Fasting in the Orthodox Church is usually considered abstaining from certain foods during fast days or periods. However, fasting means more than simply abstaining from foods. It includes refraining from evil actions and thoughts, and even marital relations.
There are four main periods of fasting (lenten periods):
- 1 Great Lent is the period of six weeks before Palm Sunday as well as Holy Week in anticipation of that greatest of feasts.
- 2 Advent, or the Nativity fast, is the period from November 15 to December 24 (forty days) in anticipation of Christmas.
- 3 The Apostles' fast is the period from the week following Pentecost (a variable feast) to the feast day of Sts. Peter and Paul on June 29.
- 4 The Dormition fast is the period of the first two weeks of August in anticipation of the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos.
Orthodox Christians also regularly fast on Wednesdays and Fridays to commemorate, respectively, Christ's betrayal by Judas Iscariot and His Crucifixion. Monasteries additionally commemorate the angels on Mondays by fasting.
Fasting in preparation for receiving the Holy Eucharist
Fasting is a part of the preparation for receiving the Body and Blood of Christ. Additionally, specific prayers are important in readying oneself. For morning Liturgies, one abstains from meat after the preceding Vespers, and keeps a strict fast (no food or drink, even water) from arising from sleep until receiving Communion. For afternoon or evening Liturgies, one should keep a strict fast for at least six hours if possible. Because a priest eats and drinks the remaining Eucharist, he fasts before every Liturgy he celebrates.
When travelling or ill, Orthodox are not obliged to fast. Additionally, exceptions are made for hospitality, because the focus should not be on outward shows of piety, but rather accepting the love and generosity of others. Orthodox Christians should not fast to the detriment of their health. If you are new to fasting, ask your priest for guidance before you begin.
Fasting related to foods has many different degrees. During Great Lent, Wednesdays, and Fridays, daily fasting is at its most strict, abstaining from:
- meat (anything with a backbone),
- dairy products (eggs are in this or the previous category),
- olive oil, and
On many other feasts, particular foods are avoided, in lesser degrees of fasting.
Fasting also partners with prayer and almsgiving, readying the whole person like an athlete, body, mind, and soul, for an upcoming feast, similar to the way in which Orthodox Christians would hope to be properly prepared for the Second Coming. For this reason, during fasting seasons, no marriages should take place. (Cf. Pastoral Guidelines.)