Fool-for-Christ

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A saint who has the title '''Fool-for-Christ''' is one who is known for his apparent, yet holy, insanity.  This title in Russian is ''Yurodivyi''.
 
A saint who has the title '''Fool-for-Christ''' is one who is known for his apparent, yet holy, insanity.  This title in Russian is ''Yurodivyi''.
  
:''One form of the ascetic Christian life is called foolishness for the sake of Christ.  The fool-for-Christ set for himself the task of battling within himself the root of all sin, pride. In order to accomplish this he took on an unusual style of life, appearing as someone bereft of his mental faculties, thus bringing upon himself the ridicule of others. In addition he exposed the evil in the world through metaphorical and symbolic words and actions. He took this ascetic endeavor upon himself in order to humble himself and to also more effectively influence others, since most people respond to the usual ordinary sermon with indifference. The spiritual feat of foolishness for Christ was especially widespread in Russia.'' --(Excerpted from ''The Law of God'', Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, NY: 1993)
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<blockquote>Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. ([http://bible.gospelcom.net/passage/?search=1%20Corinthians%203:18-19;&version=9; 1 Corinthians 3:18-19 KJV])</blockquote>
  
Saint Andrew of Constantinople is considered to be the first such saint, although Saint Basil of Moscow is also widely known.
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<blockquote>''One form of the ascetic Christian life is called foolishness for the sake of Christ.  The fool-for-Christ set for himself the task of battling within himself the root of all sin, [[pride]]. In order to accomplish this he took on an unusual style of life, appearing as someone bereft of his mental faculties, thus bringing upon himself the ridicule of others. In addition he exposed the evil in the world through metaphorical and symbolic words and actions. He took this ascetic endeavor upon himself in order to humble himself and to also more effectively influence others, since most people respond to the usual ordinary sermon with indifference. The spiritual feat of foolishness for Christ was especially widespread in Russia.'' --(Excerpted from ''The Law of God'', Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, NY: 1993)</blockquote>
  
{{stub}}
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Saint Andrew of Constantinople is considered to be the first such saint, although Saint [[Basil the Blessed|Basil of Moscow]] is also widely known.
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==List of Holy Fools-for-Christ==
  
==Examples==
 
 
A list of some of the Fools-for-Christ's sake:
 
A list of some of the Fools-for-Christ's sake:
  
*[[Anastasia Andretevna]], Fool-for-Christ ([[March 1]])
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* [[Anastasia Andretevna]], Fool-for-Christ ([[March 1]])
*[[Blessed]] [[Andrew of Constantinople|Andrew the Fool-for-Christ of Constantinople]] ([[October 2]]) (d. 911)
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* [[Blessed]] [[Andrew of Constantinople|Andrew the Fool-for-Christ of Constantinople]] ([[October 2]]) (d. 936)
:[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=102838 Blessed Andrew, Fool for Christ]
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* Blessed Andrew of Totma, the Fool-for-Christ ([[October 10]])
:[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=102824 The Protection of the Most Holy Theotokos]
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* Blessed Anthony Alexseevich, Fool-for-Christ of Zadonsk ([[September 29]] - repose of) (1851)
:[http://www.standrewfoolforchrist.org/PatronSt.htm Saint Andrew, Fool-for-Christ - October 2/15]
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* Anthony Ivanovich, Fool-for-Christ of Valaam ([[June 7]] - repose of) (1832)
*Blessed Andrew of Totma, the Fool-for-Christ ([[October 10]])
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* [[Saint]] Arsenius of [[Novgorod]], Fool-for-Christ ([[May 8]])
*Blessed Anthony Alexseevich, Fool-for-Christ of Zadonsk ([[September 29]] - repose of) (1851)
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* Asenatha of Goritsky, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 19]] - repose of) (1892)
*Anthony Ivanovich, Fool-for-Christ of Valaam ([[June 7]] - repose of) (1832)
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* Blessed Athanasius Adrewyevich of Orel, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 12]] - repose of) (1967)
*[[Saint]] Arsenius of Novgorod, Fool-for-Christ ([[May 8]])
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* Blessed [[Basil the Blessed|Basil of Moscow, Fool-for-Christ]] ([[August 2]])
*Asenatha of Goritsky, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 19]] - repose of) (1892)
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* Blessed Cyprian of Suzdal ([[October 2]])
*Blessed Athanasius Adrewyevich of Orel, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 12]] - repose of) (1967)
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* Blessed George of Shenkursk, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 23]])
*Blessed [[Basil the Blessed|Basil of Moscow, Fool-for-Christ]] ([[August 2]])
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* Saint Isidore the Fool of Tabenna in Egypt ([[May 10]])
:[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=102185 Saint Basil the Blessed, Moscow Wonderworker]
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* [[Venerable]] Isidore the Fool-for-Christ and Wonder-worker of Rostov ([[May 14]])
*Blessed Cyprian of Suzdal ([[October 2]])
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* Blessed [[John the Hairy|John "the Hairy"]] the Fool-for-Christ at Rostov ([[September 3]] and [[November 12]])
*Blessed George of Shenkursk, Fool-for-Christ ([[April 23]])
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* Venerable John the Ascetic and Fool-for-Christ
*Saint Isidore the Fool of Tabenna in Egypt ([[May 10]])
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* Blessed John of Ustiug the Fool-for-Christ ([[March 14]] and [[May 29]] - repose of) (1893)
*[[Venerable]] Isidore the Fool-for-Christ and Wonder-worker of Rostov ([[May 14]])
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* Blessed John of Moscow, Miracle-worker and Fool-for-Christ ([[July 3]])
*Blessed [[John the Hairy|John "the Hairy"]] the Fool-for-Christ at Rostov ([[September 3]] and [[November 12]])
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* Jonah, Fool-for-Christ of Peshnosha Monastery ([[June 15]] - repose of) (1838)
*Venerable John the Ascetic and Fool-for-Christ
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* Blessed Laurence the Fool-for-Christ at Kaluga ([[August 10]])
*Blessed John of Ustiug the Fool-for-Christ ([[March 14]] and [[May 29]] - repose of) (1893)
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*Blessed John of Moscow, Miracle-worker and Fool-for-Christ ([[July 3]])
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*Jonah, Fool-for-Christ of Peshnosha Monastery ([[June 15]] - repose of) (1838)
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*Blessed Laurence the Fool-for-Christ at Kaluga ([[August 10]])
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<!-- fictional?? *Luke of Ephesus (11th C.) -->
 
<!-- fictional?? *Luke of Ephesus (11th C.) -->
*Blessed Maximus of Totma (Vologda), Fool-for-Christ ([[January 16]])
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* Saint Maximus Kausokalyves (Mt. Athos), ([[January 13]])
*Venerable Maximus of Moscow the Fool-for-Christ ([[August 13]] - opening of his [[relics]])
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* Blessed Maximus of Totma (Vologda), Fool-for-Christ ([[January 16]])
*Venerable Michael the Fool-for-Christ of the Klops Monastery ([[January 11]]) ([[June 23]] - translation of his relics)
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* Venerable Maximus of Moscow the Fool-for-Christ ([[August 13]] - opening of his [[relics]])
*[[New-Martyr]] Michael (Misha), Fool-for-Christ ([[April 1]]) (1931)
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* Venerable Michael the Fool-for-Christ of the Klops Monastery ([[January 11]]) ([[June 23]] - [[Translation (relics)|translation]] of his relics)
*Blessed Michael and Thomas, Fools-for-Christ of Solvychegodsk (Vologda) ([[July 3]])
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* [[New-Martyr]] Michael (Misha), Fool-for-Christ ([[April 1]]) (1931)
*Blessed Nicholas of Salos of Pskov the Fool-for-Christ ([[February 28]])
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* Blessed Michael and Thomas, Fools-for-Christ of Solvychegodsk (Vologda) ([[July 3]])
*Blessed Nicholas Kochanov, Fool-for-Christ at Novgorod ([[July 27]])
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* Blessed Nicholas of Salos of Pskov the Fool-for-Christ ([[February 28]])
*Blessed Paisius, Fool-for-Christ of the [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]] ([[April 17]] - repose of) (1893)
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* Blessed [[Nicholas Konchanov of Novgorod|Nicholas Kochanov]], Fool-for-Christ at Novgorod ([[July 27]])
*Blessed Parasceva "Pasha of Sarov," Fool-for Christ of Diveyevo Convent ([[September 22]]) (1915)
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* Blessed Paisius, Fool-for-Christ of the [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]] ([[April 17]] - repose of) (1893)
:[http://www.russianorthodox-roac.com/13.html Blessed Praskovya Ivanovna (Pasha of Sarov)]
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* Blessed Parasceva "Pasha of Sarov," Fool-for Christ of Diveyevo Convent ([[September 22]]) (1915)
*Saint Paul, Fool-for-Christ ([[November 6]])
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** [http://www.russianorthodox-roac.com/13.html Blessed Praskovya Ivanovna (Pasha of Sarov)]
*Pelagia Ivanovna Serebrennikova
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* Saint Paul, Fool-for-Christ ([[November 6]])
:[http://www.storytellingmonk.org/ref/holy_sights/people/pelagia.htm Pelagia Ivanovna a.k.a. Pelagia the Holy Fool]
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* Pelagia Ivanovna Serebrennikova
:[http://www.russianorthodox-roac.com/13.html Blessed Pelagia Ivanovna]
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** [http://www.storytellingmonk.org/ref/holy_sights/people/pelagia.htm Pelagia Ivanovna a.k.a. Pelagia the Holy Fool]
*Blessed Procopius of Vyatka, Fool-for-Christ ([[December 21]])
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** [http://www.russianorthodox-roac.com/13.html Blessed Pelagia Ivanovna]
*Saint Procopius the Fool-for-Christ and Wonder-worker of Ustiug ([[July 8]])
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* Blessed Procopius of Vyatka, Fool-for-Christ ([[December 21]])
*[[Righteous]] Procopius of Usya (Vologda), Fool-for-Christ ([[July 8]])
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* Saint Procopius the Fool-for-Christ and Wonder-worker of Ustiug ([[July 8]])
*Venerable Symeon of Emesa the Fool-for-Christ ([[July 21]])
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* [[Righteous]] Procopius of Usya (Vologda), Fool-for-Christ ([[July 8]])
*Blessed Simon of Yurievits, Fool-for-Christ ([[May 10]])
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* Venerable Symeon of Emesa the Fool-for-Christ ([[July 21]])
*Blessed [[Theodore of Novgorod]], Fool-for-Christ ([[January 19]])
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* Blessed Simon of Yurievits, Fool-for-Christ ([[May 10]])
*Saint Theodore, Fool-for-Christ ([[February 25]])
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* Blessed [[Theodore of Novgorod]], Fool-for-Christ ([[January 19]])
*New-Martyr Theoktista Michailovna of Voronezh ([[February 22]]) (1936)
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* Saint Theodore, Fool-for-Christ ([[February 25]])
*Blessed Schema-hieromonk Theophilus, Fool-for-Christ of the [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]] ([[October 28]] - repose of) (1852)
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* New-Martyr Theoktista Michailovna of Voronezh ([[February 22]]) (1936)
*Saint Thomas the Fool of Syria ([[April 24]])
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* Blessed Schema-hieromonk Theophilus, Fool-for-Christ of the [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]] ([[October 28]] - repose of) (1852)
*Saint [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]], Fool-for-Christ ([[January 24]])
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* Saint Thomas the Fool of Syria ([[April 24]])
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* Saint [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]], Fool-for-Christ ([[January 24]])
  
==See also==
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==Orthodox Psychotherapy: Further Reading==
*[[Saint titles]]
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*[[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]], ''[http://www.pelagia.org/htm/b02.en.orthodox_psychotherapy.00.htm#more Orthodox Psychotherapy].'' 1994. ISBN 9607070208
  
==External Links and Sources==
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*[[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia]]. “The Fool in Christ as Prophet and Apostle,” ''Sobornost'' (incorporating ''Eastern Churches Review'') , new series 6.2 (1984), 6-28.  
*[http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started960610/0124.html Fools for Christ]
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:[http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started960610/ Re: Fools for Christ] scroll down for responses to ''Fools for Christ''
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<!-- *[http://www.beyond-the-pale.co.uk/fools.htm Fools for Nothingness: The atheist as failed saint: Antonin Artaud, Jean Genet and Fools for Christ]  I am unsure as to whether this article is suitable for Orthodox readers. I would rather not lead someone astray, and would like guidance on this matter. --->
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*[http://www.roca.org/OA/105/105f.htm Orthodox America: Diveyevo’s Holy "Fools"]
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*[http://www.unicorne.org/orthodoxy/articles/saints_icons/saints_new/blessedfools.htm Choir of all Blessed Fools-for-Christ's Sake and Miracle-Workers]
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*Fr. [[Dumitru Staniloae]], ''Prayer and Holiness''. Fairacres Publications, September 1982.  ISBN 0 7283 0093 1
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*Dr. Donald Blais ([[w:Doctor of Theology|ThD]]), ''[http://amicus.collectionscanada.gc.ca/aaweb-bin/aamain/itemdisp?sessionKey=999999999_142&l=0&d=2&v=0&lvl=1&itm=21565549 Passion and Pathology in Teresa of Avila's Mystical Transformation: With Reference to the Transpersonal Theories of Michael Washburn]''. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Regis College and the Pastoral Department of the Toronto School of Theology, University of Toronto. Submitted August 1, 1997. Defended October 16, 1997.
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:: ''Dr. Blais is an Orthodox Christian Russian-styled monk-in-the-world (monach-ou-miru), ([[Orthodox Church in America|OCA]]), and a Penobscot-Metis. His study on Holy Madness is [http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ35453.pdf available online] at the National Library of Canada.''
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*Dr.[[Jean-Claude Larchet]], ''Mental Disorders and Spiritual Healing: Teachings from the Early Christian East''. 1st Ed. Transl. by G. John Champoux and Rama P. Coomaraswamy. Published by Sophia Perennis, July 2005. (ISBN 1597310611) (ISBN 9781597310611)
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:: [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/OrthodoxNews/message/8451 Reviewed] in the Russian Newspaper: ''Ex Libris NG (Nezavisimaya Gazeta)'', Thursday January 17, 2008.
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:: ''French theologian and Doctor of Philosophy Jean-Claude Larche's study of modern psychiatry with respect to studying the Orthodox view of 'madness', drawing on patristic and hagiographical literature of the I-XIV centuries, recounting the experience of healing mental illness by holy fathers, who, unlike psychiatrists, examined the person, took into account the totality of the human being (spirit, soul, and body). Pays special attention to "Fools for Christ's sake" - Yurodstvo.''
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* Dr. [http://www.drchirban.com/about/index.html John T. Chirban] (Ph.D, Th.D). ''[http://store.holycrossbookstore.com/hoheinby.html Holistic Healing in Byzantium].'' [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross Orthodox Press]], 2009. ISBN 9781885652898
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* Bishop Chrysostomos and Thomas Brecht. ''[http://www.springerlink.com/content/qr1m71752g53u64t/ Jung and the mystical theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church: Comments on common ground].'' In: '''Pastoral Psychology''', Volume 38, Number 4 / June, 1990. pp.197-203. ISSN 0031-2789 (Print) 1573-6679 (Online)
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:: ''Bishop Chrysostomos is Academic Director of the Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies at the St. Gregory Palamas Monastery in Etna, CA. He received his doctorate in psychology at Princeton University.''
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:: ''Dr. Thomas Brecht is a psychologist in private practice with the Alabama Psychiatric Services, Birmingham AL.''
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== See also ==
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* [[Asceticism]]
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* [[Nous]]
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* [[Saint titles]]
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* [[:Category:Fools-for-Christ]]
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* [[Exorcism]]
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== External Links and Sources ==
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* [http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started960610/0124.html Fools for Christ]
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** [http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/subject/hd/fak7/hist/o1/logs/byzans-l/log.started960610/ Re: Fools for Christ] scroll down for responses to ''Fools for Christ''
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* [http://www.roca.org/OA/105/105f.htm Orthodox America: Diveyevo’s Holy "Fools"]
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* [http://www.unicorne.org/orthodoxy/articles/saints_icons/saints_new/blessedfools.htm Choir of all Blessed Fools-for-Christ's Sake and Miracle-Workers]
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<!-- * [http://www.beyond-the-pale.co.uk/fools.htm Fools for Nothingness: The atheist as failed saint: Antonin Artaud, Jean Genet and Fools for Christ]  I am unsure as to whether this article is suitable for Orthodox readers.  I would rather not lead someone astray, and would like guidance on this matter. --->
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[[Category:Fools-for-Christ]]
 
[[Category:Saints]]
 
[[Category:Saints]]
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[[Category:Orthodox spirituality series]]
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[[Category:Church Life]]
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[[el:Δια Χριστόν σαλότητα]]
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[[ro:Nebun pentru Hristos]]

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A saint who has the title Fool-for-Christ is one who is known for his apparent, yet holy, insanity. This title in Russian is Yurodivyi.

Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. (1 Corinthians 3:18-19 KJV)
One form of the ascetic Christian life is called foolishness for the sake of Christ. The fool-for-Christ set for himself the task of battling within himself the root of all sin, pride. In order to accomplish this he took on an unusual style of life, appearing as someone bereft of his mental faculties, thus bringing upon himself the ridicule of others. In addition he exposed the evil in the world through metaphorical and symbolic words and actions. He took this ascetic endeavor upon himself in order to humble himself and to also more effectively influence others, since most people respond to the usual ordinary sermon with indifference. The spiritual feat of foolishness for Christ was especially widespread in Russia. --(Excerpted from The Law of God, Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville, NY: 1993)

Saint Andrew of Constantinople is considered to be the first such saint, although Saint Basil of Moscow is also widely known.

Contents

List of Holy Fools-for-Christ

A list of some of the Fools-for-Christ's sake:

Orthodox Psychotherapy: Further Reading

  • Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. “The Fool in Christ as Prophet and Apostle,” Sobornost (incorporating Eastern Churches Review) , new series 6.2 (1984), 6-28.
Dr. Blais is an Orthodox Christian Russian-styled monk-in-the-world (monach-ou-miru), (OCA), and a Penobscot-Metis. His study on Holy Madness is available online at the National Library of Canada.
Reviewed in the Russian Newspaper: Ex Libris NG (Nezavisimaya Gazeta), Thursday January 17, 2008.
French theologian and Doctor of Philosophy Jean-Claude Larche's study of modern psychiatry with respect to studying the Orthodox view of 'madness', drawing on patristic and hagiographical literature of the I-XIV centuries, recounting the experience of healing mental illness by holy fathers, who, unlike psychiatrists, examined the person, took into account the totality of the human being (spirit, soul, and body). Pays special attention to "Fools for Christ's sake" - Yurodstvo.
Bishop Chrysostomos is Academic Director of the Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies at the St. Gregory Palamas Monastery in Etna, CA. He received his doctorate in psychology at Princeton University.
Dr. Thomas Brecht is a psychologist in private practice with the Alabama Psychiatric Services, Birmingham AL.

See also

External Links and Sources

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