Liturgy of St. James

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[[Image:Jamesbrotherlord.jpg|right|thumb|James the Brother of the Lord]]
The '''Divine Liturgy''' of St James is the oldest form of the Eucharist in continuous use. It is attributed to the [[Apostle]] [[James]], the Brother of the [[Lord]]. Dating from at least the third century, it is the principal liturgy of the Syriac Orthodox Church and Syrian Catholic Church in communion with Rome in Syriac and, in the Indian Orthodox Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Mar Thoma Church. It is often celebrated in Eastern Orthodox Churches on the feast of St James ([[October 23]]).
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The '''Divine Liturgy of St. James''' is the oldest [[Eucharist]]ic service in continuous use. It is the ancient liturgy of the [[Church of Jerusalem]] and is attributed to the [[Apostle]] [[James the Just]], the Brother of the Lord. It is often celebrated in Eastern Orthodox Churches on the feast of St. James ([[October 23]]).
 
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[[Image:Jamesbrotherlord.jpg|James the Brother of the Lord]]
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==History of the Liturgy==
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The general scholarly consensus is that this liturgy originated in Jerusalem during the late fourth or early fifth century. It quickly became the primary liturgy in Jerusalem and Antioch. Although it was later superseded in Jerusalem and Antioch by the [[Liturgy of St. Basil]] and the [[Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom]], it had already spread to other areas of the Church. The oldest manuscript traditions are in Greek and Syriac, and there are also extant manuscripts in Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian, and Old Slavonic.
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One leading theory today is that of John Fenwick, who argues that the similarities between this liturgy and that of St. Basil demonstrate their respective developments from a common source, now lost, but which is best preserved in the Egyptian recension of the Liturgy of St Basil. Fenwick suggests that the Liturgy of St. James was composed by St. [[Cyril of Jerusalem]] c. 370.
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Today it is the principal liturgy of the Churches of the West Syrian tradition: the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Indian Orthodox Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Mar Thoma Church.
  
 
==Liturgy of the Catechumens==
 
==Liturgy of the Catechumens==
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==Bibliographical Resources==
 
==Bibliographical Resources==
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*The Faculty of Hellenic College: Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, ''The Divine Liturgy of Saint James (Iakovos), Brother of the Lord'' (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1988). ISBN 0917651596.
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*''The Divine Liturgy of St James'' (The Monks of New Skete, 1996). ISBN 0935129375.
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*John R. K. Fenwick, ''The Anaphoras of St Basil and St James: An Investigation into Their Common Origin'' (''Orientalia Christiana Analecta'', 1992). ISBN 8872102952.
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*Baby Varghese, ''The Syriac Version of the Liturgy of St James: A Brief History for Students'' (Grove Books, 2001). ISBN 185174469X.
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*John D. Witvliet, "Tha Anaphora of St. James," in Paul F. Bradshaw, ed., ''Essays on Early Eastern Eucharistic Prayers'' (Pueblo, 1997). ISBN 081466153X.
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*Phillip Tovey, ''The Liturgy of St James as presently used'' (Grove Books, 1998). ISBN 185174
  
==External Links==
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==External links==
 
*[http://web.ukonline.co.uk/ephrem/lit-james.htm "Divine Liturgy of James the Apostle and Brother of God"]: brief introduction and e-text as translated by  Archimandrite Ephrem Lash.
 
*[http://web.ukonline.co.uk/ephrem/lit-james.htm "Divine Liturgy of James the Apostle and Brother of God"]: brief introduction and e-text as translated by  Archimandrite Ephrem Lash.
 
*[http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-07/anf07-63.htm#P8122_2593853 Liturgy of St. James in Ante-Nicene Fathers]
 
*[http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-07/anf07-63.htm#P8122_2593853 Liturgy of St. James in Ante-Nicene Fathers]
 
*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08371a.htm ''Catholic Encyclopedia'':] Article in ''The Catholic Encyclopedia'' on the "Liturgy of Jerusalem"
 
*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08371a.htm ''Catholic Encyclopedia'':] Article in ''The Catholic Encyclopedia'' on the "Liturgy of Jerusalem"
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[[Category:Liturgics]]
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[[ro:Liturghia Sfântului Iosif]]

Revision as of 19:38, November 9, 2008

James the Brother of the Lord

The Divine Liturgy of St. James is the oldest Eucharistic service in continuous use. It is the ancient liturgy of the Church of Jerusalem and is attributed to the Apostle James the Just, the Brother of the Lord. It is often celebrated in Eastern Orthodox Churches on the feast of St. James (October 23).


Contents


History of the Liturgy

The general scholarly consensus is that this liturgy originated in Jerusalem during the late fourth or early fifth century. It quickly became the primary liturgy in Jerusalem and Antioch. Although it was later superseded in Jerusalem and Antioch by the Liturgy of St. Basil and the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, it had already spread to other areas of the Church. The oldest manuscript traditions are in Greek and Syriac, and there are also extant manuscripts in Armenian, Ethiopic, Georgian, and Old Slavonic.

One leading theory today is that of John Fenwick, who argues that the similarities between this liturgy and that of St. Basil demonstrate their respective developments from a common source, now lost, but which is best preserved in the Egyptian recension of the Liturgy of St Basil. Fenwick suggests that the Liturgy of St. James was composed by St. Cyril of Jerusalem c. 370.

Today it is the principal liturgy of the Churches of the West Syrian tradition: the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Indian Orthodox Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Mar Thoma Church.

Liturgy of the Catechumens

Liturgy of the Faithful

Bibliographical Resources

  • The Faculty of Hellenic College: Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, The Divine Liturgy of Saint James (Iakovos), Brother of the Lord (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1988). ISBN 0917651596.
  • The Divine Liturgy of St James (The Monks of New Skete, 1996). ISBN 0935129375.
  • John R. K. Fenwick, The Anaphoras of St Basil and St James: An Investigation into Their Common Origin (Orientalia Christiana Analecta, 1992). ISBN 8872102952.
  • Baby Varghese, The Syriac Version of the Liturgy of St James: A Brief History for Students (Grove Books, 2001). ISBN 185174469X.
  • John D. Witvliet, "Tha Anaphora of St. James," in Paul F. Bradshaw, ed., Essays on Early Eastern Eucharistic Prayers (Pueblo, 1997). ISBN 081466153X.
  • Phillip Tovey, The Liturgy of St James as presently used (Grove Books, 1998). ISBN 185174

External links

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