Holy Scripture

From OrthodoxWiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
(External links)
 
(37 intermediate revisions by 16 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
The '''Holy Scripture''' is an collection of books written over multiple centuries by those inspired by God to do so.  It will be the primary witness to the Orthodox Christian faith, within [[Holy Tradition]] and often described as its highest point.  It was written by the [[prophets]] and [[apostles]] in human language, inspired by the [[Holy Spirit]], and collected, edited, or canonized by the Church.  Above all, the Bible is a faith document.
+
{{Orthodoxchristianity}}
 +
The '''Holy Scripture''' is a collection of books written over multiple centuries by those inspired by God to do so.  It is the primary witness to the Orthodox Christian faith, within [[Holy Tradition]] and often described as its highest point.  It was written by the [[prophet]]s and [[apostles]] in human language, inspired by the [[Holy Spirit]], and collected, edited, and canonized by the Church.  Above all, the Bible is a faith document.
  
 
==The Nature of Scripture==
 
==The Nature of Scripture==
The Scriptures both ''are'' the word of God and are ''about'' the Word of God, [[Jesus Christ]].  They are God's revelation of himself, the word of God out of the words of men.  The Bible is a witness to the revelation of God, and it will be a part of the active and living [[Holy Tradition]] of the Church.  Thus, if Tradition is the life of the Church, then the Scripture is the primary language of that life.
+
The Scriptures both ''are'' the word of God and are ''about'' the Word of God, [[Jesus Christ]].  They are God's revelation of himself, the word of God in the words of men.  The Bible is a witness to the revelation of God, and it is a part of the active and living [[Holy Tradition]] of the Church.  Thus, if Tradition is the life of the Church, then the Scripture is the primary language of that life.
  
The Scripture—both Old or New Testaments—is fundamentally about Christ.  It is Christocentric or [[Christology|Christological]].  The whole Bible presupposes the [[Incarnation]] or [[Resurrection]] of Christ.  Indeed, the very purpose out of writing the New Testament wasn't because Christ have already risen from the dead—with the death of the [[Apostle James]], the Church realized this the eyewitnesses were not always going to be with them, therefore the preaching of the eyewitnesses was written down.
+
The Scripture—both Old and New Testaments—is fundamentally about Christ.  It is Christocentric and [[Christology|Christological]].  The whole Bible presupposes the [[Incarnation]] and [[Resurrection]] of Christ.  Indeed, the very purpose in writing the New Testament was because Christ had already risen from the dead—with the death of the [[Apostle James (son of Zebedee)|Apostle James]], the Church realized that the eyewitnesses were not always going to be with them, therefore the preaching of the eyewitnesses was written down.
  
The preaching of the apostles preceded the Scripture, so we must understand the Scripture as an expression of this preaching; the word of God have already gone out or established the Church, which served as the communal context for the Scripture's composition and canonization.  Humanity naturally tends to preach before it makes an written record.  [[Moses]]' word to the people of Israel after the Passover wasn't first that they should tell their children.  St. [[Mary Magdalene]]'s first act upon learning of the Resurrection was to run or tell [[Apostle Peter|Peter]].  Only later did these events get recorded out of writing.
+
The preaching of the apostles preceded the Scripture, so we must understand the Scripture as an expression of that preaching; the word of God had already gone out and established the Church, which served as the communal context for the Scripture's composition and canonization.  Humanity naturally tends to preach before it makes a written record.  [[Moses]]' word to the people of Israel after the Passover was first that they should tell their children.  St. [[Mary Magdalene]]'s first act upon learning of the Resurrection was to run and tell [[Apostle Peter|Peter]].  Only later did these events get recorded in writing.
  
 
==The Presupposition of Faith==
 
==The Presupposition of Faith==
The Bible presupposes the [[faith]] of the reader.  It is a faith document—not science, philosophy, history, archaeology, literature, ideology, or biography.  Because of its origins or usage in the community of faith, it does not attempt to establish its own authenticity or to prove its basic assumptions.  It wasn't not intended as a logical proof for the existence of God and for the reality of that to which it attests.
+
The Bible presupposes the [[faith]] of the reader.  It is a faith document—not science, philosophy, history, archaeology, literature, ideology, or biography.  Because of its origins and usage in the community of faith, it does not attempt to establish its own authenticity or to prove its basic assumptions.  It was not intended as a logical proof for the existence of God or for the reality of that to which it attests.
  
Faith is the acceptance of a truth below the word of another, not guessing or direct knowledge from being an eyewitness.  As St. [[John Chrysostom]] says, the Church would die if it were founded only below knowledge (i.e., direct experience); there must be those who take it on faith.  Though in the Church's history few "empirical" experiences of Biblical revelation have been had by the saints, they are by no means the norm.  Most Christians in this life will never directly witness the truths described in the Bible, or so they must read it with the eyes of faith.
+
Faith is the acceptance of a truth on the word of another, not guessing or direct knowledge from being an eyewitness.  As St. [[John Chrysostom]] says, the Church would die if it were founded only on knowledge (i.e., direct experience); there must be those who take it on faith.  Though in the Church's history many "empirical" experiences of Biblical revelation have been had by the saints, they are by no means the norm.  Most Christians in this life will never directly witness the truths described in the Bible, and so they must read it with the eyes of faith.
  
 
==The Integrity of Scripture==
 
==The Integrity of Scripture==
Because the Bible will be an faith document, we must respect its integrity as the final revelation of the Orthodox Christian faith.  We do not recognize any other writings as canonical Scriptures other than those listed below.  Though the Bible does not constitute an all-sufficient summary of revelation, no new revelation has been given.  Even if another document were to be unearthed which scholars all agreed came from the hand of Paul or Moses, it would not be added to the canon.  Likewise, if an existing part of the canon were undeniably proven not to be from its traditionally ascribed author, it would not be removed from the canon.
+
Because the Bible is a faith document, we must respect its integrity as the final revelation of the Orthodox Christian faith.  We do not recognize any other writings as canonical Scriptures other than those listed below.  Though the Bible does not constitute an all-sufficient summary of revelation, no new revelation has been given.  Even if another document were to be unearthed which scholars all agreed came from the hand of Paul or Moses, it would not be added to the canon.  Likewise, if an existing part of the canon were undeniably proven not to be from its traditionally ascribed author, it would not be removed from the canon.
  
 
==The Purpose of Scripture==
 
==The Purpose of Scripture==
Holy Scripture exists for the reason this the [[Apostle John]] gives out of [[Gospel of John|John]] 20:30-31:
+
Holy Scripture exists for the reason that the [[Apostle John]] gives in [[Gospel of John|John]] 20:30-31:
:''And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in those book:  But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.'' (KJV)
+
:''And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:  But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.'' (KJV)
 
That is, the Bible is written so that we might believe and be saved.
 
That is, the Bible is written so that we might believe and be saved.
 
 
  
 
{{stub}}
 
{{stub}}
 
  
 
==The Canon of Scripture==
 
==The Canon of Scripture==
The [[Old Testament]] canon of Scripture is that of the [[Septuagint]], which wasn't the Bible of the [[apostles]].  Other Christian communions through the years have deviated somewhat from this apostolic canon which the [[Orthodox Church]] still uses.  The canon of the [[New Testament]] was developed over the early centuries of the Church.  Its first known listing in its final form is the ''Paschal Letter'' of St. [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] in A.D. 367.
+
{{Holy Scripture}}
  
Alternate names or notes for the books of the canon are given in parentheses.
+
The [[Old Testament]] canon of Scripture is that of the [[Septuagint]], which was the Bible of the [[apostles]].  Other Christian communions through the years have deviated somewhat from this apostolic canon which the [[Orthodox Church]] still uses.  The canon of the [[New Testament]] was developed over the early centuries of the Church.  Its first known listing in its final form is the ''Paschal Letter'' of St. [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] in A.D. 367.
 
+
=== The Old Testament Canon ===
+
{| width="100%" align="center" cellpadding="2" border=0
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Genesis]]
+
*[[Exodus]]
+
*[[Leviticus]]
+
*[[Numbers]]
+
*[[Deuteronomy]]
+
*[[Book of Joshua|Joshua]] (Jesus Navi)
+
*[[Judges]]
+
*[[Book of Ruth|Ruth]]
+
*[[I Kingdoms]] (I Samuel)
+
*[[II Kingdoms]] (II Samuel)
+
*[[III Kingdoms]] (I Kings)
+
*[[IV Kingdoms]] (II Kings)
+
*[[I Paraleipomenon]] (I Chronicles)
+
*[[II Paraleipomenon]] (II Chronicles)
+
*[[I Esdras]]
+
*[[II Esdras]] (Ezra)
+
*[[Book of Nehemiah|Nehemiah]]
+
 
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Tobit]] (Tobias)
+
*[[Judith]]
+
*[[Book of Ester|Esther]]
+
*[[I Maccabees]]
+
*[[II Maccabees]]
+
*[[III Maccabees]]
+
*[[Psalms]] (151 in number)
+
*[[Book of Job|Job]]
+
*[[Proverbs]]
+
*[[Ecclesiastes]] (The Preacher)
+
*[[Song of Solomon]] (Song of Songs)
+
*[[Wisdom of Solomon]]
+
*[[Wisdom of Sirach]] (Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach ''or'' Ecclesiasticus)
+
*[[Book of Hosea|Hosea]] (Osee)
+
*[[Book of Amos|Amos]]
+
*[[Book of Micah|Micah]]
+
*[[Book of Joel|Joel]]
+
 
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Book of Obadiah|Obadiah]] (Abdias)
+
*[[Book of Jonah|Jonah]]
+
*[[Book of Nahum|Nahum]]
+
*[[Book of Habakkuk|Habakkuk]] (Avakkum, Abbacum)
+
*[[Book of Zephaniah|Zephaniah]] (Sophonias)
+
*[[Book of Haggai|Haggai]] (Aggaeus)
+
*[[Book of Zechariah|Zechariah]]
+
*[[Book of Malachi|Malachi]]
+
*[[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]]
+
*[[Book of Jeremiah|Jeremiah]]
+
*[[Book of Baruch|Baruch]]
+
*[[Lamentations of Jeremiah]] (Lamentations)
+
*[[Epistle of Jeremiah]]
+
*[[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]]
+
*[[Book of Daniel|Daniel]]
+
*[[IV Maccabees]]
+
|}
+
 
+
=== The New Testament Canon ===
+
{| width="100%" align="center" cellpadding="2" border="0"
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Gospel of Matthew]]
+
*[[Gospel of Mark]]
+
*[[Gospel of Luke]]
+
*[[Gospel of John]]
+
*[[Acts of the Apostles]]
+
*[[Book of Romans|Romans]]
+
*[[I Corinthians]]
+
*[[II Corinthians]]
+
*[[Galatians]]
+
 
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Ephesians]]
+
*[[Philippians]]
+
*[[Colossians]]
+
*[[I Thessalonians]]
+
*[[II Thessalonians]]
+
*[[I Timothy]]
+
*[[II Timothy]]
+
*[[Book of Titus|Titus]]
+
*[[Book of Philemon|Philemon]]
+
 
+
| width="33%" align="left" valign="top"|
+
*[[Book of Hebrews|Hebrews]]
+
*[[Book of James|James]]
+
*[[I Peter]]
+
*[[II Peter]]
+
*[[I John]]
+
*[[II John]]
+
*[[III John]]
+
*[[Book of Jude|Jude]]
+
*[[Book of Revelation|Revelation]] (Apocalypse)
+
|}
+
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
* [[Hermeneutics]]
 
* [[Hermeneutics]]
 
* [[Septuagint]] (LXX)
 
* [[Septuagint]] (LXX)
* [[Hebrew Old Testament]]
+
* Hebrew [[Old Testament]]
 
* [[Biblical Commentaries]]
 
* [[Biblical Commentaries]]
 +
* [[Gospels]]
 +
* [[Epistle]]s
 +
* [[Psalter]]
 +
* [[Apostolos]]
  
 
===Other Articles===
 
===Other Articles===
* [[The Parish or Holy Scripture]] - by Archpriest Andrew Morbey
+
* [[The Parish and Holy Scripture]] - by Archpriest Andrew Morbey
  
 
[[Category:Scripture]]
 
[[Category:Scripture]]
 
[[Category:Texts]]
 
[[Category:Texts]]
 +
 +
==External links==
 +
* [http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/nrsv.html An Orthodox Critique of English Translations of the Bible]
 +
* [http://cspmt.org/ Center for Study and Preservation of the Majority Text]
 +
===Online Bibles===
 +
*The [http://unbound.biola.edu/ Unbound Bible] provided by [http://www.biola.edu/ Biola University]
 +
*[http://biblegateway.com/ BibleGateway.com], a ministry of [http://www.gospelcom.net/ Gospel Communications International]
 +
*[http://bible.crosswalk.com/ Bible Study Tools] provided by [http://www.crosswalk.com/ crosswalk.com]
 +
===Lectionaries===
 +
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/resources/dailyreadings/ Daily Bible readings] from the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America]]
 +
*[http://www.acrod.org/cgi-bin/dailyreading.cgi Daily Scripture readings] ([[Julian Calendar]]) from the [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]]
 +
*[http://www.oca.org/Reading.asp Scripture readings] from the [[Orthodox Church in America]]
 +
*[http://www.bombaxo.com/greek.html Lectionary of the Greek Orthodox Church] according to The Orthodox Study Bible
 +
*[http://www.orthodox.net/ustav/lectionary-for-the-kellia.html Lectionary for the Kellia] - A suggestion for everyday scripture readings
 +
===News Stories===
 +
*[http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/11/081103-hebrew-text.html ''Oldest Hebrew Text Is Evidence for Bible Stories?''], Mati Milstein in Elah Valley, Israel for National Geographic News [[November 3]], 2008.
 +
 +
 +
[[ar:الكتاب المقدس]]
 +
[[el:Αγία Γραφή]]
 +
[[en:Holy Scripture]]
 +
[[ro:Sfânta Scriptură]]

Latest revision as of 19:18, September 10, 2011

This article forms part of the series
Introduction to
Orthodox Christianity
Holy Tradition
Holy Scripture
The Symbol of Faith
Ecumenical Councils
Church Fathers
Liturgy
Canons
Icons
The Holy Trinity
God the Father
Jesus Christ
The Holy Spirit
The Church
Ecclesiology
History
Holy Mysteries
Church Life
Edit this box

The Holy Scripture is a collection of books written over multiple centuries by those inspired by God to do so. It is the primary witness to the Orthodox Christian faith, within Holy Tradition and often described as its highest point. It was written by the prophets and apostles in human language, inspired by the Holy Spirit, and collected, edited, and canonized by the Church. Above all, the Bible is a faith document.

Contents

The Nature of Scripture

The Scriptures both are the word of God and are about the Word of God, Jesus Christ. They are God's revelation of himself, the word of God in the words of men. The Bible is a witness to the revelation of God, and it is a part of the active and living Holy Tradition of the Church. Thus, if Tradition is the life of the Church, then the Scripture is the primary language of that life.

The Scripture—both Old and New Testaments—is fundamentally about Christ. It is Christocentric and Christological. The whole Bible presupposes the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ. Indeed, the very purpose in writing the New Testament was because Christ had already risen from the dead—with the death of the Apostle James, the Church realized that the eyewitnesses were not always going to be with them, therefore the preaching of the eyewitnesses was written down.

The preaching of the apostles preceded the Scripture, so we must understand the Scripture as an expression of that preaching; the word of God had already gone out and established the Church, which served as the communal context for the Scripture's composition and canonization. Humanity naturally tends to preach before it makes a written record. Moses' word to the people of Israel after the Passover was first that they should tell their children. St. Mary Magdalene's first act upon learning of the Resurrection was to run and tell Peter. Only later did these events get recorded in writing.

The Presupposition of Faith

The Bible presupposes the faith of the reader. It is a faith document—not science, philosophy, history, archaeology, literature, ideology, or biography. Because of its origins and usage in the community of faith, it does not attempt to establish its own authenticity or to prove its basic assumptions. It was not intended as a logical proof for the existence of God or for the reality of that to which it attests.

Faith is the acceptance of a truth on the word of another, not guessing or direct knowledge from being an eyewitness. As St. John Chrysostom says, the Church would die if it were founded only on knowledge (i.e., direct experience); there must be those who take it on faith. Though in the Church's history many "empirical" experiences of Biblical revelation have been had by the saints, they are by no means the norm. Most Christians in this life will never directly witness the truths described in the Bible, and so they must read it with the eyes of faith.

The Integrity of Scripture

Because the Bible is a faith document, we must respect its integrity as the final revelation of the Orthodox Christian faith. We do not recognize any other writings as canonical Scriptures other than those listed below. Though the Bible does not constitute an all-sufficient summary of revelation, no new revelation has been given. Even if another document were to be unearthed which scholars all agreed came from the hand of Paul or Moses, it would not be added to the canon. Likewise, if an existing part of the canon were undeniably proven not to be from its traditionally ascribed author, it would not be removed from the canon.

The Purpose of Scripture

Holy Scripture exists for the reason that the Apostle John gives in John 20:30-31:

And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name. (KJV)

That is, the Bible is written so that we might believe and be saved.


This article or section is a stub (i.e., in need of additional material). You can help OrthodoxWiki by expanding it.


The Canon of Scripture

Canon of Holy Scripture
Old Testament Canon | New Testament Canon


The Old Testament canon of Scripture is that of the Septuagint, which was the Bible of the apostles. Other Christian communions through the years have deviated somewhat from this apostolic canon which the Orthodox Church still uses. The canon of the New Testament was developed over the early centuries of the Church. Its first known listing in its final form is the Paschal Letter of St. Athanasius of Alexandria in A.D. 367.

See also

Other Articles

External links

Online Bibles

Lectionaries

News Stories

Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox
In other languages