Ivan Fyodorov

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Ivan Fedorov, also Fedorovych, (Ива́н Фёдоров,) (born around 1510, died December 14, 1583 in Lvov), was one of the fathers of Russian and Ukrainian printing.

In 1532 he graduated from Jagiellonian University with bachelor degree. In 1564–5 Fedorov and the P. Mstsislavets published in Moscow several liturgical works in Church Slavonic. This technical innovation created competition for the Muscovite scribes, who persecuted Fedorov and Mstsislavets and finally caused them to flee to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There they were received by the Lithuanian Hetman H. Khodkevych at his estate in Zabłudów (Zabludiv) (northern Podlachia), where they published Ievanheliie uchytel’noie (Didactic Gospel, 1569) (see Zabłudów Gospel) and Psaltyr’ (Psalter, 1570). In Zabłudów, Fedorov changed his surname from Fedorov to Fedorovych. He moved to Lvov in 1572 and resumed his work as a printer the following year at the Saint Onuphrius Monastery. (Fedorovych's tombstone in Lvov is inscribed ‘drukovanie zanedbanoe vobnov[yl]’ [renewed neglected printing].) In 1574 Fedorovych, with the help of his son and Hryn Ivanovych of Zabłudów published the second edition of the Apostolos (originally published in Moscow), with an autobiographical epilogue, and Azbuka (Alphabet book). Fedorovych was known as the ‘Muscovite printer’ or Iwan Moschus (Ivan the Muscovite) in Lvov, a name used more to identify his place of origin than his nationality. In 1575 Fedorovych, in the service of Prince Kostiantyn Ostrozky, was placed in charge of the Derman Monastery. In 1577–9 he established the Ostrih Press, where, in 1581, he published the Ostrog Bible and a number of other books. Fedorovych returned to Lvov after a quarrel with the Prince, but his attempt to reopen his printing shop was unsuccessful. His printery became the property of the Lvov Dormition Brotherhood (later the Stauropegion Institute). The brotherhood used Fedorovych's original designs until the early 19th century.

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