Gregory V of Constantinople

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Our father among the [[saint]]s '''Gregory V of Constantinople''' was the 234th Patriarch of Constantinople. He served as [[patriarch]] for three separate periods at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and was [[martyr]]ed during the Greek War of Independence. He was glorified as a saint by the [[Church of Greece]] in 1921 and is commemorated as an ''Ethnomartyr'' (Greek: ''Εθνομάρτυρας''). He is remembered on [[April 10]].
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Our father among the [[saint]]s '''Gregory V of Constantinople''' was the 234th Patriarch of Constantinople. He served as [[patriarch]] for three separate periods at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808, and from 1818 to 1821.  He was [[martyr]]ed in 1821 during the Greek War of Independence. He was glorified as a saint by the [[Church of Greece]] in 1921 and is commemorated as an ''Ethnomartyr'' (Greek: ''Εθνομάρτυρας''). He is remembered on [[April 10]].
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
Georgios Aggelopoulos was born in Dimitsana, Arcadia prefecture in 1746 to poor parents. A studious child, Georgios attended school at Dimitsana before continuing his education in Athens for two years. With the help of his uncle he continued his education in the theological school at Smyrna for another five years. Having been raised in hesychastic environment around the [[Monastery]] of Philosophou he turned to a [[monasticism|monastic]] life and was [[tonsure]]d a [[monk]] in Strophades with the name Gregory. He continued his education in theology and philosophy at the School of Patmos.
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[[Image:Patriarch Gregory V.JPG|right|thumb|220px| The hanging of Patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the Patriarchate on [[Pascha|Easter]] [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] [[April 10|April 10th]], 1821. By [[w:Peter von Hess|Peter Von Hess]].]]
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[[File:Shrine of Grigorios E.JPG|right|thumb|220px|The shrine of Patriarch Gregory V (Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens).]]
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Georgios Aggelopoulos was born in Dimitsana, Arcadia prefecture in 1746 to poor parents. A studious child, Georgios attended school at Dimitsana before continuing his education in Athens for two years. With the help of his uncle he continued his education in the theological school at Smyrna for another five years. Having been raised in the hesychastic environment around the [[Monastery]] of Philosophou he turned to a [[monasticism|monastic]] life and was [[tonsure]]d a [[monk]] in Strophades with the name Gregory. He continued his education in theology and philosophy at the School of Patmos.
  
After completing his education at Patmos, Gregory returned to Smyrna where he was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1775 by Metr. Procopius of Smyrna and subsequently became an [[archdeacon]]. Over the following years he was ordained a [[priest]] and a protosyncelos. In 1785, he was elected by the Patriarch of Constantinople to the position of [[Bishop]] of the [[Metropolis]] of Smyrna succeeding Procopius who had become Patriarch of Constantinople. In what was becoming a volatile political atmosphere, Gregory was elected to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in May 1797. In a year he was deposed and deported to the [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Monastery of Iviron]] on [[Mount Athos]] where he lived an ascetic life of study. On [[September 23]], 1806, the synod recalled him to the patriarchal [[see]]. With the shifting Turkish politics and the revolt of the Genitsars Gregory’s second time as patriarch ended in 1810 when he was expelled first to Pringiponisos and then again to Mount Athos, where he stayed for nine years. On [[December 15]], 1818, for the third time Gregory was called to the patriarchal see, this time at a crucial and tense time in the Greek struggle for independence.
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After completing his education at Patmos, Gregory returned to Smyrna where he was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1775 by Metr. Procopius of Smyrna and subsequently became an [[archdeacon]]. Over the following years he was ordained a [[priest]] and a protosyncelos. In 1785, he was elected by the Patriarch of Constantinople to the position of [[Bishop]] of the [[Metropolis]] of Smyrna succeeding Procopius who had become Patriarch of Constantinople. In what was becoming a volatile political atmosphere, Gregory was elected to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in May 1797. In a year he was deposed and deported to the [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Monastery of Iviron]] on [[Mount Athos]] where he lived an ascetic life of study. On [[September 23]], 1806, the synod recalled him to the patriarchal [[see]]. With the shifting Turkish politics and the revolt of the Genitsars, Gregory’s second stint as patriarch ended in 1810 when he was expelled first to Pringiponisos, and then again to Mount Athos, where he stayed for nine years. On [[December 15]], 1818, for the third time Gregory was called to the patriarchal see, this time at a crucial and tense time in the Greek struggle for independence.
  
In 1818, Gregory became a member of the Filiki Eteria (Friendly Society) that was preparing for a revolt against the Turkish rule. However, when Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut River, starting the Greek revolt in Romania, Gregory felt it necessary to [[excommunication|excommunicate]] him to protect the Greeks of Constantinople from reprisals by the Ottoman Turks. The reprisals did come during Holy Week in April 1921 after the Greeks revolted in the Peloponnesus. During celebration of the [[Divine Liturgy|divine liturgy]], with eight hierarchs, on the night of [[Pascha]] of [[April 10]], Gregory was arrested and, by order of Sultan Mahmud II, hanged on the front gate of the Patriarchate compound in his full Patriarchal vestments. The gate has been closed, locked, and not used since. After hanging for three days and being mocked by the passing crowds his body was taken down and given to a group of Jews who dragged it through the street of Constantinople before throwing it into the Bosphorus.
+
In 1818, Gregory became a member of the Filiki Eteria (Friendly Society) that was preparing for a revolt against the Turkish rule. However, when Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut River, starting the Greek revolt in Romania, Gregory felt it necessary to [[excommunication|excommunicate]] him to protect the Greeks of Constantinople from reprisals by the Ottoman Turks. The reprisals did come during Holy Week in April 1821 after the Greeks revolted in the Peloponnesus. During celebration of the [[Divine Liturgy|divine liturgy]], with eight hierarchs, on the night of [[Pascha]] of [[April 10]], Gregory was arrested and, by order of Sultan Mahmud II, hanged on the front gate of the Patriarchate compound in his full Patriarchal vestments. The gate has been closed, locked, and not used since. After hanging for three days and being mocked by the passing crowds, his body was taken down and given to a group of Jews who dragged it through the streets of Constantinople before throwing it into the Bosphorus.
  
Gregory’s body was recovered from the sea by a Greek seaman, Nicholas Sklavos, and secreted to Odessa, in then South Russia, where it was buried with honors at the Church of the Holy Trinity. Later his [[relics]] were enshrined in the Metropolitan Cathedral in Athens. His statue, along with that of Rigas Feraios, stands outside the University of Athens as great martyrs of the Greek Revolution.
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Gregory’s body was recovered from the sea by a Greek seaman, Nicholas Sklavos, and secreted to Odessa, then in Southern Russia, where it was buried with honors at the Church of the Holy Trinity. Later his [[relics]] were enshrined in the Metropolitan Cathedral in Athens. His statue, along with that of Rigas Feraios, stands outside the University of Athens as great martyrs of the Greek Revolution.
  
 
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title=Bishop of Smyrna|
 
title=Bishop of Smyrna|
 
years=1785–1797|
 
years=1785–1797|
after=?}}
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after=[[Anthimus III of Constantinople|Anthimus]]}}
 
{{succession|
 
{{succession|
 
before=Gerasimus III|
 
before=Gerasimus III|
title=[[List of Constantinople patriarchs|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|
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title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|
 
years=1797–1798|
 
years=1797–1798|
after=Neophytus VII}}
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after=[[Neophytus VII of Constantinople|Neophytus VII]]}}
 
{{succession|
 
{{succession|
before=Callinicus IV|
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before=Callinicus V|
 
title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
 
title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
 
years=1806–1808|
 
years=1806–1808|
after=Callinicus IV}}
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after=Callinicus V}}
 
{{succession|
 
{{succession|
 
before=Cyril VI|
 
before=Cyril VI|
 
title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
 
title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
 
years=1818–1821|
 
years=1818–1821|
after=Eugenius II}}
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after=[[Eugenius II of Constantinople|Eugenius II]]}}
 
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*[http://wiki.phantis.com/index.php/Patriarch_Gregory_V Patriarch Gregory V]
 
*[http://wiki.phantis.com/index.php/Patriarch_Gregory_V Patriarch Gregory V]
  
[[Category: Bishops|Gregory]]
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[[Category:Bishops|Gregory]]
[[Category: Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
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[[Category:Bishops of Smyrna]]
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[[Category:18th-19th-century bishops]]
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[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
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[[Category:Orthodoxy and Islam]]
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[[Category:19th-century saints]]

Latest revision as of 13:17, December 20, 2012

Our father among the saints Gregory V of Constantinople was the 234th Patriarch of Constantinople. He served as patriarch for three separate periods at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: from 1797 to 1798, from 1806 to 1808, and from 1818 to 1821. He was martyred in 1821 during the Greek War of Independence. He was glorified as a saint by the Church of Greece in 1921 and is commemorated as an Ethnomartyr (Greek: Εθνομάρτυρας). He is remembered on April 10.

Life

The hanging of Patriarch Gregory V from the gate of the Patriarchate on Easter Sunday April 10th, 1821. By Peter Von Hess.
The shrine of Patriarch Gregory V (Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens).

Georgios Aggelopoulos was born in Dimitsana, Arcadia prefecture in 1746 to poor parents. A studious child, Georgios attended school at Dimitsana before continuing his education in Athens for two years. With the help of his uncle he continued his education in the theological school at Smyrna for another five years. Having been raised in the hesychastic environment around the Monastery of Philosophou he turned to a monastic life and was tonsured a monk in Strophades with the name Gregory. He continued his education in theology and philosophy at the School of Patmos.

After completing his education at Patmos, Gregory returned to Smyrna where he was ordained a deacon in 1775 by Metr. Procopius of Smyrna and subsequently became an archdeacon. Over the following years he was ordained a priest and a protosyncelos. In 1785, he was elected by the Patriarch of Constantinople to the position of Bishop of the Metropolis of Smyrna succeeding Procopius who had become Patriarch of Constantinople. In what was becoming a volatile political atmosphere, Gregory was elected to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople in May 1797. In a year he was deposed and deported to the Monastery of Iviron on Mount Athos where he lived an ascetic life of study. On September 23, 1806, the synod recalled him to the patriarchal see. With the shifting Turkish politics and the revolt of the Genitsars, Gregory’s second stint as patriarch ended in 1810 when he was expelled first to Pringiponisos, and then again to Mount Athos, where he stayed for nine years. On December 15, 1818, for the third time Gregory was called to the patriarchal see, this time at a crucial and tense time in the Greek struggle for independence.

In 1818, Gregory became a member of the Filiki Eteria (Friendly Society) that was preparing for a revolt against the Turkish rule. However, when Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut River, starting the Greek revolt in Romania, Gregory felt it necessary to excommunicate him to protect the Greeks of Constantinople from reprisals by the Ottoman Turks. The reprisals did come during Holy Week in April 1821 after the Greeks revolted in the Peloponnesus. During celebration of the divine liturgy, with eight hierarchs, on the night of Pascha of April 10, Gregory was arrested and, by order of Sultan Mahmud II, hanged on the front gate of the Patriarchate compound in his full Patriarchal vestments. The gate has been closed, locked, and not used since. After hanging for three days and being mocked by the passing crowds, his body was taken down and given to a group of Jews who dragged it through the streets of Constantinople before throwing it into the Bosphorus.

Gregory’s body was recovered from the sea by a Greek seaman, Nicholas Sklavos, and secreted to Odessa, then in Southern Russia, where it was buried with honors at the Church of the Holy Trinity. Later his relics were enshrined in the Metropolitan Cathedral in Athens. His statue, along with that of Rigas Feraios, stands outside the University of Athens as great martyrs of the Greek Revolution.

Succession box:
Gregory V of Constantinople
Preceded by:
Procopius
Bishop of Smyrna
1785–1797
Succeeded by:
Anthimus
Preceded by:
Gerasimus III
Patriarch of Constantinople
1797–1798
Succeeded by:
Neophytus VII
Preceded by:
Callinicus V
Patriarch of Constantinople
1806–1808
Succeeded by:
Callinicus V
Preceded by:
Cyril VI
Patriarch of Constantinople
1818–1821
Succeeded by:
Eugenius II
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