List of Byzantine Emperors

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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern [[Roman Empire]], called [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] by modern historians.  This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.
 
This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern [[Roman Empire]], called [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] by modern historians.  This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.
  
The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially [[Augustus]], although various other titles such as [[Dominus]] were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by [[Imperator]] [[Caesar]] [[Flavius]] and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek [[Basileus]] (Gr. Βασιλε�?ς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "[[Monarch|sovereign]]" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Ά�?χων, "ruler"). [[Autocrat|Autokrator]] (Gr. Αυτοκ�?άτω�?) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr.Κοσμοκ�?άτω�?) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr.Χ�?ονοκ�?άτω�?) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.
+
The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially [[Augustus]], although various other titles such as [[Dominus]] were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek [[Basileus]] (Gr. Βασιλε�?ς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "[[Monarch|sovereign]]" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Ά�?χων, "ruler"). [[Autocrat|Autokrator]] (Gr. Αυτοκ�?άτω�?) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr.Κοσμοκ�?άτω�?) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr.Χ�?ονοκ�?άτω�?) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.
  
 
[Note: See also ''[[Greek (name)#Byzantines (Βυζαντινοί)|the term "Byzantine"]]'' with regard to the late [[Roman Empire]]. This list begins with [[Constantine the Great|Constantine I]] the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from [[Constantinople]], although [[Diocletian]] before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into [[Thema|themata]].]
 
[Note: See also ''[[Greek (name)#Byzantines (Βυζαντινοί)|the term "Byzantine"]]'' with regard to the late [[Roman Empire]]. This list begins with [[Constantine the Great|Constantine I]] the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from [[Constantinople]], although [[Diocletian]] before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into [[Thema|themata]].]

Revision as of 14:53, February 26, 2007

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλε�?ς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Ά�?χων, "ruler"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκ�?άτω�?) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr.Κοσμοκ�?άτω�?) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr.Χ�?ονοκ�?άτω�?) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.

[Note: See also the term "Byzantine" with regard to the late Roman Empire. This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople, although Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.]

Contents

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)

1. St. Constantine I (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius Chlorus, left the empire divided among his heirs, and was canonized by the Orthodox Church. He called the First Ecumenical Council to settle the problem of Arianism.
2. Constantius II (Flavius Iulius Constantius; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
3. Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

4. Jovian (Iovianus; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)

5. Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus; 321 - 375; ruled 364) – soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West
6. Valens (Flavius Iulius Valens; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
7. Gratian (Flavius Gratianus; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
8. Theodosius I (Flavius Gratianus; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier, married to Valentinian I's daughter Galla, fought with Magnus Maximus at the Battle of the Save in 388
9. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I, brother of Honorius
10. Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
11. Pulcheria (Aelia Purcheria; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized
12. Marcian (Flavius Marcianus; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church

Leonid dynasty (457-518)

13. Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
14. Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
15. Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian
16. Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored
17. Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne

Justinian dynasty (518-602)

18. Justin I (Flavius Iustinius; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard
19. Justinian I the Great (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; 482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I, canonized by the Orthodox church, built the Hagia Sophia, organized the Roman Laws, took back most of the original-old empire
20. Justin II (Flavius Iustinius Iunior; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
21. Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
22. Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic

23. Phocas (Flavius Phocas; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)

Heraclian dynasty (610-695)

24. Heraclius (Η�?άκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
25. Constantine III (Heraclius Constantine) (Κωνσταντίνος Γ') (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
26. Heraklonas (Constantine Heraclius) (Η�?ακλωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios; mutilated and deposed
27. Constans II (Herakleios, later Constantine, called Πωγώνατος, the Bearded) (Κώνστας Β') (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
28. Mezezius (668 - 669) – Usurper
29. Constantine IV (Κωνσταντίνος Δ') (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
30. Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, and exiled

Non-dynastic (695-705)

31. Leontios (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, and imprisoned - later executed
32. Tiberios III (Τιβέ�?ιος Γ' ο Αψίμα�?ος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed and executed

Heraclian dynasty (705-711)

  • Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (ruled 705 - 711) – restored; deposed and executed

Non-dynastic (711-717)

33. Philippikos Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βα�?δάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed and mutilated
34. Anastasios II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippikos; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
35. Theodosios III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδ�?αμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated and entered monastery

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)

36. Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυ�?ος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
37. Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπ�?ώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
38. Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Α�?τάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
  • Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπ�?ώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
39. Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' o Χαζά�?ος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
40. Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
41. St. Irene the Athenian (Ει�?ήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and exiled to Lesbos

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)

42. Nikephoros I (�?ικηφό�?ος Α') ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
43. Staurakios (Σταυ�?άκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I; paralyzed
44. Michael I Rangabe (Μιχαήλ Α' Ραγκαβής) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I and master of the palace; deposed and entered monastery

Non-dynastic

45. Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Α�?μένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)

46. Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τ�?αυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
47. Theophilos (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
48. Theodora (Θεοδώ�?α) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and entered monastery
49. Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilos; assassinated

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

50. Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
51. Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;
52. Alexander (Αλέξανδ�?ος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
53. Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πο�?φυ�?ογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
54. Romanos I Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons and entered monastery
55. Romanos II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πο�?φυ�?ογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
56. Nikephoros II Phokas (�?ικηφό�?ος Β' Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II; assassinated
57. John I Tzimiskes (Ιωάννης Α' Κου�?κο�?ας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
58. Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγα�?οκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
59. Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II; coemperor with Basil II
60. Zoe (Ζωή) ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
61. Romanos III Argyros (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Α�?γυ�?ός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
62. Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
63. Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
64. Theodora (Θεοδώ�?α) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
65. Constantine IX Monomachos (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
  • Theodora (Θεοδώ�?α) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

Non-dynastic

66. Michael VI the General (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στ�?ατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

Comnenid dynasty

67. Isaac I Komnenos (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)

68. Constantine X Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δο�?κας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
69. Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δο�?κας Πα�?απινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery
70. Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
71. Nikephoros III Botaneiates (�?ικηφό�?ος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)

72. Alexios I Komnenos (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece
73. John II Komnenos the Handsome (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλός) (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexios I, died of a hunting accident
74. Manuel I Komnenos the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
75. Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte
76. Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδ�?όνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow; deposed, tortured, and executed; ancestor of the Komnenian line in Trebizond

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

77. Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexios I, deposed & blinded
78. Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II, deposed by IV Crusade & eventually forced into monastery
  • Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (ruled 1203 - 1204) – largely witless, restored as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed
79. Alexios IV Angelos (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed
80. Nikolaos Kanabos (usurper proclaimed emperor in Hagia Sophia, ruled 1204)
81. Alexios V Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δο�?κας ο Μο�?�?τζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III

Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)

File:Laskarid eagle.jpg
The Great Seal of the Laskarid dynasty
82. Constantine Laskaris (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
83. Theodore I Laskaris (Θεόδω�?ος Α' Λάσκα�?ης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
84. John III Doukas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ' Δο�?κας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic
85. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris (Θεόδω�?ος Β' Δο�?κας Λάσκα�?ης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
86. John IV Doukas Laskaris (Ιωάννης Δ' Δο�?κας Λάσκα�?ης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded, and imprisoned by Michael VIII

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)

87. Michael VIII Palaiologos (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for John IV Lascaris; great-grandson of Alexios III Angelos
88. Andronikos II Palaiologos the Elder (Ανδ�?όνικος Β' ο Γέ�?ος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated
89. Andronikos III Palaiologos the Younger (Ανδ�?όνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο �?έος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
90. John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III, deposed by John VI
91. John VI Kantakouzenos (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed, and entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronikos IV
92. Andronikos IV Palaiologos (Ανδ�?όνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded and was deposed, revolted a third time
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed
93. John VII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1390 - 1391) – restored
94. Manuel II Palaiologos (Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος) (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V
  • John VII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as regent
95. John VIII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
96. Constantine XI Palaiologos Dragases (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δ�?αγάσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople, died on the walls

Ottomans

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Kaisar; his successors continued this claim.

Palaiologan Dynasty (in exile)

  • Thomas Palaiologos (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome
  • Andrew Palaiologos (Ανδ�?έας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled imperator Constantinopolitanus; sold titles to Charles VIII in 1494 and granted the remainder to King Ferran II of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castille in his will.


Template:Epochs of Roman Emperors

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