John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon

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[[Image:Zizioulas1.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Metropolitan John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]]
 
[[Image:Zizioulas1.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Metropolitan John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]]
His Excellency the Most Reverend '''John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon''' (b. 1931) is a modern [[theologian]] and [[titular bishop|titular]] [[Metropolitan]] of Pergamon, under the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] of Constantinople.
+
His Eminence, the Most Reverend '''John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon''' (b. 1931) is a modern [[theologian]] and [[titular bishop|titular]] [[Metropolitan]] of Pergamon, under the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] of Constantinople.
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
The future metropolitan was born [[January 10]], 1931. He began his studies at the University of Thessaloniki but took his first theology degree from the University of Athens in 1955. He studied patristics under Father Georges Florovsky at Harvard Divinity School, receiving his M.T.S. in 1956, and his doctorate in theology from the University of Athens in 1965. He was professor of theology for 14 years at the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Geneva, Gregorian University, and King's College, London. He was consecrated as a bishop on [[June 22]], 1986 and named Metropolitan of Pergamon.
+
The future metropolitan was born [[January 10]], 1931. He began his studies at the University of Thessaloniki but took his first theology degree from the University of Athens in 1955. He studied patristics under Father [[Georges Florovsky]] at Harvard Divinity School, receiving his M.T.S. in 1956, and his doctorate in theology from the University of Athens in 1965. He was professor of theology for 14 years at the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Geneva, Gregorian University, and King's College, London. He was consecrated as a bishop on [[June 22]], 1986 and named Metropolitan of Pergamon.
  
 
==Theology and significance==
 
==Theology and significance==
Metropolitan John is one of the most important Christian theologians alive today, influencing theologians in the Roman Catholic and Protestant communions as well in the Orthodox Church. Some have suggested that his 1985 book, ''Being as Communion'', is perhaps the most significant theological book of the late 20th century.  
+
Metropolitan John's influence is widely felt, both among Protestant and Roman Catholic theologians, as well as within the Orthodox Church. Some have suggested that his 1985 book, ''Being as Communion'', is perhaps the most significant theological book of the late 20th century.  
  
 
The principle themes in Metropolitan John’s theology are freedom and otherness, both human and divine. Grounding his work in the Cappadocian Fathers and St Maximus Confessor in particular, he articulates a relational ontology in which neither unity nor plurality have priority. His ''Being as Communion'' (1985) addressed the theme from the importance of communion for unity, while his later ''Communion and Otherness'' (2007) is a complementary analysis of the importance of otherness for communion. He thus takes up the ancient philosophical problem of reconciling the One and the Many, which he examines with respect to divinity (the three Persons of the Trinity and the ''monarchia'' of the Father), humanity (theological anthropology), and the Church (ecclesiology). The philosophical implications of the book extend to the human and social sciences. A further theme of the two studies is the eschatological ontology he derives from St Maximus the Confessor, in which the truly real is that which is real at the ''eschaton''. This is the subject of a new book by the Metropolitan to be released in summer 2008, ''Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology''.
 
The principle themes in Metropolitan John’s theology are freedom and otherness, both human and divine. Grounding his work in the Cappadocian Fathers and St Maximus Confessor in particular, he articulates a relational ontology in which neither unity nor plurality have priority. His ''Being as Communion'' (1985) addressed the theme from the importance of communion for unity, while his later ''Communion and Otherness'' (2007) is a complementary analysis of the importance of otherness for communion. He thus takes up the ancient philosophical problem of reconciling the One and the Many, which he examines with respect to divinity (the three Persons of the Trinity and the ''monarchia'' of the Father), humanity (theological anthropology), and the Church (ecclesiology). The philosophical implications of the book extend to the human and social sciences. A further theme of the two studies is the eschatological ontology he derives from St Maximus the Confessor, in which the truly real is that which is real at the ''eschaton''. This is the subject of a new book by the Metropolitan to be released in summer 2008, ''Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology''.
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His first book was his doctoral dissertation in 1965, only recently published in English as ''Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries'' (2001). It was an early and significant contribution to the development of ‘eucharistic ecclesiology’, associated with [[Nicholas Afanasiev]], that focused on the essential role of the bishop as the presider of the Church’s Divine Liturgy.   
 
His first book was his doctoral dissertation in 1965, only recently published in English as ''Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries'' (2001). It was an early and significant contribution to the development of ‘eucharistic ecclesiology’, associated with [[Nicholas Afanasiev]], that focused on the essential role of the bishop as the presider of the Church’s Divine Liturgy.   
  
Metropolitan John has become a key figure in major ecumenical dialogues between the Orthodox Church and other Christian traditions, and in 2006 succeeded Archbishop [[Stylianos (Harkianakis) of Australia|Stylianos of Australia]] as president of the Commission of Orthodox in the Dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. Metropolitan John is also well-known for his work on the environment, particularly for his lecture series, ‘Preserving God’s Creation.’
+
Metropolitan John has become a significant figure in major ecumenical dialogues between the Orthodox Church and other Christian traditions, and in 2006 succeeded Archbishop [[Stylianos (Harkianakis) of Australia|Stylianos of Australia]] as president of the Commission of Orthodox in the Dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. Metropolitan John is also well-known for his work on the environment, particularly for his lecture series, ‘Preserving God’s Creation.’
 
+
==Books==
+
*''L'Être ecclésial'' (Paris: Labor et Fides, 1981). ISBN 978-2830901801.
+
*''E Ktise os eucharistia'' (Athens: Akritas, 1992). ISBN 978-9607006981. This would be rendered in English as ''Creation as Eucharist''.
+
*''Being and Communion: Studies in Personhood and the Church'' (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1997). ISBN 978-0881410297.
+
*''Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries'' (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross, 2001). ISBN 978-1885652515.
+
*''Ellenismos kai Christianismos: H Synantese ton duo Kosmon'' (Athens: ApostolikeDiakonia, 2003). This would be renderd in English as ''Hellenism and Christianity: The Meeting of Two Worlds''.
+
*''Communion & Otherness: Further Studies in Personhood and the Church'' (London: T & T Clark, 2007). ISBN  978-0567031488.
+
*''Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology'' (London: T&T Clark, 2008). ISBN 978-0567032355.
+
*''Lectures in Christian Dogmatics'' (London: T&T Clark, 2009). ISBN 978-0567033154.
+
 
+
==Studies==
+
*Fox, Patricia A. ''God as Communion: John Zizioulas, Elizabeth Johnson, and the Retrieval of the Symbol of the Triune God'' (Michael Glazer, 2001). ISBN 978-0814650820.
+
*Knight, Douglas, ed. ''The Theology of John Zizioulas: Personhood and the Church'' (Ashgate, 2007). ISBN 978-0754654308.
+
*McPartlan, Paul. ''The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri du Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue''. Eastern Christian Publications, 2006. ISBN 978-1892278616.
+
*Papanikolaou, Aristotle. ''Being with God: Trinity, Apophaticism, and Divine-Human Communion'' (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). ISBN  978-0268038304.
+
  
 
==Criticisms==
 
==Criticisms==
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===Theology of Personhood===
 
===Theology of Personhood===
*Lucian Turcescu argues in ''[http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-0025.00202 Person versus Individual and Other Modern Misreadings of Gregory of Nyssa]'' that there are differences between patristic theology and the theology of John Zizioulas. Specifically, Turcescu argues that "Zizioulas is ... in error when he contends that the Cappadocians did not understand a person as an individual or when he credits them with having had the same concerns we moderns have when combating individualism today."<sup>2</sup>
+
* Lucian Turcescu argues in [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-0025.00202 "'Person' versus 'Individual' and Other Modern Misreadings of Gregory of Nyssa"] that "Zizioulas is ... in error when he contends that the Cappadocians did not understand a person as an individual or when he credits them with having had the same concerns we moderns have when combating individualism today" <sup>2</sup> (Turcescu, 537). These criticisms have been answered by Aristotle Papanikolaou in the same journal<sup>3</sup> ("Is John Zizioulas an Existentialist in Disguise? Response to Lucian Turcescu," Modern Theology 20:4, October 2004, pp. 601-607), and by Metropolitan John himself in ''Communion and Otherness'', pp. 171-177 <sup>4</sup>
:*These criticisms have been answered by Aristotle Papanikolaou in the same journal <sup>3</sup> and by Metropolitan John himself.<sup>4</sup>
+
  
 
* Rodoljub Lazic, in his book, ''Innovatory Theology of Metropolitan Zizioulas'' ([http://www.pravoslavlje.net/texts/InovatorskoBogoslovlje.html In Serbian], ATOS - Missionary Center, Belgrade 2002), explains why he believes the work of Zizioulas differs from traditional Orthodoxy and argues that there is a connection between Zizioulas' [[Ecumenism|ecumenical]] orientation and his theology.
 
* Rodoljub Lazic, in his book, ''Innovatory Theology of Metropolitan Zizioulas'' ([http://www.pravoslavlje.net/texts/InovatorskoBogoslovlje.html In Serbian], ATOS - Missionary Center, Belgrade 2002), explains why he believes the work of Zizioulas differs from traditional Orthodoxy and argues that there is a connection between Zizioulas' [[Ecumenism|ecumenical]] orientation and his theology.
  
* In [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/her_saints.aspx a letter], Archbishop [http://www.synodinresistance.org/Administration_en/ChrysostomosEtna.html Chrysostomos of Etna] states that Fr [[John Meyendorff]] and Metr. John (Zizioulas) were Westernized theologians, in contrast with Fr [[Georges Florovsky]] (a teacher of Metr. John's).
+
* In [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/her_saints.aspx a letter], Archbishop [http://www.synodinresistance.org/Administration_en/ChrysostomosEtna.html Chrysostomos of Etna] (Exarch of the [[Holy Synod in Resistance]] in America, an [[Old Calendarist]] group) states that Zizioulas (along with Fr [[John Meyendorff]]) is a Westernized theologian, in contrast with Fr [[Georges Florovsky]] (a teacher of Zizioulas).
 
+
* Denial of the representation of the Orthodoxy by John Zizioulas can be found in the article published by the editorial staff of the magazine [http://www.italiaortodossa.it Italia Ortodossa], a magazine of Orthodox faithful in Italy: [http://digilander.libero.it/ortodossia/Zizioulas.htm Is the Theologian Ioannis Zizioulas proclaiming Orthodoxy?]
+
 
+
* Peter J. Leithart's article, [http://www.leithart.com/archives/002006.php ''Divine Energies and Orthodox Soteriology''], indicates differences between [[Vladimir Lossky]] and Metropolitan John in understanding the [[divine energies]]. While this is not a point of criticism for Leithart, certain Orthodox, who see the work of [[Vladimir Lossky|Prof. Lossky]] as the normative, contemporary synthesis of patristic theology, read the difference as criticism. That is, they believe that to differ from [[Vladimir Lossky|Lossky]], is to differ from patristic theology.{{fact}}
+
  
 
===Ecclesiology and Ecumenical Relations===
 
===Ecclesiology and Ecumenical Relations===
Line 51: Line 30:
 
* In an [http://www.greekorthodox.org.au/downloads/files/english/vema/2006/10bVEMA06E.doc interview with Maria Antoniadou], Archbishop [[Stylianos (Harkianakis) of Australia|Stylianos of Australia]] criticizes John Zizioulas for his stance on [[Uniatism]], questioning his status as a systematic theologian.<sup>6</sup>
 
* In an [http://www.greekorthodox.org.au/downloads/files/english/vema/2006/10bVEMA06E.doc interview with Maria Antoniadou], Archbishop [[Stylianos (Harkianakis) of Australia|Stylianos of Australia]] criticizes John Zizioulas for his stance on [[Uniatism]], questioning his status as a systematic theologian.<sup>6</sup>
  
* Hieromonk Patapios, in his article, [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/phronema/review_toc.aspx ''A Traditionalist Critique of The Orthodox Church''], criticized ecumenistic [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/methierotheos_baptism.aspx Baptismal theology] as espoused by Metr. John.
+
* Hieromonk Patapios (an [[Old Calendarist]]), in his article, [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/phronema/review_toc.aspx ''A Traditionalist Critique of The Orthodox Church''], criticized ecumenistic [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/methierotheos_baptism.aspx Baptismal theology] as espoused by Metr. John.
  
 
*The 1971 article, ''[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/mono_2.aspx Concerning the Approaching Orthodox – Monophysite Union]'', gives Metr. John as an example of a "muddled theologian" in his views on Severus of Antioch.
 
*The 1971 article, ''[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/mono_2.aspx Concerning the Approaching Orthodox – Monophysite Union]'', gives Metr. John as an example of a "muddled theologian" in his views on Severus of Antioch.
  
 
*Some are concerned by his reliance of non-Orthodox sources on his thought in both areas, pointing out the influence of French Catholic theologians [[w:Henri de Lubac|Henri de Lubac]] and [[w:Yves Congar|Yves Congar]], as well as [[w:Martin Buber|Martin Buber]] and [[w:John Macmurray|John Macmurray]]. <sup>3</sup>
 
*Some are concerned by his reliance of non-Orthodox sources on his thought in both areas, pointing out the influence of French Catholic theologians [[w:Henri de Lubac|Henri de Lubac]] and [[w:Yves Congar|Yves Congar]], as well as [[w:Martin Buber|Martin Buber]] and [[w:John Macmurray|John Macmurray]]. <sup>3</sup>
 +
 +
==Books==
 +
*''L'Être ecclésial'' (Paris: Labor et Fides, 1981). ISBN 978-2830901801.
 +
*''E Ktise os eucharistia'' (Athens: Akritas, 1992). ISBN 978-9607006981. This would be rendered in English as ''Creation as Eucharist''.
 +
*''Being as Communion: Studies in Personhood and the Church'' (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1997). ISBN 978-0881410297.
 +
*''Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries'' (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross, 2001). ISBN 978-1885652515.
 +
*''Ellenismos kai Christianismos: H Synantese ton duo Kosmon'' (Athens: ApostolikeDiakonia, 2003). This would be renderd in English as ''Hellenism and Christianity: The Meeting of Two Worlds''.
 +
*''Communion & Otherness: Further Studies in Personhood and the Church'' (London: T & T Clark, 2007). ISBN  978-0567031488.
 +
*''Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology'' (London: T&T Clark, 2008). ISBN 978-0567032355.
 +
*''Lectures in Christian Dogmatics'' (London: T&T Clark, 2009). ISBN 978-0567033154.
 +
 +
==Studies==
 +
*Fox, Patricia A. ''God as Communion: John Zizioulas, Elizabeth Johnson, and the Retrieval of the Symbol of the Triune God'' (Michael Glazer, 2001). ISBN 978-0814650820.
 +
*Knight, Douglas, ed. ''The Theology of John Zizioulas: Personhood and the Church'' (Ashgate, 2007). ISBN 978-0754654308.
 +
*McPartlan, Paul. ''The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri du Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue''. Eastern Christian Publications, 2006. ISBN 978-1892278616.
 +
*Papanikolaou, Aristotle. ''Being with God: Trinity, Apophaticism, and Divine-Human Communion'' (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). ISBN  978-0268038304.
 +
* Peter J. Leithart's article, [http://www.leithart.com/archives/002006.php ''Divine Energies and Orthodox Soteriology''], contrasts [[Vladimir Lossky]]'s and Metropolitan John's understanding of the [[divine energies]].
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
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[[Category:Bishops]]
 
[[Category:Bishops]]
 +
[[Category:20th-21st-century bishops]]
 
[[Category:Modern Writers]]
 
[[Category:Modern Writers]]
 +
 +
[[ro:Ioan (Zizioulas) de Pergam]]

Latest revision as of 11:41, June 5, 2012

Metropolitan John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon

His Eminence, the Most Reverend John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon (b. 1931) is a modern theologian and titular Metropolitan of Pergamon, under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Contents

Life

The future metropolitan was born January 10, 1931. He began his studies at the University of Thessaloniki but took his first theology degree from the University of Athens in 1955. He studied patristics under Father Georges Florovsky at Harvard Divinity School, receiving his M.T.S. in 1956, and his doctorate in theology from the University of Athens in 1965. He was professor of theology for 14 years at the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Geneva, Gregorian University, and King's College, London. He was consecrated as a bishop on June 22, 1986 and named Metropolitan of Pergamon.

Theology and significance

Metropolitan John's influence is widely felt, both among Protestant and Roman Catholic theologians, as well as within the Orthodox Church. Some have suggested that his 1985 book, Being as Communion, is perhaps the most significant theological book of the late 20th century.

The principle themes in Metropolitan John’s theology are freedom and otherness, both human and divine. Grounding his work in the Cappadocian Fathers and St Maximus Confessor in particular, he articulates a relational ontology in which neither unity nor plurality have priority. His Being as Communion (1985) addressed the theme from the importance of communion for unity, while his later Communion and Otherness (2007) is a complementary analysis of the importance of otherness for communion. He thus takes up the ancient philosophical problem of reconciling the One and the Many, which he examines with respect to divinity (the three Persons of the Trinity and the monarchia of the Father), humanity (theological anthropology), and the Church (ecclesiology). The philosophical implications of the book extend to the human and social sciences. A further theme of the two studies is the eschatological ontology he derives from St Maximus the Confessor, in which the truly real is that which is real at the eschaton. This is the subject of a new book by the Metropolitan to be released in summer 2008, Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology.

His first book was his doctoral dissertation in 1965, only recently published in English as Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries (2001). It was an early and significant contribution to the development of ‘eucharistic ecclesiology’, associated with Nicholas Afanasiev, that focused on the essential role of the bishop as the presider of the Church’s Divine Liturgy.

Metropolitan John has become a significant figure in major ecumenical dialogues between the Orthodox Church and other Christian traditions, and in 2006 succeeded Archbishop Stylianos of Australia as president of the Commission of Orthodox in the Dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. Metropolitan John is also well-known for his work on the environment, particularly for his lecture series, ‘Preserving God’s Creation.’

Criticisms

Like many theologians, particularly those involved in theological dialogues, Metropolitan John has undergone criticism for his theological works, particularly in the areas of the patristic roots of his theology of personhood, and his ecclesiology and perspective on ecumenical relations.

Theology of Personhood

  • Lucian Turcescu argues in "'Person' versus 'Individual' and Other Modern Misreadings of Gregory of Nyssa" that "Zizioulas is ... in error when he contends that the Cappadocians did not understand a person as an individual or when he credits them with having had the same concerns we moderns have when combating individualism today" 2 (Turcescu, 537). These criticisms have been answered by Aristotle Papanikolaou in the same journal3 ("Is John Zizioulas an Existentialist in Disguise? Response to Lucian Turcescu," Modern Theology 20:4, October 2004, pp. 601-607), and by Metropolitan John himself in Communion and Otherness, pp. 171-177 4
  • Rodoljub Lazic, in his book, Innovatory Theology of Metropolitan Zizioulas (In Serbian, ATOS - Missionary Center, Belgrade 2002), explains why he believes the work of Zizioulas differs from traditional Orthodoxy and argues that there is a connection between Zizioulas' ecumenical orientation and his theology.

Ecclesiology and Ecumenical Relations

  • Rodoljub Lazić's booklet, "Innovatory Theology of Metropolitan Zizioulas" (in Serbian), argues that the Metropolitan's work differs from "traditional" Orthodoxy and that there is a connection between the Metropolitan's ecumenical orientation and his theology.
  • However, a former student and supporter of Metropolitan John is Bishop Ignjatije Midić, Bishop of Branicevo and professor in dogmatics and ethics at the Serbian-Orthodox Theological Faculty in Belgrade.

Books

  • L'Être ecclésial (Paris: Labor et Fides, 1981). ISBN 978-2830901801.
  • E Ktise os eucharistia (Athens: Akritas, 1992). ISBN 978-9607006981. This would be rendered in English as Creation as Eucharist.
  • Being as Communion: Studies in Personhood and the Church (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1997). ISBN 978-0881410297.
  • Eucharist, Bishop, Church: The Unity of the Church in the Divine Eucharist and the Bishop During the First Three Centuries (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross, 2001). ISBN 978-1885652515.
  • Ellenismos kai Christianismos: H Synantese ton duo Kosmon (Athens: ApostolikeDiakonia, 2003). This would be renderd in English as Hellenism and Christianity: The Meeting of Two Worlds.
  • Communion & Otherness: Further Studies in Personhood and the Church (London: T & T Clark, 2007). ISBN 978-0567031488.
  • Remembering the Future: An Eschatological Ontology (London: T&T Clark, 2008). ISBN 978-0567032355.
  • Lectures in Christian Dogmatics (London: T&T Clark, 2009). ISBN 978-0567033154.

Studies

  • Fox, Patricia A. God as Communion: John Zizioulas, Elizabeth Johnson, and the Retrieval of the Symbol of the Triune God (Michael Glazer, 2001). ISBN 978-0814650820.
  • Knight, Douglas, ed. The Theology of John Zizioulas: Personhood and the Church (Ashgate, 2007). ISBN 978-0754654308.
  • McPartlan, Paul. The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri du Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue. Eastern Christian Publications, 2006. ISBN 978-1892278616.
  • Papanikolaou, Aristotle. Being with God: Trinity, Apophaticism, and Divine-Human Communion (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006). ISBN 978-0268038304.
  • Peter J. Leithart's article, Divine Energies and Orthodox Soteriology, contrasts Vladimir Lossky's and Metropolitan John's understanding of the divine energies.

Notes

1 Modern Theology 18:4, October 2002, 527-539.

2 Ibid, p.537.

3 "Is John Zizioulas an Existentialist in Disguise? Response to Lucian Turcescu," Modern Theology 20:4, October 2004, pp. 601-607).

4 In Communion and Otherness, pp. 171-177.

5 ATOS Missionary Center, Belgrade, 2002.

6 In an interview with Maria Antoniadou.

External links


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