Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow

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'''The Divine Liturgy of St. Tikhon''' is one of the liturgies authorized for use by the [[AOCA|Antiochian]] [[Western Rite Vicariate]] (AWRV). It is authorized for use in the AWRV in two forms: that of the ''Orthodox Missal'' and that of the ''Saint Andrew's Service Book,'' although virtually all parishes in the AWRV celebrate only that of the ''Orthodox Missal''.  
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'''The Divine Liturgy of St. Tikhon''' is one of the liturgies authorized for use by the [[AOCA|Antiochian]] [[Western Rite Vicariate]] (AWRV), and has similarities with the Book of Common Prayer.
  
 
==Origins of the Rite==
 
==Origins of the Rite==
The Liturgy of St Tikhon was produced in the 1970's for use by Episcopalians who wished to convert to Orthodoxy but retain the liturgy to which they were accustomed. The text of the [[liturgy]], therefore, is based upon the Episcopal Church's 1928 ''Book of Common Prayer'', along with certain features of the [[Mass]] of the Catholic Church prior to its reform after the Second Vatican Council, as well certain modifications to make it conform to Orthodox theology and practice (such as a strengthened [[epiclesis]], the omission of the [[filioque]] from the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]]). The adaptation of the rite was the work of Father Joseph Angwin. The naming of the liturgy after [[Tikhon of Moscow|St Tikhon the Enlightener of America]] is based upon events that occurred when St Tikhon was the ruling bishop of the American diocese of the [[Church of Russia]]. Some Episcopalians who wished to become Orthodox asked [[Bishop]] Tikhon whether they might be allowed to continue to use their Anglican liturgy (that of the American 1892 ''Book of Common Prayer''). He sent the BCP to Moscow, where a commission was appointed to examine they issue. The final report addressed the changes that would need to be made in the BCP in order to make it suitable for Orthodox worship, but neither the Commission nor Bishop Tikhon approved a rite. The Holy Synod noted in its Observations that the specific rite "can be carried out only on the spot, in America," and found it "desirable to send the 'Observations' themselves to the Right Rev. Tikhon, the American Bishop." Between communications, the Episcopalians who had petitioned St. Tikhon withdrew. Thus, St. Tikhon could not receive any Episcopalians before returning to Russia in 1907. However, almost all of the recommendations for the liturgy and canonical hours of prayer were implemented by the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]. ROCOR has since implemented all of them, as well, in approving "The English Liturgy." Hierarchs in the Antiochian, Alexandrian, and Moscow Patriarchates, as well as ROCOR, have approved a form of this liturgy.
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When St [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] was the ruling bishop of the American diocese of the [[Church of Russia]], some Episcopalians, wishing to become Orthodox, asked [[Bishop]] Tikhon whether they might be allowed to continue to use the 1892 American ''Book of Common Prayer''. After Bp Tikhon sent this BCP to Moscow, a commission was appointed to examine the use of this book within the Orthodox Church; the final report of this commission addressed the changes that would need to be made in the BCP to make it suitable for Orthodox worship, and the Holy Synod noted in its Observations that the specifics of this rite "can be carried out only on the spot in America," and fount it "desirable to send the 'Observations' themselves to the Right Rev. Tikhon, the American Bishop".
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However, this was not to occur.  The Episcopalians who had petitioned St Tikhon withdrew their petition, and St Tikhon did not receive any Episcopalians before returning to Russia in 1907. At this point, neither the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia, nor St Tikhon, had approved the rite.
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In the 1970s, however, the Liturgy of St Tikhon was produced for use by Episcopalians who wished to convert to Orthodoxy but retain the liturgy to which they were accustomed.  The text of the [[liturgy]] is based upon the Episcopal Church's 1928 ''Book of Common Prayer'', which was then adapted by Father [[Joseph Angwin]] for Orthodox use, following the Observations on the 1892 Book.  To do this, the Liturgy included certain features of the [[Mass]] of the Catholic Church prior to the Second Vatican Council, along with certain modifications to make it conform to Orthodox theology and practise (including a strengthened [[epiclesis]] and the restoration of the original [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] by removing the [[filioque]]).
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At present, the Liturgy of St Tikhon of Moscow is celebrated in the Church of Antioch (in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Archdiocese of North America]] and the [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines|Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines]]).  The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia has approved a service with many similarities (under the name 'The English Liturgy'), as have the Patriarchates of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]]  {{citation}} and [[Church of Russia|Moscow]].
  
 
==Structure of the Ordinary==
 
==Structure of the Ordinary==
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==Sources==
 
==Sources==
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*Andersen, Sdn. Benjamin. "An Anglican Liturgy in the Orthodox Church: The Origins and Development of the Liturgy of Saint Tikhon." M.Div. diss., St. Vladimir's Seminary, 2005.
 
*''Orthodox Missal'' (Saint Luke's Priory Press, 1995)
 
*''Orthodox Missal'' (Saint Luke's Priory Press, 1995)
 
*''Saint Andrew's Service Book'', 2nd edition (Antiochian Archdiocese, 1996)
 
*''Saint Andrew's Service Book'', 2nd edition (Antiochian Archdiocese, 1996)

Latest revision as of 16:29, August 25, 2008

This article forms part
of the series on the

Western Rite
History
Rule of St. Benedict
Nineteenth Century
Twentieth Century
Criticism
Liturgics
Liturgy of St. Gregory
Liturgy of St. Tikhon
Liturgy of St. Germanus
Sarum Rite
Gallican Rite
Stowe Missal
Service Books
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Society of St. Basil
Orthodox Church of France
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The Divine Liturgy of St. Tikhon is one of the liturgies authorized for use by the Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate (AWRV), and has similarities with the Book of Common Prayer.

Contents

Origins of the Rite

When St Tikhon was the ruling bishop of the American diocese of the Church of Russia, some Episcopalians, wishing to become Orthodox, asked Bishop Tikhon whether they might be allowed to continue to use the 1892 American Book of Common Prayer. After Bp Tikhon sent this BCP to Moscow, a commission was appointed to examine the use of this book within the Orthodox Church; the final report of this commission addressed the changes that would need to be made in the BCP to make it suitable for Orthodox worship, and the Holy Synod noted in its Observations that the specifics of this rite "can be carried out only on the spot in America," and fount it "desirable to send the 'Observations' themselves to the Right Rev. Tikhon, the American Bishop".

However, this was not to occur. The Episcopalians who had petitioned St Tikhon withdrew their petition, and St Tikhon did not receive any Episcopalians before returning to Russia in 1907. At this point, neither the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia, nor St Tikhon, had approved the rite.

In the 1970s, however, the Liturgy of St Tikhon was produced for use by Episcopalians who wished to convert to Orthodoxy but retain the liturgy to which they were accustomed. The text of the liturgy is based upon the Episcopal Church's 1928 Book of Common Prayer, which was then adapted by Father Joseph Angwin for Orthodox use, following the Observations on the 1892 Book. To do this, the Liturgy included certain features of the Mass of the Catholic Church prior to the Second Vatican Council, along with certain modifications to make it conform to Orthodox theology and practise (including a strengthened epiclesis and the restoration of the original Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed by removing the filioque).

At present, the Liturgy of St Tikhon of Moscow is celebrated in the Church of Antioch (in the Archdiocese of North America and the Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines). The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia has approved a service with many similarities (under the name 'The English Liturgy'), as have the Patriarchates of Alexandria citation needed and Moscow.

Structure of the Ordinary

  • Asperges
  • The Preparation for Mass
  • Collect for Purity
  • Summary of the Law
  • Kyrie eleison (nine-fold)
  • Gloria in excelsis
  • Collect of the Day
  • Epistle
  • Gradual
  • Alleluia
  • Gospel
  • Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
  • Offertory
  • Prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church (Intercessions)
  • Confession of sin and absolution
  • Comfortable Words
  • Dialogue
  • Preface
  • Sanctus
  • Canon
  • Lord's Prayer
  • Fraction
  • Agnus Dei
  • Prayer of Humble Access
  • Prayers before Communion (including "I believe, O Lord, and I confess....")
  • Holy Communion
  • Prayer of thanksgiving after Communion
  • Dismissal
  • Blessing of the faithful
  • Last Gospel (Prologue of St John's Gospel)

Sources

  • Andersen, Sdn. Benjamin. "An Anglican Liturgy in the Orthodox Church: The Origins and Development of the Liturgy of Saint Tikhon." M.Div. diss., St. Vladimir's Seminary, 2005.
  • Orthodox Missal (Saint Luke's Priory Press, 1995)
  • Saint Andrew's Service Book, 2nd edition (Antiochian Archdiocese, 1996)

See also

External links

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