List of Byzantine Emperors

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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern [[Roman Empire]], called [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] by modern historians.  This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.
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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern [[Roman Empire]], called [[Byzantine]] by modern historians.  This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.
  
The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially [[Augustus]], although various other titles such as [[Dominus]] were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by [[Imperator]] [[Caesar]] [[Flavius]] and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek [[Basileus]] (Gr. Βασιλε�?ς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "[[Monarch|sovereign]]" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Ά�?χων, "ruler"). [[Autocrat|Autokrator]] (Gr. Αυτοκ�?άτω�?) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr.Κοσμοκ�?άτω�?) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr.Χ�?ονοκ�?άτω�?) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.
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The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially [[w:Augustus|Augustus]], although various other titles such as [[Dominus]] were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek [[w:Basileus|Basileus]] (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "[[sovereign]]" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr. Κοσμοκράτωρ) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr. Χρονοκράτωρ) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.
  
[Note: See also ''[[Greek (name)#Byzantines (Βυζαντινοί)|the term "Byzantine"]]'' with regard to the late [[Roman Empire]]. This list begins with [[Constantine the Great|Constantine I]] the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from [[Constantinople]], although [[Diocletian]] before him had ruled from Nicaea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into [[Thema|themata]].]
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[Note: See also ''the term [[''Byzantine'']] with regard to the late [[Roman Empire]]. This list begins with [[Constantine the Great|Constantine I]] the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople, although [[Diocletian]] before him had ruled from [[Nicea]] and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.]
  
==[[Constantine Dynasty|Constantinian dynasty]] (306-363)==
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==Constantinian dynasty (306-363)==
:1. St. [[Constantine I]] (''Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul''; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of [[Constantius Chlorus]], left the empire divided among his heirs, and was canonized by the [[Orthodox Church]]. He called the [[First Ecumenical Council]] to settle the problem of [[Arianism]].
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:1. St. [[Constantine I]] (''Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul''; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of [[Constantius Chlorus]], left the empire divided among his heirs, and was canonized by the Orthodox Church. He called the [[First Ecumenical Council]] to settle the problem of [[Arianism]].
 
:2. [[Constantius II]] (''Flavius Iulius Constantius''; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
 
:2. [[Constantius II]] (''Flavius Iulius Constantius''; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
 
:3. [[Julian the Apostate|Julian]] (''Flavius Claudius Iulianus''; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I
 
:3. [[Julian the Apostate|Julian]] (''Flavius Claudius Iulianus''; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I
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:4. [[Jovian]] (''Iovianus''; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity
 
:4. [[Jovian]] (''Iovianus''; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity
  
==[[Valentinian Dynasty|Valentinian]]-[[House of Theodosius|Theodosian]] dynasty (364-457)==
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==Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)==
 
:5. [[Valentinian I]] (''Flavius Valentinianus''; 321 - 375; ruled  364) – soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West
 
:5. [[Valentinian I]] (''Flavius Valentinianus''; 321 - 375; ruled  364) – soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West
 
:6. [[Valens]] (''Flavius Iulius Valens''; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
 
:6. [[Valens]] (''Flavius Iulius Valens''; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
 
:7. [[Gratian]] (''Flavius Gratianus''; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
 
:7. [[Gratian]] (''Flavius Gratianus''; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
:8. [[Theodosius I]] (''Flavius Gratianus''; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier, married to Valentinian I's daughter Galla, fought with [[Magnus Maximus]] at the [[Battle of the Save]] in 388
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:8. [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius I]] (''Flavius Gratianus''; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier, married to Aelia Flacilla, then Valentinian I's daughter Galla, fought with [[Magnus Maximus]] at the [[Battle of the Save]] in 388
:9. [[Arcadius]] (''Flavius Arcadius''; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I, brother of [[Honorius (emperor)|Honorius]]
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:9. [[Arcadius]] (''Flavius Arcadius''; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flacilla, brother of [[Honorius (emperor)|Honorius]]
 
:10. [[Theodosius II]] (''Flavius Theodosius''; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
 
:10. [[Theodosius II]] (''Flavius Theodosius''; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
:11. [[Pulcheria]] (''Aelia Purcheria''; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized
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:11. [[Pulcheria the Empress|Pulcheria]] (''Aelia Purcheria''; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized
:12. [[Marcian]] (''Flavius Marcianus''; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] church
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:12. [[Marcian]] (''Flavius Marcianus''; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church
  
==[[House of Leo|Leonid dynasty]] (457-518)==
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==Leonid dynasty (457-518)==
 
:13. [[Leo I (emperor)|Leo I]] the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
 
:13. [[Leo I (emperor)|Leo I]] the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
 
:14. [[Leo II (emperor)|Leo II]] (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
 
:14. [[Leo II (emperor)|Leo II]] (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
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:17. [[Anastasius I (emperor)|Anastasius I]] (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne
 
:17. [[Anastasius I (emperor)|Anastasius I]] (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne
  
==[[Justinian Dynasty|Justinian dynasty]] (518-602)==
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==Justinian dynasty (518-602)==
 
:18. [[Justin I]] (''Flavius Iustinius''; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard
 
:18. [[Justin I]] (''Flavius Iustinius''; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard
:19. [[Justinian I]] the Great (''Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus'';  482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I, canonized by the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] church, built the Hagia Sophia, organized the Roman Laws, took back most of the original-old empire
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:19. [[Justinian I]] the Great (''Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus'';  482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I, canonized by the Orthodox church, built the Hagia Sophia, organized the Roman Laws, took back most of the original-old empire
 
:20. [[Justin II]] (''Flavius Iustinius Iunior''; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
 
:20. [[Justin II]] (''Flavius Iustinius Iunior''; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
 
:21. [[Tiberius II Constantine]] (''Flavius Tiberius Constantinus''; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
 
:21. [[Tiberius II Constantine]] (''Flavius Tiberius Constantinus''; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
:22. [[Maurice (emperor)|Maurice]] (''Flavius Mauricius Tiberius''; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II
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:22. Maurice (''Flavius Mauricius Tiberius''; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II
  
 
===Non-dynastic===
 
===Non-dynastic===
 
:23. [[Phocas]] (''Flavius Phocas''; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)
 
:23. [[Phocas]] (''Flavius Phocas''; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)
  
==[[Heraclian Dynasty|Heraclian dynasty]] (610-695)==
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==Heraclian dynasty (610-695)==
:24. [[Heraclius]] (Η�?άκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
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:24. [[Heraclius]] (Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
 
:25. [[Constantine III (emperor)|Constantine III]] (Heraclius Constantine) (Κωνσταντίνος Γ') (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
 
:25. [[Constantine III (emperor)|Constantine III]] (Heraclius Constantine) (Κωνσταντίνος Γ') (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
:26. [[Heracleonas|Heraklonas]] (Constantine Heraclius) (Η�?ακλωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios; mutilated and deposed
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:26. [[Heracleonas|Heraklonas]] (Constantine Heraclius) (Ηρακλωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios; mutilated and deposed
 
:27. [[Constans II]] (Herakleios, later Constantine, called Πωγώνατος, ''the Bearded'') (Κώνστας Β') (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
 
:27. [[Constans II]] (Herakleios, later Constantine, called Πωγώνατος, ''the Bearded'') (Κώνστας Β') (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
 
:28. [[Mezezius]] (668 - 669) – Usurper
 
:28. [[Mezezius]] (668 - 669) – Usurper
:29. [[Constantine IV]] (Κωνσταντίνος Δ') (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
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:29. [[Constantine the New|Constantine IV]] (Κωνσταντίνος Δ') (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
 
:30. [[Justinian II]] the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, and exiled
 
:30. [[Justinian II]] the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, and exiled
  
 
===Non-dynastic (695-705)===
 
===Non-dynastic (695-705)===
 
:31. [[Leontius (emperor)|Leontios]] (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, and imprisoned - later executed
 
:31. [[Leontius (emperor)|Leontios]] (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, and imprisoned - later executed
:32. [[Tiberius III|Tiberios III]] (Τιβέ�?ιος Γ' ο Αψίμα�?ος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed and executed
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:32. [[Tiberius III|Tiberios III]] (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed and executed
  
 
==Heraclian dynasty (705-711)==
 
==Heraclian dynasty (705-711)==
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===Non-dynastic (711-717)===
 
===Non-dynastic (711-717)===
:33. [[Philippicus|Philippikos]] Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βα�?δάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed and mutilated
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:33. [[Philippicus|Philippikus]] Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed and mutilated
:34. [[Anastasius II (emperor)|Anastasios II]] (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippikos; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
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:34. [[Anastasius II (emperor)|Anastasius II]] (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippikos; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
:35. [[Theodosius III|Theodosios III]] (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδ�?αμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated and entered monastery
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:35. [[Theodosius III]] (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated and entered monastery
  
==[[Isaurian Dynasty|Isaurian dynasty]] (717-802)==
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==Isaurian dynasty (717-802)==
:36. [[Leo III the Isaurian|Leo III]] the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυ�?ος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
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:36. [[Leo III the Isaurian|Leo III]] the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (680 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
:37. [[Constantine V]] Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπ�?ώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
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:37. [[Constantine V]] Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
:38. [[Artabasdus]] the Icon-lover (Α�?τάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
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:38. [[Artabasdus]] the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
:*[[Constantine V]] Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπ�?ώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
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:*[[Constantine V]] Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
:39. [[Leo IV the Khazar|Leo IV]] the Khazar (Λέων Δ' o Χαζά�?ος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
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:39. [[Leo IV the Khazar|Leo IV]] the Khazar (Λέων Δ' o Χαζάρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
 
:40. [[Constantine VI]] the Blinded  (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
 
:40. [[Constantine VI]] the Blinded  (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
:41. St. [[Irene (empress)|Irene]] the Athenian (Ει�?ήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] church; deposed and exiled to [[Lesbos Island|Lesbos]]
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:41. [[Irene of Athens]] (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; deposed and exiled to [[Metropolis of Mytiline|Lesbos]] island.
  
 
==Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)==
 
==Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)==
:42. [[Nicephorus I|Nikephoros I]] (�?ικηφό�?ος Α') ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – [[Megas Logothetes]]; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
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:42. [[Nicephorus I|Nikephorus I]] (Νικηφόρος Α') ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
:43. [[Stauracius|Staurakios]] (Σταυ�?άκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I; paralyzed
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:43. [[Staurakius]] (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I; paralyzed
 
:44. [[Michael I Rhangabes|Michael I Rangabe]] (Μιχαήλ Α' Ραγκαβής) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I and master of the palace; deposed and entered monastery
 
:44. [[Michael I Rhangabes|Michael I Rangabe]] (Μιχαήλ Α' Ραγκαβής) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I and master of the palace; deposed and entered monastery
  
 
===Non-dynastic===
 
===Non-dynastic===
:45. [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Α�?μένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated
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:45. [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated
  
 
==Phrygian dynasty (820-867)==
 
==Phrygian dynasty (820-867)==
:46. [[Michael II]] the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τ�?αυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
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:46. [[Michael II]] the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
:47. [[Theophilus (emperor)|Theophilos]] (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
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:47. [[Theophilus the Iconclast|Theophilus]] (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
:48. [[Theodora (9th century)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώ�?α) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] church; deposed and entered monastery
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:48. [[Theodora (9th century empress)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and entered monastery
:49. [[Michael III]] the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilos; assassinated
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:49. [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated
  
==[[Macedonian dynasty]] (867-1056)==
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==Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)==
 
:50. [[Basil I]] the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
 
:50. [[Basil I]] the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
 
:51. [[Leo VI the Wise]] (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;  
 
:51. [[Leo VI the Wise]] (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;  
:52. [[Alexander III (emperor)|Alexander]] (Αλέξανδ�?ος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
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:52. [[Alexander III (emperor)|Alexander]] (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
:53. [[Constantine VII]] the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πο�?φυ�?ογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
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:53. [[Constantine VII]] the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
 
:54. [[Romanus I|Romanos I]] Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons and entered monastery
 
:54. [[Romanus I|Romanos I]] Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons and entered monastery
:55. [[Romanus II|Romanos II]] the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πο�?φυ�?ογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
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:55. [[Romanus II|Romanos II]] the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
:56. [[Nicephorus II|Nikephoros II]] Phokas (�?ικηφό�?ος Β' Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II; assassinated
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:56. [[Nicephorus II Phocas|Nikephoros II]] Phokas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II; assassinated
:57. [[John I Tzimisces|John I Tzimiskes]] (Ιωάννης Α' Κου�?κο�?ας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
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:57. [[John I Tzimisces|John I Tzimiskes]] (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
:58. [[Basil II]] the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγα�?οκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
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:58. [[Basil II]] the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνο) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
 
:59. [[Constantine VIII]] (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II; coemperor with Basil II
 
:59. [[Constantine VIII]] (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II; coemperor with Basil II
 
:60. [[Zoe (empress)|Zoe]] (Ζωή) ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
 
:60. [[Zoe (empress)|Zoe]] (Ζωή) ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
:61. [[Romanus III|Romanos III]] Argyros (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Α�?γυ�?ός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
+
:61. [[Romanus III|Romanos III]] Argyros (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
 
:62. [[Michael IV]] the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
 
:62. [[Michael IV]] the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
 
:63. [[Michael V]] the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
 
:63. [[Michael V]] the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
:64. [[Theodora (11th century)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώ�?α) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
+
:64. [[Theodora (11th century)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
 
:65. [[Constantine IX]] Monomachos (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
 
:65. [[Constantine IX]] Monomachos (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
:*[[Theodora (11th century)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώ�?α) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored
+
:*[[Theodora (11th century)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored
  
 
===Non-dynastic===
 
===Non-dynastic===
:66. [[Michael VI]] the General (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στ�?ατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery
+
:66. [[Michael VI]] the General (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery
  
==[[Comnenus|Comnenid dynasty]]==
+
==Comnenid dynasty==
 
:67. [[Isaac I Comnenus|Isaac I Komnenos]] (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery
 
:67. [[Isaac I Comnenus|Isaac I Komnenos]] (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery
  
 
==Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)==
 
==Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)==
:68. [[Constantine X]] Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δο�?κας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
+
:68. [[Constantine X]] Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
:69. [[Michael VII]] Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δο�?κας Πα�?απινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery
+
:69. [[Michael VII]] Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery
 
:70. [[Romanos IV]] Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
 
:70. [[Romanos IV]] Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
:71. [[Nikephoros III]] Botaneiates (�?ικηφό�?ος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the [[Fabii]], bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery
+
:71. [[Nikephoros III]] Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the [[Fabii]], bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery
  
 
==Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)==
 
==Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)==
Line 121: Line 122:
 
:74. [[Manuel I Komnenos]] the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
 
:74. [[Manuel I Komnenos]] the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
 
:75. [[Alexios II Komnenos]] (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte
 
:75. [[Alexios II Komnenos]] (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte
:76. [[Andronikos I Komnenos]] (Ανδ�?όνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow; deposed, tortured, and executed; ancestor of the Komnenian line in [[Trebizond]]
+
:76. [[Andronikos I Komnenos]] (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow; deposed, tortured, and executed; ancestor of the Komnenian line in Trebizond.
  
 
==Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)==
 
==Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)==
Line 129: Line 130:
 
:79. [[Alexios IV Angelos]] (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed
 
:79. [[Alexios IV Angelos]] (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed
 
:80. [[Nikolaos Kanabos]] (usurper proclaimed emperor in Hagia Sophia, ruled 1204)
 
:80. [[Nikolaos Kanabos]] (usurper proclaimed emperor in Hagia Sophia, ruled 1204)
:81. [[Alexios V]] Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δο�?κας ο Μο�?�?τζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III
+
:81. [[Alexios V]] Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III
  
==Laskarid dynasty (in exile, [[Empire of Nicaea]], 1204-1261)==  
+
==Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of Nicea, 1204-1261)==  
[[Image:Laskarid eagle.jpg|thumb|180px|The Great Seal of the Laskarid dynasty]]
+
 
:82. [[Constantine Laskaris]] (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
 
:82. [[Constantine Laskaris]] (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
:83. [[Theodore I Laskaris]] (Θεόδω�?ος Α' Λάσκα�?ης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
+
:83. [[Theodore I Laskaris]] (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
:84. [[John III Doukas Vatatzes]] (Ιωάννης Γ' Δο�?κας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic
+
:84. [[John III Doukas Vatatzes]] (Ιωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic
:85. [[Theodore II Laskaris|Theodore II Doukas Laskaris]] (Θεόδω�?ος Β' Δο�?κας Λάσκα�?ης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
+
:85. [[Theodore II Laskaris|Theodore II Doukas Laskaris]] (Θεόδωρος Β' Δούκας Λάσκαρης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
:86. [[John IV Laskaris|John IV Doukas Laskaris]] (Ιωάννης Δ' Δο�?κας Λάσκα�?ης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded, and imprisoned by Michael VIII
+
:86. [[John IV Laskaris|John IV Doukas Laskaris]] (Ιωάννης Δ' Δούκας Λάσκαρης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded, and imprisoned by Michael VIII
  
==[[Palaeologus|Palaiologan Dynasty]] (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)==
+
==Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)==
 
:87. [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for [[John IV Lascaris]]; great-grandson of [[Alexios III Angelos]]
 
:87. [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for [[John IV Lascaris]]; great-grandson of [[Alexios III Angelos]]
:88. [[Andronikos II Palaiologos]] the Elder (Ανδ�?όνικος Β' ο Γέ�?ος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated
+
:88. [[Andronikos II Palaiologos]] the Elder (Ανδρόνικος Β' ο Γέρος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated
:89. [[Andronikos III Palaiologos]] the Younger (Ανδ�?όνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο �?έος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
+
:89. [[Andronikos III Palaiologos]] the Younger (Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο Νέος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
 
:90. [[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III, deposed by John VI
 
:90. [[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III, deposed by John VI
 
:91. [[John VI Kantakouzenos]] (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed, and entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus
 
:91. [[John VI Kantakouzenos]] (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed, and entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus
 
:*[[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronikos IV
 
:*[[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronikos IV
:92. [[Andronikos IV Palaiologos]] (Ανδ�?όνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded and was deposed, revolted a third time
+
:92. [[Andronikos IV Palaiologos]] (Ανδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded and was deposed, revolted a third time
 
:*[[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed
 
:*[[John V Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed
 
:93. [[John VII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
 
:93. [[John VII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
Line 153: Line 153:
 
:*[[John VII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as regent
 
:*[[John VII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as regent
 
:95. [[John VIII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
 
:95. [[John VIII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
:96. [[Constantine XI]] Palaiologos Dragases (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δ�?αγάσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople, died on the walls
+
:96. [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine XI]] Palaiologos Dragases (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople, died on the walls
  
 
===Ottomans===
 
===Ottomans===
In 1453 [[Mehmed II]] overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of [[Caesar (title)|Kaisar]]; his successors continued this claim. See [[Ottomans]] for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.
+
In 1453 [[Mehmed II]] overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Kaisar; his successors continued this claim.  
  
==[[Palaeologus|Palaiologan Dynasty]] (in exile)==
+
==Palaiologan Dynasty (in exile)==
 
*[[Thomas Palaeologus|Thomas Palaiologos]] (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome
 
*[[Thomas Palaeologus|Thomas Palaiologos]] (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome
*[[Andreas Palaeologus|Andrew Palaiologos]] (Ανδ�?έας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) &ndash; son of Thomas; created [[despotism|Despot]] by [[Pope Pius II]], self-styled <small>imperator Constantinopolitanus</small>; sold titles to [[Charles VIII of France|Charles VIII]] in 1494 and granted the remainder to King [[Ferdinand II of Aragon|Ferran II]] of Aragon and Queen [[Isabella of Castile|Isabel]] of Castille in his will.
+
*[[Andreas Palaeologus|Andrew Palaiologos]] (Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) &ndash; son of Thomas; created Despot by [[Pope Pius II]], self-styled <small>imperator Constantinopolitanus</small>; sold titles to Charles VIII of France in 1494 and granted the remainder to King Ferdinand II of Aragon of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castille in his will.
  
==See also==
+
==Source==
*[[List of Roman Emperors|Early Roman Emperors]]
+
* [[w:List of Byzantine Emperors|''List of Byzantine Emperors'' on Wikipedia]]
*[[Byzantine Empire]]
+
*[[Latin Empire]]
+
*[[List of Byzantine Empire-related topics]]
+
  
{{Epochs of Roman Emperors}}
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[[Category:Rulers]]
 
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[[Category:Roman Emperors]]
[[Category:Byzantine emperors| ]]
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[[ar:قائمة بالأباطرة البيزنطيين]]
[[Category:Emperors and Kings]]
+
[[ro:Listă a Împăraţilor Romani de Răsărit]]
[[Category:Lists of office-holders|Byzantine Empire]]
+
[[Category:Ancient Roman titles]]
+
 
+
 
+
<!-- interwiki -->
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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr. Κοσμοκράτωρ) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr. Χρονοκράτωρ) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.

[Note: See also the term ''Byzantine'' with regard to the late Roman Empire. This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople, although Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicea and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.]

Contents

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)

1. St. Constantine I (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius Chlorus, left the empire divided among his heirs, and was canonized by the Orthodox Church. He called the First Ecumenical Council to settle the problem of Arianism.
2. Constantius II (Flavius Iulius Constantius; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
3. Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

4. Jovian (Iovianus; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)

5. Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus; 321 - 375; ruled 364) – soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West
6. Valens (Flavius Iulius Valens; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
7. Gratian (Flavius Gratianus; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
8. Theodosius I (Flavius Gratianus; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier, married to Aelia Flacilla, then Valentinian I's daughter Galla, fought with Magnus Maximus at the Battle of the Save in 388
9. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flacilla, brother of Honorius
10. Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
11. Pulcheria (Aelia Purcheria; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized
12. Marcian (Flavius Marcianus; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church

Leonid dynasty (457-518)

13. Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
14. Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
15. Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian
16. Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored
17. Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne

Justinian dynasty (518-602)

18. Justin I (Flavius Iustinius; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard
19. Justinian I the Great (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; 482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I, canonized by the Orthodox church, built the Hagia Sophia, organized the Roman Laws, took back most of the original-old empire
20. Justin II (Flavius Iustinius Iunior; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
21. Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
22. Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic

23. Phocas (Flavius Phocas; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)

Heraclian dynasty (610-695)

24. Heraclius (Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa
25. Constantine III (Heraclius Constantine) (Κωνσταντίνος Γ') (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
26. Heraklonas (Constantine Heraclius) (Ηρακλωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios; mutilated and deposed
27. Constans II (Herakleios, later Constantine, called Πωγώνατος, the Bearded) (Κώνστας Β') (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
28. Mezezius (668 - 669) – Usurper
29. Constantine IV (Κωνσταντίνος Δ') (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
30. Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, and exiled

Non-dynastic (695-705)

31. Leontios (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, and imprisoned - later executed
32. Tiberios III (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed and executed

Heraclian dynasty (705-711)

  • Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (ruled 705 - 711) – restored; deposed and executed

Non-dynastic (711-717)

33. Philippikus Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed and mutilated
34. Anastasius II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippikos; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed
35. Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated and entered monastery

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)

36. Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (680 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
37. Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
38. Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
  • Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (ruled 743 - 775) – restored
39. Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' o Χαζάρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
40. Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
41. Irene of Athens (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; deposed and exiled to Lesbos island.

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)

42. Nikephorus I (Νικηφόρος Α') ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup
43. Staurakius (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I; paralyzed
44. Michael I Rangabe (Μιχαήλ Α' Ραγκαβής) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I and master of the palace; deposed and entered monastery

Non-dynastic

45. Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)

46. Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
47. Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
48. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and entered monastery
49. Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

50. Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident
51. Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;
52. Alexander (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew
53. Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
54. Romanos I Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons and entered monastery
55. Romanos II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
56. Nikephoros II Phokas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II; assassinated
57. John I Tzimiskes (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
58. Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνο) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
59. Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II; coemperor with Basil II
60. Zoe (Ζωή) ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
61. Romanos III Argyros (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered
62. Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
63. Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
64. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
65. Constantine IX Monomachos (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
  • Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

Non-dynastic

66. Michael VI the General (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

Comnenid dynasty

67. Isaac I Komnenos (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)

68. Constantine X Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger
69. Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery
70. Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death
71. Nikephoros III Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)

72. Alexios I Komnenos (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece
73. John II Komnenos the Handsome (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλός) (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexios I, died of a hunting accident
74. Manuel I Komnenos the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
75. Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte
76. Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow; deposed, tortured, and executed; ancestor of the Komnenian line in Trebizond.

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

77. Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexios I, deposed & blinded
78. Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II, deposed by IV Crusade & eventually forced into monastery
  • Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (ruled 1203 - 1204) – largely witless, restored as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed
79. Alexios IV Angelos (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed
80. Nikolaos Kanabos (usurper proclaimed emperor in Hagia Sophia, ruled 1204)
81. Alexios V Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III

Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of Nicea, 1204-1261)

82. Constantine Laskaris (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
83. Theodore I Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
84. John III Doukas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic
85. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Β' Δούκας Λάσκαρης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
86. John IV Doukas Laskaris (Ιωάννης Δ' Δούκας Λάσκαρης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded, and imprisoned by Michael VIII

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)

87. Michael VIII Palaiologos (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for John IV Lascaris; great-grandson of Alexios III Angelos
88. Andronikos II Palaiologos the Elder (Ανδρόνικος Β' ο Γέρος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated
89. Andronikos III Palaiologos the Younger (Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο Νέος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
90. John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III, deposed by John VI
91. John VI Kantakouzenos (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed, and entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronikos IV
92. Andronikos IV Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded and was deposed, revolted a third time
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed
93. John VII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
  • John V Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1390 - 1391) – restored
94. Manuel II Palaiologos (Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος) (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V
  • John VII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as regent
95. John VIII Palaiologos (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
96. Constantine XI Palaiologos Dragases (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople, died on the walls

Ottomans

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Kaisar; his successors continued this claim.

Palaiologan Dynasty (in exile)

  • Thomas Palaiologos (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome
  • Andrew Palaiologos (Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled imperator Constantinopolitanus; sold titles to Charles VIII of France in 1494 and granted the remainder to King Ferdinand II of Aragon of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castille in his will.

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