Just war

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'''Just war''' doctrine attempts to define situations wherein the waging of war becomes a moral necessity. It lays out criteria by which a Christian is intended to determine whether or not a specific war was entered into and is conducted in a virtuous manner, that killing becomes a moral necessity. The doctrine was developed by theologians of great influence in much of non-Orthodox Western Christianity, such as [[Augustine of Hippo]] and [[Thomas Aquinas]]. This principle was the underpinning of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] doctrinal support for the [[Crusades]], presumably including the [[Fourth Crusade]].
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Just war is a belief that warfare can be ethically or theological justifiable. To fully understand the complexity of these issues, it is important to take into consideration the complete teachings of the Church and not resort to exploiting inadequate references. The most crucial issues concerning warfare involve the extremely destructive capabilities of the weaponry in our times that can potentially eliminate any remnants of civilization from the face of the earth (Mantzarides 104).  Many sociologists are intrigued with examining the formation and results of wars in order to gain understanding of why war continues to reoccur throughout the world (Mantzarides 104). The Greek philosopher Heracleitus believed war to be the “father of all” (Mantzarides 104).  Quite the opposite, the Church teaches that God is the “Father Almighty” (Mantzarides 104).  In St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans, God is referred to as a “God of peace” <ref>Romans 15:33<ref>.  The development of a war is a result of a separation from God, which is also a separation from peace and love (Mantzarides 105).  Since God is the source of our existence, separation from God leads to chaos and destruction (Mantzarides 105).
  
By contrast, Orthodox Christianity has never developed an explicit "just war" doctrine, and the weight of Tradition is that the taking of human life is never a morally edifying act, although circumstances may require that such an act be taken, it would only be as an alternative to an even greater evil.
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:''“If you are willing and obedient, you shall eat the good of the land; but if you refuse and rebel, you shall be devoured by the sword…”'' <ref>Isaiah 1:19-20<ref>
  
The idea of a "lesser evil" is, at best, a difficult and imprecise way to look at warfare. Fr. Samuel Harakis, after his study of the Fathers, has concluded that "no case can be made for the existence of an Orthodox just-war theory". In 2003, Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew of Constantinople]] stated that "in a few specific cases the Orthodox Church ''forgives'' an armed defense against oppression and violence" but that "war and violence are never means used by God in order to achieve a [just] result". In addition, the examples of countless martyr-saints can be consulted to show Orthodox Christians who refused to use force even upon threat to their lives and families, up to and including their deaths.
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:''“…for all who take the sword will perish by the sword”'' <ref>Matthew 26:52<ref>
  
This might be read to mean that Orthodoxy embraces pacifism. However, the Orthodox Church recognizes not a few militant saints, such as [[Alexander Nevsky]], and of course St. Constantine. Likewise, [[Cyril and Methodius|Saint Cyril]], Apostle to the Slavs, is recorded as stating the following:
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:''“…for the authority [civil] does not bear the sword in vain! It is the servant of God to execute wrath on the wrongdoer.”'' <ref>Romans 13:4<ref>
  
:Christ is our God Who ordered us to pray for our offenders and to do good to them. He also said that no one of us can show greater love in life than he who gives his life for his friends. That is why we generously endure offences caused us as private people. But in company we defend one another and give our lives in battle for our neighbors, so that you, having taken our companions as prisoners, could not imprison their souls together with their bodies by forcing them into renouncing their faith and into godless deeds. Our Christ-loving soldiers protect our Holy Church with arms in their hands.
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Christianity is responsible for first introducing the belief of non-violence (Mantzarides 105).  A true Christian would rather be killed than to kill.  However, it is the civic duty of a Christian to obey the civil authority, not only because of fearing punishment, but since it is ethically and honorably conscience (Mantzarides 105). It is inevitably understood that the will of the civil authority will conflict with God’s will overtime, and it’s important to understand that ''“we must obey God rather than any human authority”'' <ref>Acts 5:29<ref>. Both St. Ambrose and St. Augustine do not accept the just war theory but recognize the reasons that lead to it – the defense of those unjustly treated (Mantzarides 106).  The Church has never presented nor accepted a theory of just war, but has tolerated it to protect greater standards (Mantzarides 106).  War promotes its participants to murder one another and encourages all of the participants to bring victory to their side (Mantzarides 106).  People in our times even enjoy watching war programs through their televisions at home or in the movie theatres (Mantzarides 106). It is difficult to have peace on earth when a man with a violent inclination has the potential to cause devastating destruction to the world (Mantzarides 106).
  
This statement apparently contradicts the words of Patriarch Bartholomew and the witness of the martyr-saintsHowever, while Cyril provides an Orthodox justification of a ''specific war'', he does not extend it as a ''doctrine'' of "just war" in general. That is, Cyril explains that circumstances may exist wherein it is desirable for an Orthodox Christian to take up arms. However, his statements do not extend to the claim that they do so as an innately virtuous act. The Orthodox combatantants would be driven by necessity and love for each other, not the belief that what they do is a positive good, in and of itself.
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The Church during the first centuries was very negative towards the participation of Christians in war (Mantzarides 107)Origen was completely against the idea of Christians participating in any form of military duty, while Tertullian believed that Christians should participate in military duty.  Many of the Saints were involved in military duty and many Christians were members of St. Constantine’s army.  The Church has always upheld her fundamental resistance towards war and does not allow clergy to be involved in any military activity. St. Athanasius wrote in his letter to Amun that ''“to kill is not permissible, but to destroy your enemies in war it is both lawful and worthy of praise.  Thus the same thing is sometimes not allowed and forgiven for another reason”'' (Mantzarides 108). St. Athanasius’s words here do not represent the opinion of the Church, but the opinion of the State and its citizens, which is the reason he uses the word lawful and not Christian (Mantzarides 108).  
  
The apparent contradiction between Bartholomew's statement and that of Cyril can be further resolved when examining the words of [[John Chrysostom|Saint John Chrysostom]], when, in his ''On the Priesthood'', he stated:
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:''“Our Fathers did not consider the killings committed in the course of wars to be classifiable as murders at all, on the score, it seems to me, of allowing a pardon to men fighting in defense of sobriety and piety. Perhaps, though, it might be advisable to refuse them communion for three years, on the ground that they are not clean-handed.”'' (Canon 13 of Basil) <ref>The Rudder<ref>
  
:Christians above all men are not permitted forcibly to correct the failings of those who sin. Secular judges indeed, when they have captured malefactors under the law, show their authority to be great, and prevent them even against their will from following their own devices: but in our case the wrong-doer must be made better, not by force, but by persuasion.
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St. Basil references the beginning of this canon to St. Athanasius in order to clarify and accurately interpret what was meant in his letter to Amun (Rudder 1468).  St. Basil the Great did not count murders committed during wars as murder, but he does require them to abstain from partaking of the Eucharist for three years (Mantzarides 108).  In the Byzantine Empire, the enemies of the State were also the enemies of the Church (Mantzarides 108).  So the defense of the State also became the defense of the Church (Mantzarides 108).  The State was considered to be protected by God since it was connected to the Church.  The Church has upheld its position on war has never deserted its stance (Mantzarides 109).  Emperor Nicephoros of Byzantium (963-969) requested the Church to recognize the people dying at war to be classified as martyrs.  The response was “How could they be regarded as martyrs or equal to the martyrs those who kill others or die themselves at war, when the divine canons impose a penalty on them, preventing them from coming to Divine Communion for three years."  The Church has always condemned war, but has always been tolerant of the Christian soldiers that served in a military unit (Mantzarides 109).  War may be necessary under certain circumstances to protect the innocent and to limit even greater evils.
  
Thus, according to John Chrysostom, the Christian response to wrongdoing is not the use of force, even if it may be a necessary act on the part of secular authorityThus, while it may be permissible by circumstance, it is not thereby transformed into virtue.
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Through spiritual vigilance and focusing on safeguarding the world from destruction, war and the causes of war must be addressed and eliminated (Mantzarides 110).  Peace can only be upheld if the causes of war and hostility in our times are being addressed (Mantzarides 110).  Some of the causes of war relate with discrimination, subjugation, hostility, and depressing social conditions.  As the causes of war intensify, our chances of upholding peace in the world fade away (Mantzarides 110-111).  For these reasons, we must use all of our resources on a global scale to eliminate these causes (Mantzarides 111).  The uncontrollable issues that are the strongest contributors to war deal with nations overemphasizing preparations for war and increasing the manufacturing initiatives of military ammunition (Mantzarides 111)Christians have to be focused on peace and must work towards preserving a loving attitude that does not separate us from God.
  
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Jesus said to Pilate, “My kingdom is not from this world. If my kingdom were from this world, my followers would be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here" <ref>John 18:34<ref>. 
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Jesus said to His apostles, “I give you a new commandment, that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another” <ref>John 13:34<ref>.
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:'''“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.”''' <ref>Matthew 5:9<ref>
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== References ==
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== For Further Reading ==
  
==References==
 
 
Bartholomew I. 2003. "War and Suffering." ''Cosmic Grace - Humble Prayer: The Ecological Vision of the Green Patriarch Bartholomew I''. Ed. John Chryssavgis. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
 
Bartholomew I. 2003. "War and Suffering." ''Cosmic Grace - Humble Prayer: The Ecological Vision of the Green Patriarch Bartholomew I''. Ed. John Chryssavgis. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  

Revision as of 06:50, March 2, 2007

Just war is a belief that warfare can be ethically or theological justifiable. To fully understand the complexity of these issues, it is important to take into consideration the complete teachings of the Church and not resort to exploiting inadequate references. The most crucial issues concerning warfare involve the extremely destructive capabilities of the weaponry in our times that can potentially eliminate any remnants of civilization from the face of the earth (Mantzarides 104). Many sociologists are intrigued with examining the formation and results of wars in order to gain understanding of why war continues to reoccur throughout the world (Mantzarides 104). The Greek philosopher Heracleitus believed war to be the “father of all” (Mantzarides 104). Quite the opposite, the Church teaches that God is the “Father Almighty” (Mantzarides 104). In St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans, God is referred to as a “God of peace” Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

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