Matta El-Meskeen

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[[Image:416px-Abouna_Matta_El_Meskeen.jpg|thumb|Father Matta El Meskeen: Spiritual Father of the Monks in St. Macarius' Monastery in Scetis (Egypt) - Other photos: [http://www.wataninet.com/images/articles/7913.jpg], [http://www.fathermatta.com/arabic/pics.php?pic=/gallery/f_m007.jpg], [http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/graphics/090.jpg],[http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/graphics/087.jpg] ]]
 
[[Image:416px-Abouna_Matta_El_Meskeen.jpg|thumb|Father Matta El Meskeen: Spiritual Father of the Monks in St. Macarius' Monastery in Scetis (Egypt) - Other photos: [http://www.wataninet.com/images/articles/7913.jpg], [http://www.fathermatta.com/arabic/pics.php?pic=/gallery/f_m007.jpg], [http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/graphics/090.jpg],[http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/graphics/087.jpg] ]]
  
Father '''Matta El Meskeen''' (Maskeen or Meskine; translated as Matthew the Poor), born Youssef Eskander ([[November 1]], 1919 - [[June 8]], 2006), was a [[Coptic|Coptic Orthodox]] [[monk]] and spiritual father of 130 monks in the [[Monastery]] of St. [[Macarius the Great]] at Scetis in Wadi Natrun, Egypt. He is considered by many to be a renowned Orthodox theologian, and was an author of voluminous texts on numerous topics, including biblical exegesis, ecclesiastical rites, and other spiritual and theological matters (181 books, besides hundreds of journal articles).
+
Father '''Matta El Meskeen''' (Maskeen or Meskine; translated as Matthew the Poor), born Youssef Eskander ([[September 20]], 1919 - [[June 8]], 2006), was a [[Coptic|Coptic Orthodox]] [[monk]] and spiritual father of 130 monks in the [[Monastery]] of St. [[Macarius the Great]] at Scetis in Wadi Natrun, Egypt. He is considered by many to be a renowned Orthodox theologian, and was an author of voluminous texts on numerous topics, including biblical exegesis, ecclesiastical rites, and other spiritual and theological matters (181 books, besides hundreds of journal articles).
  
 
Father Matta is celebrated by many Copts as a reformer and a prominent figure in recent Coptic history. Following the repose of [[Pope]] [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria|Kyrillos VI]] in 1971, Father Matta and two others ([[Bishops]] Samuel<sup>[http://web.archive.org/web/20040626202449/http://www.st-peter-st-paul-coptic-orthodox-church.org/bpsamuel.htm]</sup> and [[Shenouda III (Gayyid) of Alexandria|Shenouda]]) were considered as candidates for the [[Patriarch]]al throne. Bishop Shenouda was chosen to be the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Pope of Alexandria]].
 
Father Matta is celebrated by many Copts as a reformer and a prominent figure in recent Coptic history. Following the repose of [[Pope]] [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria|Kyrillos VI]] in 1971, Father Matta and two others ([[Bishops]] Samuel<sup>[http://web.archive.org/web/20040626202449/http://www.st-peter-st-paul-coptic-orthodox-church.org/bpsamuel.htm]</sup> and [[Shenouda III (Gayyid) of Alexandria|Shenouda]]) were considered as candidates for the [[Patriarch]]al throne. Bishop Shenouda was chosen to be the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Pope of Alexandria]].
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Father Matta and Pope Shenouda share some common history. Both participated in the Sunday school movement and Matta was Shenouda's confessor in the 1950s. Pope Shenouda acknowledges his debt to his teacher, Father Matta El-Meskeen, whom he calls 'my father monk' in the introduction to his book ''Intelaq Al-Rouh'' (''The Release of the Spirit'').<sup>[http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/799/eg42.htm],[http://copticpope.org/books/relspirt.pdf]</sup> (Father Matta was also the spiritual guide of the late Alexandrian [[priest]] Father [[Bishoy Kamel]], a contemporary Coptic Orthodox [[saint]].)
 
Father Matta and Pope Shenouda share some common history. Both participated in the Sunday school movement and Matta was Shenouda's confessor in the 1950s. Pope Shenouda acknowledges his debt to his teacher, Father Matta El-Meskeen, whom he calls 'my father monk' in the introduction to his book ''Intelaq Al-Rouh'' (''The Release of the Spirit'').<sup>[http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/799/eg42.htm],[http://copticpope.org/books/relspirt.pdf]</sup> (Father Matta was also the spiritual guide of the late Alexandrian [[priest]] Father [[Bishoy Kamel]], a contemporary Coptic Orthodox [[saint]].)
  
But more recently, some misunderstandings between both leaders and their followers<sup>[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/30051],[http://arabi.ahram.org.eg/Arabi/ahram/2006/6/17/WEEK6.htm],[http://masr.20at.com/article.php?sid=571],[http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?aid=68761]</sup> have surfaced, e.g., recent discussions on the concept of [[theosis]]<sup>[http://www.monachos.net/forum/showthread.php?p=22429],[http://orthodoxchristianity.net/index.php?option=com_smf&Itemid=32&topic=8933.msg119518#msg119518],[http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php?topic=8362.0]</sup> and also the position Father Matta held on the [[Mark 16|sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel]]. See: [http://au.geocities.com/coptic_truth01 Web site by some of Fr. Matta's proponents] and Pope Shenouda III's reply concerning the theological and dogmatic opinions of Fr. Matta: [http://masr.20at.com/media/matta/01.rm Part 1],[http://masr.20at.com/media/matta/02.rm Part 2] (Arabic RealAudio; recorded in 1991 - [http://www.zeitun-eg.net/PopeShenoudaIIIs_reply_concerning_the_opinions_of_FrMattaElMeskeen_1991.zip zipped mirror]).
+
But more recently, some misunderstandings between both leaders and their followers<sup>[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/30051],[http://arabi.ahram.org.eg/Arabi/ahram/2006/6/17/WEEK6.htm],[http://masr.20at.com/article.php?sid=571],[http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?aid=68761]</sup> have surfaced, e.g., recent discussions on the concept of [[theosis]]<sup>[http://www.monachos.net/forum/showthread.php?p=22429],[http://orthodoxchristianity.net/index.php?option=com_smf&Itemid=32&topic=8933.msg119518#msg119518],[http://www.orthodoxchristianity.net/forum/index.php?topic=8362.0]</sup> and also the position Father Matta held on the [[Mark 16|sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel]]. See: [http://au.geocities.com/coptic_truth01 Web site by some of Fr. Matta's proponents], [http://www.stmina-monastery.org/FrMatta/Mark_16.zip a detailed study about the Mark 16 controversy (Arabic)], Pope Shenouda III's reply concerning the theological and dogmatic opinions of Fr. Matta: [http://masr.20at.com/media/matta/01.rm Part 1],[http://masr.20at.com/media/matta/02.rm Part 2] (Arabic RealAudio; recorded in 1991/2003 - [http://www.zeitun-eg.net/PopeShenoudaIIIs_reply_concerning_the_opinions_of_FrMattaElMeskeen_1991.zip zipped mirror]), and HE Metropolitan Bishoy's lecture about Fr Matta: [http://www.stmina-monastery.org/FrMatta/HE_AnbaBishoy_aboutFrMatta.zip 4 parts zipped together] (Arabic Audio; recorded on 18 September 2006).
  
Father Matta was suspended twice, first by Pope Yousab II in 1955, and then again by Pope Kyrillos VI for nine years from 1960 to 1969<sup>[http://www.copticpope.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=154&page=6]</sup> for administrative/"political" (e.g., his book about the 'Church and the State', in which he called for total separation of the two<sup>[http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?t=0&aid=69143],[http://www.al-ahaly.com/articles/06-06-14/1282-inv06.htm]</sup>) rather than for any truly theological or core dogmatic issues.<sup>[http://www.islamonline.net/arabic/famous/religious/2006/06/01.shtml]</sup> Some say the 1960s suspension was because of Father Matta's objection to the Coptic Church signing of the Catholic Declaration of the Innocence of the Jews from the Blood of Christ.<sup>[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31375]</sup> The saintly Pope Kyrillos VI later insisted that Father Matta absolve and forgive him in the presence of H.E. Metropolitan Mikhail of Assiut.
+
It is undocumentedly alleged that Father Matta was suspended twice, first by Pope Yousab II in 1955, and then again by Pope Kyrillos VI for nine years from 1960 to 1969<sup>[http://www.copticpope.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=154&page=6]</sup> for administrative/"political" (e.g., his book about the 'Church and the State', in which he called for total separation of the two<sup>[http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?t=0&aid=69143],[http://www.al-ahaly.com/articles/06-06-14/1282-inv06.htm]</sup>) rather than for any truly theological or core dogmatic issues.<sup>[http://www.islamonline.net/arabic/famous/religious/2006/06/01.shtml]</sup> However this allegation is not true at all and undocumented. Some say undocumentedly that what is called the 1960s suspension was because of Father Matta's objection to the Coptic Church signing of the Catholic Declaration of the Innocence of the Jews from the Blood of Christ.<sup>[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31375]</sup> But also this allegation is not true and undocumented. The saintly Pope Kyrillos VI later insisted that Father Matta absolve and forgive him in the presence of H.E. Metropolitan Mikhail of Assiut.
  
 
== Early life ==
 
== Early life ==
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==Further reading==
 
==Further reading==
 +
In Vol.27, No. 3 & 4, Fall & Winter 2006 of ''Coptic Church Review'', there is an important article by Rev. Dr. John Watson, who lives in Highclisse, Dorset, UK. It is in 27 pages and its title is "Abouna Matta El Meskeen Contemporary Desert Mystic". Coptic Church Review is published by Society of Coptic Church Studies, P.O. Box 714, E. Brunswick, NJ 08816, USA. The article is also available in microfilm format from University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
  
 
===External links===
 
===External links===
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* [http://www.holyfamilyegypt.com/map/upperegypt/wadialrayan.htm Photos of Wadi Al-Rayan, where Fr Matta al-Meskeen, the father of modern Coptic monasticism, lived in the 1950 and 1960s]
 
* [http://www.holyfamilyegypt.com/map/upperegypt/wadialrayan.htm Photos of Wadi Al-Rayan, where Fr Matta al-Meskeen, the father of modern Coptic monasticism, lived in the 1950 and 1960s]
 
* [http://www.coptichistory.org/new_page_1494.htm Fr. Matta El-Meskeen entry at CopticHistory.org (Arabic)]
 
* [http://www.coptichistory.org/new_page_1494.htm Fr. Matta El-Meskeen entry at CopticHistory.org (Arabic)]
 +
* [http://www.stmina-monastery.org/FrMatta/FrMattaMemoirsAlAhram20060819.pdf Memoirs of Fr. Matta El-Meskeen - Al-Ahram newspaper 19 August 2006] [http://fathermatta.com/arabic/mzkrat.php Permanent mirror with extra photos]
 
* [http://time-proxy.yaga.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,945463,00.html TIME Magazine Archive Article -- SAINTS AMONG US -- Dec. 29, 1975 (F Matta El Meskin is listed as one of six 'living saints')]
 
* [http://time-proxy.yaga.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,945463,00.html TIME Magazine Archive Article -- SAINTS AMONG US -- Dec. 29, 1975 (F Matta El Meskin is listed as one of six 'living saints')]
 
* [http://time-proxy.yaga.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,914100,00.html TIME Magazine Archive Article -- The Desert Revival -- Apr. 19, 1976]
 
* [http://time-proxy.yaga.com/time/archive/printout/0,23657,914100,00.html TIME Magazine Archive Article -- The Desert Revival -- Apr. 19, 1976]
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* Hanna, William A. "For Christ Sake; The hate campaigns should stop." Online posting. 21 Jun. 2006. Zeitun-eg.org electronic mailing list. 21 Jun. 2006. <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31352>
 
* Hanna, William A. "For Christ Sake; The hate campaigns should stop." Online posting. 21 Jun. 2006. Zeitun-eg.org electronic mailing list. 21 Jun. 2006. <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31352>
 
* [http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?aid=68761 Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen]
 
* [http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?aid=68761 Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen]
 +
* [http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?t=0&aid=76466 Important history and opinion article in Arabic about the real origins of the problems that faced Fr. Matta El-Meskeen] [http://www.rezgar.com/debat/show.art.asp?t=0&userID=981&aid=78726 Part 2 (Arabic)]
 
* [http://www.akhbarelyom.org.eg/adab/issues/676/0600.html Another Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen]
 
* [http://www.akhbarelyom.org.eg/adab/issues/676/0600.html Another Arabic article about Fr. Matta Al-Meskeen]
 
* [http://www.akhbarsarra.com/news.php?Id=1389 Hegumen Matta El-Meskeen "Confrontation" with the Church (Arabic)]
 
* [http://www.akhbarsarra.com/news.php?Id=1389 Hegumen Matta El-Meskeen "Confrontation" with the Church (Arabic)]
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* [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/799/eg42.htm Nader Habib. Obituary: Life of the spirit - Father Matta El-Miskeen (1919-2006). ''Al-Ahram Weekly'' 15 - 21 June 2006, Issue No. 799]
 
* [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/799/eg42.htm Nader Habib. Obituary: Life of the spirit - Father Matta El-Miskeen (1919-2006). ''Al-Ahram Weekly'' 15 - 21 June 2006, Issue No. 799]
 
* [http://news.independent.co.uk/people/obituaries/article1099065.ece Fr Matta El Meskeen. ''The Independent'' newspaper, UK - 27 June 2006]
 
* [http://news.independent.co.uk/people/obituaries/article1099065.ece Fr Matta El Meskeen. ''The Independent'' newspaper, UK - 27 June 2006]
 +
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3933-2402792,00.html Amid the discipline and spirituality of the desert a saint was discovered. ''The Times'' newspaper, UK - 14 October 2006]
 +
* [http://www.stmina-monastery.org/FrMatta/InterviewWithSamuelRubensonAboutFrMatta.zip An interview with the renowned theologian Prof. Samuel Rubenson of Lund University, Sweden, about Fr Matta El-Meskeen (interview in Arabic)]
 +
* [http://www.katibatibia.com/Events/philosophmattaelmeskeen.htm A Muslim lady, speaking at a public seminar organized by the Egyptian State's Higher Council for Culture, relates about a miracle of physical cure from a dislocated vertebral disc that God did to her after the departure of Fr Matta El-Meskeen and through his prayers (article in Arabic)]
  
 
'''Articles by Fr. Matta El-Maskeen'''
 
'''Articles by Fr. Matta El-Maskeen'''
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* http://www.zeitun-eg.net/members_contrib/Coptcaln.rar
 
* http://www.zeitun-eg.net/members_contrib/Coptcaln.rar
 
* http://www.saint-mary.net/servants/geninfo/Matthew%20the%20Poor%20-%20Fasting%20-%20Gethsemane.pdf
 
* http://www.saint-mary.net/servants/geninfo/Matthew%20the%20Poor%20-%20Fasting%20-%20Gethsemane.pdf
 +
* [http://www.copticheritage.org/parameters/copticheritage/sermons/index2.htm Fr Matta El-Meskeen: Arabic Sermons (RealAudio)] - [http://www.coptichymns.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sermons&file=index&q=f&f=%2FArabic%2F__Sermons%2FFather_Matta_El_Maskeen More (MP3)]
  
 
===Books===
 
===Books===
  
 
* Father Matta El-Maskeen. ''Orthodox Prayer Life: The Interior Way'' (ISBN 0881412503) ([http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31241 Excerpt 1],[http://www.beliefnet.com/story/132/story_13250.html Excerpt 2])
 
* Father Matta El-Maskeen. ''Orthodox Prayer Life: The Interior Way'' (ISBN 0881412503) ([http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/31241 Excerpt 1],[http://www.beliefnet.com/story/132/story_13250.html Excerpt 2])
* Father Matta El-Maskeen. ''The Communion of Love'' (ISBN 0881410365)
+
* Father Matta El-Maskeen. ''The Communion of Love'' (ISBN 0881410365) ([http://groups.yahoo.com/group/arbible/message/32685 Excerpt])
 
* [http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/ebooks.htm More English titles by Fr. Matthew The Poor]
 
* [http://www.stmacariusmonastery.org/ebooks.htm More English titles by Fr. Matthew The Poor]
  
 
[[Category:Modern Writers]]
 
[[Category:Modern Writers]]
 
[[Category:Monastics]]
 
[[Category:Monastics]]

Latest revision as of 13:47, November 21, 2006


Coptic Orthodox Cross
Note: This article or section represents an Oriental Orthodox (Non-Chalcedonian) perspective, which may differ from an Eastern Orthodox (Chalcedonian) understanding.


Father Matta El Meskeen: Spiritual Father of the Monks in St. Macarius' Monastery in Scetis (Egypt) - Other photos: [1], [2], [3],[4]

Father Matta El Meskeen (Maskeen or Meskine; translated as Matthew the Poor), born Youssef Eskander (September 20, 1919 - June 8, 2006), was a Coptic Orthodox monk and spiritual father of 130 monks in the Monastery of St. Macarius the Great at Scetis in Wadi Natrun, Egypt. He is considered by many to be a renowned Orthodox theologian, and was an author of voluminous texts on numerous topics, including biblical exegesis, ecclesiastical rites, and other spiritual and theological matters (181 books, besides hundreds of journal articles).

Father Matta is celebrated by many Copts as a reformer and a prominent figure in recent Coptic history. Following the repose of Pope Kyrillos VI in 1971, Father Matta and two others (Bishops Samuel[5] and Shenouda) were considered as candidates for the Patriarchal throne. Bishop Shenouda was chosen to be the Coptic Pope of Alexandria.

Father Matta and Pope Shenouda share some common history. Both participated in the Sunday school movement and Matta was Shenouda's confessor in the 1950s. Pope Shenouda acknowledges his debt to his teacher, Father Matta El-Meskeen, whom he calls 'my father monk' in the introduction to his book Intelaq Al-Rouh (The Release of the Spirit).[6],[7] (Father Matta was also the spiritual guide of the late Alexandrian priest Father Bishoy Kamel, a contemporary Coptic Orthodox saint.)

But more recently, some misunderstandings between both leaders and their followers[8],[9],[10],[11] have surfaced, e.g., recent discussions on the concept of theosis[12],[13],[14] and also the position Father Matta held on the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel. See: Web site by some of Fr. Matta's proponents, a detailed study about the Mark 16 controversy (Arabic), Pope Shenouda III's reply concerning the theological and dogmatic opinions of Fr. Matta: Part 1,Part 2 (Arabic RealAudio; recorded in 1991/2003 - zipped mirror), and HE Metropolitan Bishoy's lecture about Fr Matta: 4 parts zipped together (Arabic Audio; recorded on 18 September 2006).

It is undocumentedly alleged that Father Matta was suspended twice, first by Pope Yousab II in 1955, and then again by Pope Kyrillos VI for nine years from 1960 to 1969[15] for administrative/"political" (e.g., his book about the 'Church and the State', in which he called for total separation of the two[16],[17]) rather than for any truly theological or core dogmatic issues.[18] However this allegation is not true at all and undocumented. Some say undocumentedly that what is called the 1960s suspension was because of Father Matta's objection to the Coptic Church signing of the Catholic Declaration of the Innocence of the Jews from the Blood of Christ.[19] But also this allegation is not true and undocumented. The saintly Pope Kyrillos VI later insisted that Father Matta absolve and forgive him in the presence of H.E. Metropolitan Mikhail of Assiut.

Early life

Father Matta El Meskeen was born in Benha, elKaliobia, Egypt, in 1919. (One source says he was born in Damanhour, Egypt.[20]) In 1944, he graduated in Pharmacy from the University of Cairo. In 1948, after leading a successful life and establishing a wealthy lifestyle for himself--Eskander at the time was the owner of two pharmacies, two villas, and two cars--he renounced his material possessions, and entered the Monastery of St. Samuel the Confessor in Qualmun (roughly near Maghagha, Upper Egypt). In 1951, he was ordained a priest against his will.

Monastic life

After living for a few years in the Monastery of St. Samuel the Confessor, Matta decided to move out into Wadi El Rayan in the late 1950s. There, he lived as a recluse in the spirit of the ancient Desert Fathers for twelve years. By 1960, seven other monks joined him. The community expanded to twelve by 1964. These twelve monks were sent by Pope Kyrillos VI to Wadi El Natroun in 1969 to develop the monastery of St. Macarius the Great. At that time only six elderly, frail fathers lived near the road between Cairo and Alexandria. Matta and his twelve companions cared for them while reconstructing the monastery. The administrative, agricultural, institutional, and printing/publishing developments at the renewed Monastery of St. Macarius the Great were staggering. But the spiritual revolution was much greater. By 1981 Matta had over eighty monks in the monastery.[21],[22] The monastery also finances services and projects for the poor, Muslims and Christians alike.[23]

Quotes

  • Whenever physical hunger turned cruel against me, I found my gratification in prayer. Whenever the biting cold of winter was unkind to me, I found my warmth in prayer. Whenever people were harsh to me (and their harshness was severe indeed) I found my comfort in prayer. In short, prayer became my food and my drink, my outfit and my armor, whether by night or by day.
  • It is no joy for the church to have many active members of varied services who lack the spiritual proficiency for renewing souls and regenerating them in a genuine spiritual rebirth to win them for the Kingdom of Heaven. The true joy of the Church lies in leaders who possess spiritual insight, who walk ahead of their flocks so that the flocks can follow a sure path. It is not possible to obtain spiritual insight by action or study, spiritual insight is attained by silence, retreat and long prayers in their various stages.
  • I felt I was late to come to the knowledge of Christ; studying the Bible appeared such a daunting task. In desperation, I asked the Lord to give me either a long life to have enough time to study the Bible well, or enough wisdom to grasp its hidden meanings. In His everlasting generosity, God gave me both.
  • When asked why he never defended himself against the many accusations regarding some of his writings, Father Matta El-Meskeen replied, "Did you read the Exposition of the Gospel of John and benefit from it? ... My son I won't spend my time replying to anyone, but, my son, I will die and they will die and the Church will remain, as well as what we offered to her, and the next generations will judge us."[24] (The Gospel of the day of his departure (June 8, 2006) according to the Coptic Lectionary was John 15:17-25.)

Sources

Further reading

In Vol.27, No. 3 & 4, Fall & Winter 2006 of Coptic Church Review, there is an important article by Rev. Dr. John Watson, who lives in Highclisse, Dorset, UK. It is in 27 pages and its title is "Abouna Matta El Meskeen Contemporary Desert Mystic". Coptic Church Review is published by Society of Coptic Church Studies, P.O. Box 714, E. Brunswick, NJ 08816, USA. The article is also available in microfilm format from University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.

External links

Articles by Fr. Matta El-Maskeen

Books

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