed to Athens to study under the Neo-Aristolelian Theophilus Corydalleus
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Patriarch Nectarius was born as Nikolaos Pelopidis near Heraklion in [[Archdiocese of Crete|Crete]] in 1602.<ref name=THE/> He was educated by the monks of [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|Saint Catherine's Monastery]], who were operating the Sinaitic Academy in Herakleion at that time,<ref name=THE/> eventually becoming a [[monk]] himself in [[Mount Sinai|Sinai]].<ref name=SCHAFF>[http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Kattenbusch Kattenbusch, Ferdinand]] (Ph.D, Th.D.). ''"[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/encyc08/Page_98.html NECTARIUS: Patriarch of Jerusalem]."'' In: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, Ed. (1914). [[w:Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge|New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge]], Vol. VIII: Morality - Petersen. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1953. p. 98.</ref>
  
After returning to [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] at Sinai, Nectarius was chosen [[abbot]] in 1660. Upon reaching Jerusalem where he was to be consecrated abbot, he learned that he had been elected [[patriarch]] of Jerusalem. His [[consecration of a bishop|consecration]] to the [[see]] of Jerusalem was in April 1661. By 1666, Patr. Nectarius sought to be relieved of his duties as patriarch. However, it wasn't until 1669 that [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheus II Notarius]] succeeded him.
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About 1645 he studied at Athens with the Neo-[[w:Aristotelianism|Aristotelian]] philosopher and scholar [[w:Theophilos Corydalleus|Theophilos Corydalleus]].<ref name=THE/><ref name=SCHAFF/>
  
After his resignation, Nectarius remained in Jerusalem except for a short time when he was driven to Mount Sinai by the Latin monks who came to Palestine with the Roman Catholic crusaders. in 1672, he participated in the Synod of Jerusalem that refuted the Calvinist confessions of Cyril Lucaris.  
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Early in 1661 he was in [[Constantinople]] on business connected with his monastery, and on his return to Sinai he was chosen abbot (25-1-1661).<ref name=THE/> However on his way to [[Jerusalem]] to be consecrated, he was informed that he had been chosen [[List of Patriarchs of Jerusalem|Patriarch of the Holy City]], and was [[Consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] on April 9, 1661.<ref name=THE/><ref name=SCHAFF/>
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As he was fond of learning and of music, he arranged for the establishment of schools in Constantinople, in Arta and Chios. In addition, he repaired the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Jerusalem, and cared for the reconstruction of monastic houses and [[w:guest houses|guest houses]] for visitors there.<ref name=THE/>
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When he was present in [[w:Iași|Iași]], the capital of Moldavia, he became involved with the issues surrounding Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon of Moscow and all the Rus']].<ref name=THE/> In July 1663 When Pantaleon Ligarid and Archbishop Josef of Astrakhan tried to officially depose Patriarch Nikon from his cathedra, Patriarch Nektarius of Jerusalem protested in 1664 against their intended trial of Patriarch Nikon, because he saw no serious basis for it. He also knew Ligarid well, considering him a rogue.<ref>Daniel Shubin. ''A History of Russian Christianity.''  Algora Publishing, 2004. p. 119.</ref>
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He is known by his recommendation of the ''Confessio Orthodoxa'' of [[Peter Mogila|Peter Mogilas]] (1645), which he endorsed in 1662.<ref name=STRONG>Proeschel, J.N. ''"2. Nectarius (Patriarch of Jerusalem)."'' In: [[w:John McClintock (theologian)|McClintock, John]] and [[w:James Strong (theologian)|James Strong]]. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Vol. VI ‒ ME-NEV. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1882. p. 914.</ref><ref group="note">There were four seventeenth-century Confessions:
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:* [[Metrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]] (1625);
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:* [[Cyril Lucaris|Cyril Loukaris]] (1629);
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:* [[Peter Mogila]] (1645); and
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:* [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos of Jerusalem]] (1672).
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:* [[Christos Yannaras]]. ''Orthodoxy and the West: Hellenic Self-Identity in the Modern Age.'' Transl. Peter Chamberas and Norman Russell. Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006. p. 64.</ref>
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As early as 1666 he sought to be relieved of his duties, and by 1669 [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]] had become his successor.<ref name=SCHAFF/>
 +
 
 +
He participated in the [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] in 1672, that refuted the Calvinist confessions of [[Cyril Lucaris]].
 +
 
 +
After his resignation Nectarius remained in Jerusalem, except for a short time when he was driven to Mount Sinai by Latin monks who came to Palestine with Roman Catholic crusaders. Later he remained at the Monastery of The Holy Archangels (Andromedos, [[w:Jaffa|Joppa]]) until his death.<ref name=THE/>
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Patriarch Nectarius died on [[July 14]], 1676.<ref name=THE/>
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===Writings===
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Patriarch Nectarius was versed in the Greek, Arabic, Turkish, and Latin languages.<ref name=THE/>
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During his patriarchate, Romish emissaries were very active in [[Proselytism|endeavoring to persuade]] the [[Church of Jerusalem|Greek Christians of Palestine]], suffering under the yoke of the Turks, to unite with the Church of Rome. Among them a Franciscan, named Peter, was especially active in distributing five tracts in defense of the [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|papal authority]]. Nectarius' refutation of the these tracts regarding papal supremacy was among the most important of his writings, in a publication entitled: {{el icon}} ''Κατά τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Παπᾶ'',<ref group="note">{{el icon}} ''Περί τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Παπᾶ ἀντιρρήσεις.'' [[w:Iași|Iassi]] 1682; London 1702; Paris 1718.</ref> a firm refutation of the Roman Catholic theses.<ref name=STRONG/>
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He also wrote a work in Greek against the doctrines of Martin Luther and John Calvin, which was translated into Latin by [[w:Eusèbe Renaudot|Renaudot]], who published it, together with Gennadius' ''Homilies on the Eucharist.''<ref>(Paris, 1709, 4to).</ref> In his doctrine of the [[Eucharist]], Nectarius was strictly Orthodox, and a zealous opponent of [[Cyril Lucaris]] and the Calvinistic movement.<ref name=SCHAFF/>
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In addition, Nectarius is said to have written a history of the [[w:Egypt in the Middle Ages|Egyptian empire]] down to [[w:Selim I|Sultan Selim]].<ref name=STRONG/><ref group="note">See [[w:Johann Albert Fabricius|Fabricius]], ''Bibliotheca Graeca'' (ed. [[w:Gottlieb Christoph Harless|Harless]]), ix, [http://books.google.ca/books?id=irsNAAAAYAAJ&q=NECTARII#v=snippet&q=NECTARII&f=false 310].</ref> In the Arabic manucript which he composed, he states that he personally witnessed a miracle in the region of [[w:Heliopolis (ancient)|Heliopolis, Egypt]], similar to the naarative of ''The Valley of Dry Bones,'' ([http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=ezekiel%2037:1-37:14&version=KJV Ezekiel 37:1-14]) in which the prophet sees the [[Resurrection|dead rise again]].<ref name=RUDDER>''[[The Rudder]] (Pēdálion)'': Of the metaphorical ship of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of the Orthodox Christians, or all the sacred and divine canons of the holy and renowned Apostles, of the holy Councils, ecumenical as well as regional, and of individual fathers, as embodied in the original Greek text, for the sake of authenticity, and explained in the vernacular by way of rendering them more intelligible to the less educated.
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:Comp. Agapius a Hieromonk and [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus]] a Monk. First printed and published A.D.1800. Trans. D. Cummings, from the 5th edition published by John Nicolaides (Kesisoglou the Caesarian) in Athens, Greece in 1908, (Chicago: The Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1957; Repr., New York, N.Y.: Luna Printing Co., 1983). pp. 10-11.</ref><ref group="note">"In the region of [[w:Heliopolis (ancient)|Heliopolis, Egypt]], where the great pyramids are, God performs the following strange paradox every year, to wit: on the evening of our (not the Latins') [[Holy_Week#Holy_Thursday|Holy Thursday]], the earth vomits old human relics and bones, which cover the ground of an extensive plain and which remain standing until the following [[Ascension|Thursday of the Assumption]] (misnamed "Ascension" by the Latins), and then they go into hiding, and no longer show themselves at all, until Holy Thursday comes again. This is no myth or fable, but is true and certain, having been verified by older and recent historians, and particularly by [http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%93%CE%B5%CF%8E%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%82_%CE%9A%CE%BF%CF%81%CE%AD%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%82 George Coressios]] the Chian, and by '''Nectarius,''' of blessed memory, a former [[List of Patriarchs of Jerusalem|patriarch of Jerusalem]], who in the Arabic manuscript which he composed tells about it on page 266 and, as appears from what he says further on, saw it with his own eyes. In fact, these human bones presage the future [[Resurrection|resurrection of the dead]], just as the prophet Ezekiel too saw them." (''The Rudder, pp. 10-11'').</ref>
  
Nectarius produced a number of writings. Among these he expressed his doctrine of the Eucharist that was strictly orthodox. In other writings he refuted the theses of a certain Peter regarding papal supremacy. He is better known for his recommendation of the ''Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church'' of [[Peter Mogila]] of 1643.
 
  
 
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==Source==
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==Notes==
*[[Wikipedia: Nectarius of Jerusalem]]
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<small><references group="note" /></small>
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==References==
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<small><div><references/></div></small>
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==Sources==
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* [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Kattenbusch Kattenbusch, Ferdinand]] (Ph.D, Th.D.). ''"[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/encyc08/Page_98.html NECTARIUS: Patriarch of Jerusalem]."'' In: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, Ed. (1914). '''[[w:Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge|New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge]]''', Vol. VIII: Morality - Petersen. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1953. p.&nbsp;98.
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* Proeschel, J.N. ''"2. Nectarius (Patriarch of Jerusalem)."'' In: [[w:John McClintock (theologian)|McClintock, John]] and [[w:James Strong (theologian)|James Strong]]. '''Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature'''. Vol. VI ‒ ME-NEV. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1882. p.&nbsp;914.
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* {{el icon}} ''"Νεκτάριος, Πατριάρχης Ιεροσολύμων."'' '''[http://el.orthodoxwiki.org/%CE%98%CF%81%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9_%CE%97%CE%B8%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE_%CE%95%CE%B3%CE%BA%CF%85%CE%BA%CE%BB%CE%BF%CF%80%CE%B1%CE%AF%CE%B4%CE%B5%CE%B9%CE%B1 Θρησκευτική και Ηθική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια] (ΘHE)'''. Τόμος 09, Εκδ. Μαρτίνος Αθαν., Αθήναι 1966. σελ. 396-397.
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* {{el icon}} Μανούσακας Μ. Ι.. ''Η Eπιτομή της Iεροκοσμικής Iστορίας του Νεκταρίου Ιεροσολύμων και αι πηγαί αυτής.'' Κρητικά Χρονικά. τομ.1 (1947), σελ. 291-332.
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* {{la icon}}  [[w:Johann Albert Fabricius|Fabricius, Johann Albert]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=irsNAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&vq=NECTARII#v=onepage&q=NECTARII&f=false Ioannis Alberti Fabricii... Bibliotheca Graeca: Sive Notitia Scriptorum Vetervm Graecorvm].'' Editio Nova: [[w:Gottlieb Christoph Harless|Gottlieb Christoph Harless]], Christoph August Heumann. Volvmen Nonvm. Hambvrgi: Apud Carolvm Ernestvm Bohn, 1804. p.&nbsp;310.
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* [[w:Nectarius of Jerusalem|Nectarius of Jerusalem]]. Wikipedia.
  
 
[[Category: Bishops]]
 
[[Category: Bishops]]
 
[[Category: Patriarchs of Jerusalem]]
 
[[Category: Patriarchs of Jerusalem]]
[[Category:17th-century bishops]]
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[[Category: 17th-century bishops]]

Revision as of 18:03, August 11, 2013

Nectarius (Pelopidis) of Jerusalem was the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1661 to 1669.[1] He was a zealous opponent of Cyril Lucaris and the Calvinist movement.

Contents

Life

Patriarch Nectarius was born as Nikolaos Pelopidis near Heraklion in Crete in 1602.[1] He was educated by the monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery, who were operating the Sinaitic Academy in Herakleion at that time,[1] eventually becoming a monk himself in Sinai.[2]

About 1645 he studied at Athens with the Neo-Aristotelian philosopher and scholar Theophilos Corydalleus.[1][2]

Early in 1661 he was in Constantinople on business connected with his monastery, and on his return to Sinai he was chosen abbot (25-1-1661).[1] However on his way to Jerusalem to be consecrated, he was informed that he had been chosen Patriarch of the Holy City, and was consecrated on April 9, 1661.[1][2]

As he was fond of learning and of music, he arranged for the establishment of schools in Constantinople, in Arta and Chios. In addition, he repaired the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and cared for the reconstruction of monastic houses and guest houses for visitors there.[1]

When he was present in Iași, the capital of Moldavia, he became involved with the issues surrounding Patriarch Nikon of Moscow and all the Rus'.[1] In July 1663 When Pantaleon Ligarid and Archbishop Josef of Astrakhan tried to officially depose Patriarch Nikon from his cathedra, Patriarch Nektarius of Jerusalem protested in 1664 against their intended trial of Patriarch Nikon, because he saw no serious basis for it. He also knew Ligarid well, considering him a rogue.[3]

He is known by his recommendation of the Confessio Orthodoxa of Peter Mogilas (1645), which he endorsed in 1662.[4][note 1]

As early as 1666 he sought to be relieved of his duties, and by 1669 Dositheos Notaras had become his successor.[2]

He participated in the Synod of Jerusalem in 1672, that refuted the Calvinist confessions of Cyril Lucaris.

After his resignation Nectarius remained in Jerusalem, except for a short time when he was driven to Mount Sinai by Latin monks who came to Palestine with Roman Catholic crusaders. Later he remained at the Monastery of The Holy Archangels (Andromedos, Joppa) until his death.[1]

Patriarch Nectarius died on July 14, 1676.[1]

Writings

Patriarch Nectarius was versed in the Greek, Arabic, Turkish, and Latin languages.[1]

During his patriarchate, Romish emissaries were very active in endeavoring to persuade the Greek Christians of Palestine, suffering under the yoke of the Turks, to unite with the Church of Rome. Among them a Franciscan, named Peter, was especially active in distributing five tracts in defense of the papal authority. Nectarius' refutation of the these tracts regarding papal supremacy was among the most important of his writings, in a publication entitled: (Greek) Κατά τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Παπᾶ,[note 2] a firm refutation of the Roman Catholic theses.[4]

He also wrote a work in Greek against the doctrines of Martin Luther and John Calvin, which was translated into Latin by Renaudot, who published it, together with Gennadius' Homilies on the Eucharist.[5] In his doctrine of the Eucharist, Nectarius was strictly Orthodox, and a zealous opponent of Cyril Lucaris and the Calvinistic movement.[2]

In addition, Nectarius is said to have written a history of the Egyptian empire down to Sultan Selim.[4][note 3] In the Arabic manucript which he composed, he states that he personally witnessed a miracle in the region of Heliopolis, Egypt, similar to the naarative of The Valley of Dry Bones, (Ezekiel 37:1-14) in which the prophet sees the dead rise again.[6][note 4]


Succession box:
Nectarius of Jerusalem
Preceded by:
Paiseus
Patriarch of Jerusalem
1660-1669
Succeeded by:
Dositheus II Notarius
Help with box



Notes

  1. There were four seventeenth-century Confessions:
  2. (Greek) Περί τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Παπᾶ ἀντιρρήσεις. Iassi 1682; London 1702; Paris 1718.
  3. See Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed. Harless), ix, 310.
  4. "In the region of Heliopolis, Egypt, where the great pyramids are, God performs the following strange paradox every year, to wit: on the evening of our (not the Latins') Holy Thursday, the earth vomits old human relics and bones, which cover the ground of an extensive plain and which remain standing until the following Thursday of the Assumption (misnamed "Ascension" by the Latins), and then they go into hiding, and no longer show themselves at all, until Holy Thursday comes again. This is no myth or fable, but is true and certain, having been verified by older and recent historians, and particularly by George Coressios] the Chian, and by Nectarius, of blessed memory, a former patriarch of Jerusalem, who in the Arabic manuscript which he composed tells about it on page 266 and, as appears from what he says further on, saw it with his own eyes. In fact, these human bones presage the future resurrection of the dead, just as the prophet Ezekiel too saw them." (The Rudder, pp. 10-11).

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 (Greek) "Νεκτάριος, Πατριάρχης Ιεροσολύμων." Θρησκευτική και Ηθική Εγκυκλοπαίδεια (ΘHE). Τόμος 09, Εκδ. Μαρτίνος Αθαν., Αθήναι 1966. σελ. 396-397.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Kattenbusch, Ferdinand] (Ph.D, Th.D.). "NECTARIUS: Patriarch of Jerusalem." In: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, Ed. (1914). New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. VIII: Morality - Petersen. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1953. p. 98.
  3. Daniel Shubin. A History of Russian Christianity. Algora Publishing, 2004. p. 119.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Proeschel, J.N. "2. Nectarius (Patriarch of Jerusalem)." In: McClintock, John and James Strong. Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Vol. VI ‒ ME-NEV. New York: Harper and Brother Publishers, 1882. p. 914.
  5. (Paris, 1709, 4to).
  6. The Rudder (Pēdálion): Of the metaphorical ship of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of the Orthodox Christians, or all the sacred and divine canons of the holy and renowned Apostles, of the holy Councils, ecumenical as well as regional, and of individual fathers, as embodied in the original Greek text, for the sake of authenticity, and explained in the vernacular by way of rendering them more intelligible to the less educated.
    Comp. Agapius a Hieromonk and Nicodemus a Monk. First printed and published A.D.1800. Trans. D. Cummings, from the 5th edition published by John Nicolaides (Kesisoglou the Caesarian) in Athens, Greece in 1908, (Chicago: The Orthodox Christian Educational Society, 1957; Repr., New York, N.Y.: Luna Printing Co., 1983). pp. 10-11.

Sources

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