Fasting

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'''Fasting''' in the [[Orthodox Church]] is usually considered abstaining from certain foods during fast days or periods.  However, fasting means more than simply abstaining from foods.  It includes refraining from evil actions and thoughts, and even [[marriage|marital]] relations.
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{{spirituality}}
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'''Fasting''' in the [[Orthodox Church]] is usually considered abstaining from certain foods during specific days or periods.  However, fasting means more than simply abstaining from foods.  It also may include refraining from [[marriage|marital]] relations and limiting entertainment, for instance. Certainly, it is a time when there is increased focus on refraining from evil actions and thoughts.
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==Types of fasting==
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Orthodox Christians usually have one three types of fasting in mind when they speak of fasting.
  
{{stub}}
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===Ascetic fast===
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[[Ascetic]] fasting is done by a set [[monastic]] rules.  These rules exist not as a Pharisaic "burden too hard to bear" ([[Gospel of Luke|Luke]] 11:46), but as an ideal to strive for.  Ascetic fast rules are not an end in themselves, but are means to [[spiritual]] perfection crowned in love, and aided by prayer.  The rules mainly consists of total abstinence from certain foods and a substantial dietary reduction.
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===Eucharistic or liturgical fast===
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[[Eucharist]]ic fasting does not refer to the normal abstinence in preparation for receiving the Holy Communion; it means fasting from the holy Eucharist celebration itself.  This is done during the week days of Great Lent along with an ascetic fast.
 +
 
 +
===Total fast===
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This is a total abstinence from all food and drink for a short duration. This is done for one or even just part of a day, for spiritual concentration on something that is to come. For example, the eve of Christmas, or the time before receiving Holy Communion.  It is an ultimate last preparation for a [[Great Feast]] or decisive spiritual event.
  
 
==Fasting times==
 
==Fasting times==
===Lenten periods===
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===Extended fasting periods===
There are four main periods of fasting (lenten periods):
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There are four main periods of extended fasting:
:1. [[Great Lent]] is the period of six weeks following the [[Lenten Triodion]] and preceding [[Holy Week]] in anticipation of that greatest of [[Great Feasts|feasts]], [[Pascha]].
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#The [[Great Lent]] is the period of six weeks preceding [[Holy Week]] in anticipation of the Feast of [[Great Feasts|Feasts]], [[Pascha]], followed by the fasting of [[Holy Week]]. Great Lent is preceded by the ''Meatfast'', that starts on the Monday after the [[Sunday of the Last Judgment]] through [[Cheesefare Sunday]].
:2. Advent, or the [[Nativity]] fast (also called St. [[Apostle Philip|Philip]]'s Fast, coming immediately after his feast on [[November 14]]), is the period from [[November 15]] to [[December 24]] (forty days) in anticipation of [[Christmas]].
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#The [[Nativity]] Fast (or Advent; also called St. [[Apostle Philip (of the Twelve)|Philip]]'s Fast, coming immediately after his feast on [[November 14]]), is the period from [[November 15]] to [[December 24]] (forty days) in anticipation of [[Christmas]], the Festival of the Nativity of the Savior.
:3. The [[Apostles]]' fast is the period from the week following [[Pentecost]] (a variable feast) to the [[feast day]] of Sts. [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] and [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] on [[June 29]].
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#The [[Apostles]]' Fast is the period from the Monday after [[All Saints]] (a variable feast) to the [[feast day]] of Ss. [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] and [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] on [[June 29]].
:4. The [[Dormition]] fast is the period of the first two weeks of August in anticipation of the feast of the [[Dormition]] of the [[Theotokos]].
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#The [[Dormition]] Fast is the period of the first two weeks of August in anticipation of the feast of the [[Dormition]] of the [[Theotokos]].
  
 
===Fasting days===
 
===Fasting days===
:Eve of [[Theophany]] ([[January 5]])
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*Eve of [[Theophany]] ([[January 5]])
:Beheading of St. [[John the Forerunner|John the Baptist]] ([[August 29]])
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*Beheading of St. [[John the Forerunner|John the Baptist]] ([[August 29]])
:[[Elevation of the Cross]] ([[September 14]])
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*[[Elevation of the Holy Cross]] ([[September 14]])
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*All Wednesdays, except for Fast-Free Weeks, in remembrance of the betrayal of Christ by [[Judas Iscariot]].
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*All Fridays, except for Fast-Free Weeks, in remembrance of Christ’s Crucifixion.
  
 
===Regular fasting===
 
===Regular fasting===
Line 20: Line 32:
  
 
===Preparation for receiving the Holy Eucharist===
 
===Preparation for receiving the Holy Eucharist===
Fasting is a part of the preparation for receiving the [[Eucharist|Body and Blood]] of [[Jesus Christ|Christ]].  Additionally, specific [[prayer]]s are important in readying oneself.  For morning [[Divine Liturgy|Liturgies]], one abstains from meat after the preceding [[Vespers]], and keeps a strict fast (no food or drink, even water) from arising from sleep until receiving Communion.  For afternoon or evening Liturgies, one should keep a strict fast for at least six hours if possible. Because a priest eats and drinks the remaining Eucharist, he fasts before every Liturgy he celebrates.
+
Fasting is a part of the preparation for receiving the [[Eucharist|Body and Blood]] of [[Jesus Christ|Christ]].  Additionally, confession and a specific rule of [[prayer]]s are necessary for proper preparation.   
 +
 
 +
For morning [[Divine Liturgy|Liturgies]], one keeps an absolute fast (no food or drink, even water) on arising from sleep until receiving Communion.  Some also abstain from meat and dairy after the preceding [[Vespers]].  For afternoon or evening Liturgies, one should keep an absolute fast for at least six hours.
 +
 
 +
One should always check with the primary celebrant of the Divine Liturgy to verify his expectations regarding preparation for reception of the Eucharist.
 +
 
 +
Because the celebrating priest or deacon will commune and then consume the remaining Eucharist, he observes an absolute fast before every Liturgy he celebrates.
  
 
===Exceptions===
 
===Exceptions===
When travelling or ill, Orthodox are not obliged to fast.  Additionally, exceptions are made for hospitality, because the focus should not be on outward shows of piety, but rather accepting the love and generosity of others.  Orthodox Christians should not fast to the detriment of their health.  ''If you are new to fasting, ask your [[priest]] for guidance before you begin.''
+
The fasting discipline may be relaxed, if necessary, when one is travelling or ill.  Additionally, exceptions should be made when receiving another's hospitality, because the focus should not be on outward shows of piety, but rather accepting the love and generosity of others.  Orthodox Christians should not fast to the detriment of their health.  Fasting is a means to an end and not an end in itself.  ''If you are new to fasting, ask your [[priest]] for guidance before you begin.''
  
 
===Fast-free weeks===
 
===Fast-free weeks===
Line 29: Line 47:
  
 
:[[Afterfeast]] of the [[Nativity]] of [[Christ]] to [[Theophany]] Eve ([[December 25]] through [[January 4]])
 
:[[Afterfeast]] of the [[Nativity]] of [[Christ]] to [[Theophany]] Eve ([[December 25]] through [[January 4]])
:Week following the Sunday of the [[Publican and Pharisee]] (second week of the [[Lenten Triodion]])
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:Week following the [[Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee]] (first week of the [[Lenten Triodion]])
 
:[[Bright Week]] (week after [[Pascha]])
 
:[[Bright Week]] (week after [[Pascha]])
 
:[[Trinity Week]] (week after [[Pentecost]])
 
:[[Trinity Week]] (week after [[Pentecost]])
Line 41: Line 59:
 
:wine.
 
:wine.
  
Additionally, during Great Lent, the size and number of meals, as well as the selection, are also smaller.  On many other [[feast day|feast]] or fast days, particular foods are avoided or permitted, in lesser degrees of fasting.
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Additionally, during Great Lent, the size and number of meals, as well as the selection, are smaller.  On many other [[feast day|feast]] or fast days, particular foods are avoided or permitted, in lesser degrees of fasting.
  
 
==Spiritual meaning==
 
==Spiritual meaning==
Fasting also partners with [[prayer]], [[almsgiving]] and [[confession]], readying the whole person like an athlete, body, mind, and soul, for an upcoming [[feast]], similar to the way in which Orthodox Christians would hope to be properly prepared for the [[Second Coming]].  For this reason, during fasting seasons, no [[marriage]]s should take place. (Cf. [[Pastoral Guidelines]].) Another important part of any fasting period is going to [[Confession]].
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Fasting also partners with [[prayer]], [[almsgiving]] and [[confession]], readying the whole person like an athlete, body, mind, and soul, for an upcoming [[feast]], similar to the way in which Orthodox Christians would hope to be properly prepared for the [[Second Coming]].  For this reason, during fasting seasons, no [[marriage]]s should take place.  Another important part of any fasting period is going to [[Confession]].
  
 
==History and Tradition==
 
==History and Tradition==
The Christians inherited the tradition of fasting from the [[Judaism|Jews]].  Jesus, too, gave examples of fasting to his [[disciple]]s, most notably preceding his forty days in the desert when he was tempted by the [[devil]] ([[Gospel of Matthew|Matt]] 4:1-11).
+
The Christians inherited the tradition of fasting from the [[Judaism|Jews]].  Jesus, too, gave examples of fasting to his [[disciple]]s, most notably preceding his forty days in the desert when he was tempted by the [[devil]] ([[Gospel of Matthew|Matt]] 4:1-11).  
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 61: Line 79:
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
*[http://www.oca.org/pages/orth_chri/calendar/liturgicalcalendar.html Liturgical Calendar] on the [[Orthodox Church in America]] site
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*[http://www.oca.org/OCFasting.asp Concerning Fasting] on the [[Orthodox Church in America]] site
 
*[http://www.cptryon.org/prayer/adx/advfood.html "What Should We Make to Eat?"] by Mary Ann Castronovo Fusco
 
*[http://www.cptryon.org/prayer/adx/advfood.html "What Should We Make to Eat?"] by Mary Ann Castronovo Fusco
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[[Category:Asceticism]]
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[[Category:Church Life]]
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[[fr:Jeûne]]
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[[ro:Postul]]
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[[el:Νηστεία]]

Revision as of 17:43, May 25, 2011

This article forms part of the series
Orthodox Spirituality
Holy Mysteries
Baptism - Chrismation
Eucharist - Confession
Marriage - Ordination
Holy Unction
Three Stages
Catharsis/Purification
Theoria/Illumination
Theosis/Divinization
Hesychasm
Nepsis - Metanoia
Hesychia - Phronema
Mysticism - Nous
Asceticism
Chastity - Obedience
Stability - Fasting
Poverty - Monasticism
Virtues
Humility - Generosity
Chastity - Meekness
Temperance - Contentment
Diligence
Prayer
Worship - Veneration
Prayer Rule - Jesus Prayer
Relics - Sign of the Cross
Church Fathers
Apostolic Fathers
Desert Fathers
Cappadocians
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The Ladder of Divine Ascent
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Fasting in the Orthodox Church is usually considered abstaining from certain foods during specific days or periods. However, fasting means more than simply abstaining from foods. It also may include refraining from marital relations and limiting entertainment, for instance. Certainly, it is a time when there is increased focus on refraining from evil actions and thoughts.

Contents

Types of fasting

Orthodox Christians usually have one three types of fasting in mind when they speak of fasting.

Ascetic fast

Ascetic fasting is done by a set monastic rules. These rules exist not as a Pharisaic "burden too hard to bear" (Luke 11:46), but as an ideal to strive for. Ascetic fast rules are not an end in themselves, but are means to spiritual perfection crowned in love, and aided by prayer. The rules mainly consists of total abstinence from certain foods and a substantial dietary reduction.

Eucharistic or liturgical fast

Eucharistic fasting does not refer to the normal abstinence in preparation for receiving the Holy Communion; it means fasting from the holy Eucharist celebration itself. This is done during the week days of Great Lent along with an ascetic fast.

Total fast

This is a total abstinence from all food and drink for a short duration. This is done for one or even just part of a day, for spiritual concentration on something that is to come. For example, the eve of Christmas, or the time before receiving Holy Communion. It is an ultimate last preparation for a Great Feast or decisive spiritual event.

Fasting times

Extended fasting periods

There are four main periods of extended fasting:

  1. The Great Lent is the period of six weeks preceding Holy Week in anticipation of the Feast of Feasts, Pascha, followed by the fasting of Holy Week. Great Lent is preceded by the Meatfast, that starts on the Monday after the Sunday of the Last Judgment through Cheesefare Sunday.
  2. The Nativity Fast (or Advent; also called St. Philip's Fast, coming immediately after his feast on November 14), is the period from November 15 to December 24 (forty days) in anticipation of Christmas, the Festival of the Nativity of the Savior.
  3. The Apostles' Fast is the period from the Monday after All Saints (a variable feast) to the feast day of Ss. Peter and Paul on June 29.
  4. The Dormition Fast is the period of the first two weeks of August in anticipation of the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos.

Fasting days

Regular fasting

Orthodox Christians also regularly fast on Wednesdays and Fridays to commemorate, respectively, Christ's betrayal by Judas Iscariot and His Crucifixion. Monasteries additionally commemorate the angels on Mondays by fasting.

Preparation for receiving the Holy Eucharist

Fasting is a part of the preparation for receiving the Body and Blood of Christ. Additionally, confession and a specific rule of prayers are necessary for proper preparation.

For morning Liturgies, one keeps an absolute fast (no food or drink, even water) on arising from sleep until receiving Communion. Some also abstain from meat and dairy after the preceding Vespers. For afternoon or evening Liturgies, one should keep an absolute fast for at least six hours.

One should always check with the primary celebrant of the Divine Liturgy to verify his expectations regarding preparation for reception of the Eucharist.

Because the celebrating priest or deacon will commune and then consume the remaining Eucharist, he observes an absolute fast before every Liturgy he celebrates.

Exceptions

The fasting discipline may be relaxed, if necessary, when one is travelling or ill. Additionally, exceptions should be made when receiving another's hospitality, because the focus should not be on outward shows of piety, but rather accepting the love and generosity of others. Orthodox Christians should not fast to the detriment of their health. Fasting is a means to an end and not an end in itself. If you are new to fasting, ask your priest for guidance before you begin.

Fast-free weeks

After certain feasts, Orthodox Christians do not fast, in order to show their joy for the feast.

Afterfeast of the Nativity of Christ to Theophany Eve (December 25 through January 4)
Week following the Sunday of the Publican and Pharisee (first week of the Lenten Triodion)
Bright Week (week after Pascha)
Trinity Week (week after Pentecost)

Foods

Fasting related to foods has many different degrees. During Great Lent, Wednesdays, and Fridays, daily fasting is at its most strict, abstaining from:

meat (anything with a backbone),
dairy products (eggs are in this or the previous category),
olive oil, and
wine.

Additionally, during Great Lent, the size and number of meals, as well as the selection, are smaller. On many other feast or fast days, particular foods are avoided or permitted, in lesser degrees of fasting.

Spiritual meaning

Fasting also partners with prayer, almsgiving and confession, readying the whole person like an athlete, body, mind, and soul, for an upcoming feast, similar to the way in which Orthodox Christians would hope to be properly prepared for the Second Coming. For this reason, during fasting seasons, no marriages should take place. Another important part of any fasting period is going to Confession.

History and Tradition

The Christians inherited the tradition of fasting from the Jews. Jesus, too, gave examples of fasting to his disciples, most notably preceding his forty days in the desert when he was tempted by the devil (Matt 4:1-11).

See also

External Links

Sources

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