Luke of Sicily

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
(add info;)
m (add info;)
Line 1: Line 1:
Our Venerable and God-bearing Father '''Luke of Sicily''', also '''Leo-Luke of Corleone''', '''Leoluca''' or '''Leo Luke''' (ca.815/818 - ca. 910/915)<ref name=ENRO>{{it icon}} ''[http://www.enrosadira.it/santi/l/leoluca.htm SAN LEOLUCA].'' Enrosadira.</ref><ref name=MORRIS>Rosemary Morris. ''Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118.'' Cambridge University Press, 2003. p.173.</ref><ref group="note">For Saint Luke's dates:<br>
+
Our Venerable and God-bearing Father '''Luke of Sicily''', also '''Leo-Luke of Corleone''', '''Leoluca''' or '''Leo Luke''' (ca.815/818 - ca. 910/915)<ref name=ENRO>{{it icon}} ''[http://www.enrosadira.it/santi/l/leoluca.htm SAN LEOLUCA].'' Enrosadira.</ref><ref name=MORRIS>Rosemary Morris. ''Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118.'' Cambridge University Press, 2003. p.173.</ref> was the [[Abbot]] and Wonderworker of the Monastery of Mount Mula in Calabria, and one of the founders of Italo-Greek [[monasticism]] in southern Italy and Sicily.<ref group="note">"The term "Italo-Greek monasticism" refers to the implantation and history of Byzantine monasticism in Sicily and southern Italy. By the mid 9th c. Sicily was already reputed to be the home of numerous Greek hermits and small gatherings of monks famed for their ascetic experience. Substantial documentary evidence for the presence of Byzantine monks in southern Italy first appears in the 9th and 10th cc. and consists primarily in the lives of the great ascetic saints of this region."<br>
:*  ''"Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome"'' (St John's Orthodox Church, Colchester) it gives "c.900" as his death date;
+
:* the online version of the ''"Great Synaxaristes"'' in Greek says he was born "around the 10th c.", and
+
:* Alban Butler's ''"Lives of the Saints: March"'' has "c.1000".</ref> was the [[Abbot]] and Wonderworker of the Monastery of Mount Mula in Calabria, and one of the founders of Italo-Greek [[monasticism]] in southern Italy and Sicily.<ref group="note">"The term "Italo-Greek monasticism" refers to the implantation and history of Byzantine monasticism in Sicily and southern Italy. By the mid 9th c. Sicily was already reputed to be the home of numerous Greek hermits and small gatherings of monks famed for their ascetic experience. Substantial documentary evidence for the presence of Byzantine monks in southern Italy first appears in the 9th and 10th cc. and consists primarily in the lives of the great ascetic saints of this region."<br>
+
 
:* (Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z)'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. p.974.)</ref>  
 
:* (Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z)'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. p.974.)</ref>  
  
He was born in the Sicilian town of [[w:Corleone|Corleone]] and died about a hundred years later in Monteleone Calabro, now [[w:Vibo Valentia|Vibo Valentia]], in Calabria. Today he is a patron saint of both towns. He died a centenarian after eighty years of monastic life,<ref name=LATIN>[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm March 1]. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.</ref> and his [[feast day]] is observed on [[March 1]].<ref name="LATIN"/><ref name=SYNAX>Great [[Synaxarium|Synaxaristes]]: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2300/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ὅσιος Λουκᾶς ὁ ἐκ Σικελίας].'' ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref> He is buried in the San Leoluca Church in Corleone.
+
He was born in the Sicilian town of [[w:Corleone|Corleone]] and died about a hundred years later in Monteleone Calabro, now [[w:Vibo Valentia|Vibo Valentia]], in Calabria. Today he is a patron saint of both towns. He died a centenarian after eighty years of monastic life,<ref name=LATIN>[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm March 1]. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.</ref> and his [[feast day]] is observed on [[March 1]].<ref name="LATIN"/><ref name=SYNAX>Great [[Synaxarium|Synaxaristes]]: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2300/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ὅσιος Λουκᾶς ὁ ἐκ Σικελίας].'' ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref>  
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
 
Saint Luke was born in [[w:Corleone|Corleone]], Sicily in the 9th century AD (c.815 to 818 AD),<ref name="ENRO"/> on the eve of the Saracen invasion of Sicily.<ref group="note">The first Arab battle against Byzantine troops occurred on July 15, 827, near [[w:Mazara del Vallo|Mazara]], resulting in an Aghlabid victory. It took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held out for a long time, and Taormina fell in 902. Eventually all of Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in 965, and the [[w:Emirate of Sicily|Emirate of Sicily]] was formed, an Islamic state on the island of Sicily which existed from 965 to 1072.</ref> His parents Leo and Theoktiste baptized him Leo. They were a pious and wealthy family who raised him in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. He was orphaned at an early age when his parents died, and devoted himself to managing the estate and supervising the herds. In the solitude of the fields he realized that he had a call to religious life, so he sold the estate, gave the money to the poor, and went to the monastery of St. Philip in [[w:Agira |Agira]], in the province of Enna, Sicily.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
 
Saint Luke was born in [[w:Corleone|Corleone]], Sicily in the 9th century AD (c.815 to 818 AD),<ref name="ENRO"/> on the eve of the Saracen invasion of Sicily.<ref group="note">The first Arab battle against Byzantine troops occurred on July 15, 827, near [[w:Mazara del Vallo|Mazara]], resulting in an Aghlabid victory. It took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held out for a long time, and Taormina fell in 902. Eventually all of Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in 965, and the [[w:Emirate of Sicily|Emirate of Sicily]] was formed, an Islamic state on the island of Sicily which existed from 965 to 1072.</ref> His parents Leo and Theoktiste baptized him Leo. They were a pious and wealthy family who raised him in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. He was orphaned at an early age when his parents died, and devoted himself to managing the estate and supervising the herds. In the solitude of the fields he realized that he had a call to religious life, so he sold the estate, gave the money to the poor, and went to the monastery of St. Philip in [[w:Agira |Agira]], in the province of Enna, Sicily.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
  
Due to the raids of the Saracens, he left from there and went to Calabria. Before going to Calabria however, he made a special point of going on pilgrimage to visit the tombs of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Rome.
+
It is not known how long he stayed at the monastery at [[w:Agira |Agira]], but due to the raids of the Saracens, he left from there and went to Calabria.<ref group="note">With the Arab invasion of Sicily (from 827 AD through to 878 AD) many monks left the island and took refuge in Calabria.</ref> Before going to Calabria however, he made a special point of going on pilgrimage to visit the tombs of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Rome.
  
In Calabria, he went to the Monastery of Mula, at Mount Mula (''Monte La Mula ''), one of the highest peaks of the Orsomarso mountains (1935 m), near [[w:Cassano allo Ionio|Cassano]]. Here he became a monk, remaining for six years.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
+
In Calabria, he went to the Monastery of Mula, at Mount Mula (''Monte La Mula ''), one of the highest peaks of the Orsomarso mountains (1935 m), near [[w:Cassano allo Ionio|Cassano]]. Here he became a monk, excelling in the virtues and in obedience, remaining there for six years.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
  
In the second half of the ninth century, he left together with the [[Igumen|Hegoumenos]] of the monastery Christopher, and they made their way to the mountainous region of ​​Merkourion in northern Calabria, an important center of monastic settlement which is referred to in several of the ''Vitae'' as the "New Thebaid".<ref>Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z)'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975.</ref> Here they founded a new monastery, living there in [[asceticism]] for another seven years.  
+
Afterwards he departed together with the [[Igumen|Hegoumenos]] of the monastery Christopher, and they made their way to the mountainous region of ​​Merkourion in northern Calabria, an important center of monastic settlement which is referred to in several of the ''Vitae'' as the "New Thebaid".<ref>Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z)'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975.</ref> Here they founded a new monastery, living there in [[asceticism]] for another seven years.  
  
 
Once more they left and moved on to Vena (modern Avena, Calabria) to continue the spiritual struggle for another ten years. Here they built another monastery, which by the time of Hegoumenos Christopher's death had more than one-hundred monks in it. Saint Luke himself lived the solitary life nearby at [[w:Mormanno|Mormanno]], Calabria.<ref name="MORRIS"/>  
 
Once more they left and moved on to Vena (modern Avena, Calabria) to continue the spiritual struggle for another ten years. Here they built another monastery, which by the time of Hegoumenos Christopher's death had more than one-hundred monks in it. Saint Luke himself lived the solitary life nearby at [[w:Mormanno|Mormanno]], Calabria.<ref name="MORRIS"/>  
Line 20: Line 17:
 
A little later, after the death of Abbot Christopher, Saint Luke became Abbot of the Monastery of Mount Mula. Here he began new ascetic struggles, and Holy [[God]] granted to him the gift of Wonderworking, and many faithful flocked to the holy ascetic to receive his blessing and be healed.<ref name="SYNAX"/> The Venerable Luke healed the sick, [[Exorcism|exorcized]] demons, raised paralytics, and guided the lost towards the path of [[salvation]]. He [[Prayer|prayed]] without ceasing, and remained out in the cold up to twenty days, in order to intensify his ascetic struggle.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
 
A little later, after the death of Abbot Christopher, Saint Luke became Abbot of the Monastery of Mount Mula. Here he began new ascetic struggles, and Holy [[God]] granted to him the gift of Wonderworking, and many faithful flocked to the holy ascetic to receive his blessing and be healed.<ref name="SYNAX"/> The Venerable Luke healed the sick, [[Exorcism|exorcized]] demons, raised paralytics, and guided the lost towards the path of [[salvation]]. He [[Prayer|prayed]] without ceasing, and remained out in the cold up to twenty days, in order to intensify his ascetic struggle.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
  
In old age, he called the monks close to him, and foretold his end. He delegated the responsibility of the position of Hegumen to the monk Theodore, and assigned the priest Euthymios as his assistant.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
+
It is said that he lived the last days of his life in meditation, fasting and ecstatic raptures. In old age, he called the monks close to him, and foretold his end. He delegated the responsibility of the position of Hegumen to the monk Theodore, and assigned the priest Euthymios as his assistant.<ref name="SYNAX"/>  
  
Having received [[Holy Communion]], the Venerable Luke fell asleep in peace and was buried in the church of the Blessed [[Theotokos]].<ref name="SYNAX"/>
+
Having received [[Holy Communion]], the Venerable Luke fell asleep in peace and was buried in the church of the Blessed [[Theotokos]].<ref name="SYNAX"/><ref group="note">Historians assert that Saint Luke was buried in Monteleone Calabro, now [[w:Vibo Valentia|Vibo Valentia]], in Calabria, in the church of ''Santa Maria Maggiore.'' (i.e.  Cathedral Church of ''Santa Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca'').
 +
:* ({{it icon}} ''[http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Leoluca San Leoluca].'' Italian Wikipedia.)</ref>
  
==Veneration==
+
==His Cult in Italy==
Saint Luke's intercession is credited with saving the city of Corleone during an outbreak of the plague of 1575, and he was made the patron saint of that town. In addition, the apparition of Saint Leo Luke and Saint Anthony is credited with preventing a Bourbon invasion of Corleone on 27 May 1860.<ref>''[http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-leolucas-of-corleone/ Saint Leolucas of Corleone].'' Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.</ref>
+
News of Saint Luke's death spread slowly to Corleone, and it is only in the 13th century that there is evidence of a church dedicated to him in his birthplace. In 1420 there are references to a ''Brotherhood of San Leoluca''.<ref>{{it icon}} ''[http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Leoluca San Leoluca].'' Italian Wikipedia.</ref>
 +
 
 +
Saint Luke's intercession is credited with saving the city of Corleone during an outbreak of the plague of 1575, and he was made the patron saint of that town. In 1624 he was made the patron saint of Vibo Valentia as well.<ref>{{it icon}} Giorgio Leone. ''I BENI CULTURALI DEL VIBONESE. SITUAZIONE ATTUALE – PROSPETTIVE FUTURE.'' 27 – 28 – 29 DICEMBRE 1995.</ref>
 +
 
 +
In addition, the apparition of Saint Leo Luke and Saint Anthony is credited with preventing a Bourbon invasion of Corleone on 27 May 1860.<ref>''[http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-leolucas-of-corleone/ Saint Leolucas of Corleone].'' Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.</ref>
 
   
 
   
 
Today in [[w:Vibo Valentia|Vibo Valentia]] in Calabria, his feast is celebrated on [[March 1]] when the local fire brigade pay him homage by placing a crown of flowers at the feet of his statue which is located high on the façade of the Cathedral Church of ''Santa Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca''.
 
Today in [[w:Vibo Valentia|Vibo Valentia]] in Calabria, his feast is celebrated on [[March 1]] when the local fire brigade pay him homage by placing a crown of flowers at the feet of his statue which is located high on the façade of the Cathedral Church of ''Santa Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca''.
Line 41: Line 43:
 
* Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2: K-Z'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975. ISBN 9781579582821
 
* Robert E. Sinkewicz. ''"Italo-Greek".'' In: Richard Barrie Dobson. '''Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2: K-Z'''. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975. ISBN 9781579582821
 
* Alban Butler. ''Butler's Lives of the Saints: March.'' Volume 3. Revised Ed.. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1999. 256pp. (see: p.11).
 
* Alban Butler. ''Butler's Lives of the Saints: March.'' Volume 3. Revised Ed.. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1999. 256pp. (see: p.11).
* [[w:Leoluca|Leoluca]]. Wikipedia.
 
 
* ''[http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-leolucas-of-corleone/ Saint Leolucas of Corleone].'' Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.
 
* ''[http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-leolucas-of-corleone/ Saint Leolucas of Corleone].'' Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.
 +
* [[w:Leoluca|Leoluca]]. Wikipedia.
 +
'''Other Languages'''
 
* {{it icon}} ''[http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Leoluca San Leoluca].'' Italian Wikipedia.
 
* {{it icon}} ''[http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Leoluca San Leoluca].'' Italian Wikipedia.
 
* {{it icon}} ''[http://www.enrosadira.it/santi/l/leoluca.htm SAN LEOLUCA].'' Enrosadira.  
 
* {{it icon}} ''[http://www.enrosadira.it/santi/l/leoluca.htm SAN LEOLUCA].'' Enrosadira.  
 +
* {{it icon}} Francesco Albanese. ''San Leoluca protettore di Vibo Valentia.'' '''Il Duomo di S. Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca'''. Tip. Grafica sud, Vibo V. s.d. (ma 1979), pp.7-39.
  
 
[[Category:Asceticism]]
 
[[Category:Asceticism]]

Revision as of 11:09, March 21, 2012

Our Venerable and God-bearing Father Luke of Sicily, also Leo-Luke of Corleone, Leoluca or Leo Luke (ca.815/818 - ca. 910/915)[1][2] was the Abbot and Wonderworker of the Monastery of Mount Mula in Calabria, and one of the founders of Italo-Greek monasticism in southern Italy and Sicily.[note 1]

He was born in the Sicilian town of Corleone and died about a hundred years later in Monteleone Calabro, now Vibo Valentia, in Calabria. Today he is a patron saint of both towns. He died a centenarian after eighty years of monastic life,[3] and his feast day is observed on March 1.[3][4]

Contents

Life

Saint Luke was born in Corleone, Sicily in the 9th century AD (c.815 to 818 AD),[1] on the eve of the Saracen invasion of Sicily.[note 2] His parents Leo and Theoktiste baptized him Leo. They were a pious and wealthy family who raised him in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. He was orphaned at an early age when his parents died, and devoted himself to managing the estate and supervising the herds. In the solitude of the fields he realized that he had a call to religious life, so he sold the estate, gave the money to the poor, and went to the monastery of St. Philip in Agira, in the province of Enna, Sicily.[4]

It is not known how long he stayed at the monastery at Agira, but due to the raids of the Saracens, he left from there and went to Calabria.[note 3] Before going to Calabria however, he made a special point of going on pilgrimage to visit the tombs of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Rome.

In Calabria, he went to the Monastery of Mula, at Mount Mula (Monte La Mula ), one of the highest peaks of the Orsomarso mountains (1935 m), near Cassano. Here he became a monk, excelling in the virtues and in obedience, remaining there for six years.[4]

Afterwards he departed together with the Hegoumenos of the monastery Christopher, and they made their way to the mountainous region of ​​Merkourion in northern Calabria, an important center of monastic settlement which is referred to in several of the Vitae as the "New Thebaid".[5] Here they founded a new monastery, living there in asceticism for another seven years.

Once more they left and moved on to Vena (modern Avena, Calabria) to continue the spiritual struggle for another ten years. Here they built another monastery, which by the time of Hegoumenos Christopher's death had more than one-hundred monks in it. Saint Luke himself lived the solitary life nearby at Mormanno, Calabria.[2]

A little later, after the death of Abbot Christopher, Saint Luke became Abbot of the Monastery of Mount Mula. Here he began new ascetic struggles, and Holy God granted to him the gift of Wonderworking, and many faithful flocked to the holy ascetic to receive his blessing and be healed.[4] The Venerable Luke healed the sick, exorcized demons, raised paralytics, and guided the lost towards the path of salvation. He prayed without ceasing, and remained out in the cold up to twenty days, in order to intensify his ascetic struggle.[4]

It is said that he lived the last days of his life in meditation, fasting and ecstatic raptures. In old age, he called the monks close to him, and foretold his end. He delegated the responsibility of the position of Hegumen to the monk Theodore, and assigned the priest Euthymios as his assistant.[4]

Having received Holy Communion, the Venerable Luke fell asleep in peace and was buried in the church of the Blessed Theotokos.[4][note 4]

His Cult in Italy

News of Saint Luke's death spread slowly to Corleone, and it is only in the 13th century that there is evidence of a church dedicated to him in his birthplace. In 1420 there are references to a Brotherhood of San Leoluca.[6]

Saint Luke's intercession is credited with saving the city of Corleone during an outbreak of the plague of 1575, and he was made the patron saint of that town. In 1624 he was made the patron saint of Vibo Valentia as well.[7]

In addition, the apparition of Saint Leo Luke and Saint Anthony is credited with preventing a Bourbon invasion of Corleone on 27 May 1860.[8]

Today in Vibo Valentia in Calabria, his feast is celebrated on March 1 when the local fire brigade pay him homage by placing a crown of flowers at the feet of his statue which is located high on the façade of the Cathedral Church of Santa Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca.

Notes

  1. "The term "Italo-Greek monasticism" refers to the implantation and history of Byzantine monasticism in Sicily and southern Italy. By the mid 9th c. Sicily was already reputed to be the home of numerous Greek hermits and small gatherings of monks famed for their ascetic experience. Substantial documentary evidence for the presence of Byzantine monks in southern Italy first appears in the 9th and 10th cc. and consists primarily in the lives of the great ascetic saints of this region."
    • (Robert E. Sinkewicz. "Italo-Greek". In: Richard Barrie Dobson. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z). Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. p.974.)
  2. The first Arab battle against Byzantine troops occurred on July 15, 827, near Mazara, resulting in an Aghlabid victory. It took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held out for a long time, and Taormina fell in 902. Eventually all of Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in 965, and the Emirate of Sicily was formed, an Islamic state on the island of Sicily which existed from 965 to 1072.
  3. With the Arab invasion of Sicily (from 827 AD through to 878 AD) many monks left the island and took refuge in Calabria.
  4. Historians assert that Saint Luke was buried in Monteleone Calabro, now Vibo Valentia, in Calabria, in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. (i.e. Cathedral Church of Santa Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca).

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 (Italian) SAN LEOLUCA. Enrosadira.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rosemary Morris. Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118. Cambridge University Press, 2003. p.173.
  3. 3.0 3.1 March 1. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ὅσιος Λουκᾶς ὁ ἐκ Σικελίας. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  5. Robert E. Sinkewicz. "Italo-Greek". In: Richard Barrie Dobson. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 (K-Z). Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975.
  6. (Italian) San Leoluca. Italian Wikipedia.
  7. (Italian) Giorgio Leone. I BENI CULTURALI DEL VIBONESE. SITUAZIONE ATTUALE – PROSPETTIVE FUTURE. 27 – 28 – 29 DICEMBRE 1995.
  8. Saint Leolucas of Corleone. Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.

Sources

  • Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ὅσιος Λουκᾶς ὁ ἐκ Σικελίας. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  • March 1. Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome.
  • Rosemary Morris. Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 356pp. ISBN 9780521319508
  • Robert E. Sinkewicz. "Italo-Greek". In: Richard Barrie Dobson. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2: K-Z. Eds.: André Vauchez, Michael Lapidge. Transl: Adrian Walford. Routledge, 2000. pp.974-975. ISBN 9781579582821
  • Alban Butler. Butler's Lives of the Saints: March. Volume 3. Revised Ed.. Continuum International Publishing Group, 1999. 256pp. (see: p.11).
  • Saint Leolucas of Corleone. Saints.SPQN.com. 25 February 2010.
  • Leoluca. Wikipedia.

Other Languages

  • (Italian) San Leoluca. Italian Wikipedia.
  • (Italian) SAN LEOLUCA. Enrosadira.
  • (Italian) Francesco Albanese. San Leoluca protettore di Vibo Valentia. Il Duomo di S. Maria Maggiore e San Leoluca. Tip. Grafica sud, Vibo V. s.d. (ma 1979), pp.7-39.
Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox