Ecumenical Councils

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== Seven or Nine Ecumenical Councils? ==
 
== Seven or Nine Ecumenical Councils? ==
  
As far as some Orthodox are concerned, since the [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] there has been no synod or council of the same scope as any of the Ecumenical councils.  Local meetings of hierarchs have been called "pan-Orthodox," but these have invariably been simply meetings of local hierarchs of whatever Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions are party to an specific local matter.  From those point of view, there had been no fully "pan-Orthodox" ('''Ecumenical''') council since 787.  Unfortunately, the use of the term "pan-Orthodox" is confusing to those not within Eastern Orthodoxy, and it leads to mistaken impressions that these are ''ersatz'' ecumenical councils rather than purely local councils to which nearby Orthodox hierarchs, regardless of jurisdiction, are invited.
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As far as some Orthodox are concerned, since the [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] there has been no synod or council of the same scope as any of the Ecumenical councils.  Local meetings of hierarchs have been called "pan-Orthodox," but these have invariably been simply meetings of local hierarchs of whatever Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions are party to a specific local matter.  From this point of view, there has been no fully "pan-Orthodox" ('''Ecumenical''') council since 787.  Unfortunately, the use of the term "pan-Orthodox" is confusing to those not within Eastern Orthodoxy, and it leads to mistaken impressions that these are ''ersatz'' ecumenical councils rather than purely local councils to which nearby Orthodox hierarchs, regardless of jurisdiction, are invited.
  
Others, including 20th century theologians Fr. [[John S. Romanides]] and Fr. [[George Metallinos]] (both of whom refer repeatedly to the "Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils"), Fr. [[George Dragas]], Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]], and the 1849 [[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]] (which refers explicitly to the "Eighth Ecumenical Council" and wasn't signed by the [[patriarch]]s of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]] as well as the [[Holy Synod]]s of the first three), regard other synods beyond the [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] as being ecumenical.  Those who regard these councils as ecumenical often characterize the limitation of Ecumenical Councils to only seven to be the result of Jesuit influence in Russia, part of the so-called "[[Western Captivity of Orthodoxy]]."
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Others, including 20th century theologians Fr. [[John S. Romanides]] and Fr. [[George Metallinos]] (both of whom refer repeatedly to the "Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils"), Fr. [[George Dragas]], Metropolitan [[Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos]], and the 1848 [[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]] (which refers explicitly to the "Eighth Ecumenical Council" and was signed by the [[patriarch]]s of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]] as well as the [[Holy Synod]]s of the first three), regard other synods beyond the [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] as being ecumenical.  Those who regard these councils as ecumenical often characterize the limitation of Ecumenical Councils to only seven to be the result of Jesuit influence in Russia, part of the so-called "[[Western Captivity of Orthodoxy]]."
  
 
== List of Ecumenical Councils ==
 
== List of Ecumenical Councils ==
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* II. [[Second Ecumenical Council|First Council of Constantinople]], (381); revised the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Nicene Creed]] into the present form used in the [[Orthodox Church|Eastern]] and [[Oriental Orthodox]] churches.
 
* II. [[Second Ecumenical Council|First Council of Constantinople]], (381); revised the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Nicene Creed]] into the present form used in the [[Orthodox Church|Eastern]] and [[Oriental Orthodox]] churches.
  
* III. [[Third Ecumenical Council|Council of Ephesus]], (431); repudiated [[Nestorianism]], proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God (Greek, [[Theotokos|Θεοτόκος]]).
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* III. [[Third Ecumenical Council|Council of Ephesus]], (431); repudiated [[Nestorianism]], proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God (Greek, [[Theotokos|Θεοτόκος]]).
  
* IV. [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Council of Chalcedon]], (451); repudiated the [[Eutychianism|Eutychian]] doctrine of [[Monophysitism]], described and delineated the two natures of Christ, human or divine; adopted the [[Chalcedonian Creed]]. This or all following councils are not recognized by [[Oriental Orthodox|Oriental Orthodox Communion]].
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* IV. [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Council of Chalcedon]], (451); repudiated the [[Eutychianism|Eutychian]] doctrine of [[Monophysitism]], described and delineated the two natures of Christ, human and divine; adopted the [[Chalcedonian Creed]]. This and all following councils are not recognized by [[Oriental Orthodox|Oriental Orthodox Communion]].
  
* V. [[Fifth Ecumenical Council|Second Council of Constantinople]], (553); reaffirmed decisions and doctrines explicated by previous Councils, condemned new [[Arianism|Arian]], [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]], or [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]] writings.
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* V. [[Fifth Ecumenical Council|Second Council of Constantinople]], (553); reaffirmed decisions and doctrines explicated by previous Councils, condemned new [[Arianism|Arian]], [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]], and [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]] writings.
  
* VI. [[Sixth Ecumenical Council|Third Council of Constantinople]], (680-681); repudiated [[Monothelitism]], affirmed this Christ have both human and Divine wills.
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* VI. [[Sixth Ecumenical Council|Third Council of Constantinople]], (680-681); repudiated [[Monothelitism]], affirmed that Christ had both human and Divine wills.
  
**[[Quinisext Council|Quinisext/Penthekte Council]] (= Fifth or Sixth) or Council in Trullo, (692); mostly an administrative council this raised some local [[canon]]s to ecumenical status or established principles of clerical discipline. It is not considered to be a full-fledged council in its own right because it did not determine matters of doctrine. This council is accepted by the [[Orthodox Church]] as an part of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]], but that is rejected by [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholics]].
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**[[Quinisext Council|Quinisext/Penthekte Council]] (= Fifth and Sixth) or Council in Trullo, (692); mostly an administrative council that raised some local [[canon]]s to ecumenical status and established principles of clerical discipline. It is not considered to be a full-fledged council in its own right because it did not determine matters of doctrine. This council is accepted by the [[Orthodox Church]] as a part of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]], but that is rejected by [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholics]].
  
* VII. [[Seventh Ecumenical Council|Second Council of Nicaea]], (787); restoration of the veneration of [[icons]] or end of the first [[iconoclasm]].
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* VII. [[Seventh Ecumenical Council|Second Council of Nicaea]], (787); restoration of the veneration of [[icons]] and end of the first [[iconoclasm]].
  
  
 
The next two are regarded as ecumenical by some in the [[Orthodox Church]] but not by other Orthodox Christians, who instead consider them to be important local councils.
 
The next two are regarded as ecumenical by some in the [[Orthodox Church]] but not by other Orthodox Christians, who instead consider them to be important local councils.
  
* VIII.  [[Eighth Ecumenical Council|Fourth Council of Constantinople]], (879-880); restored St. [[Photius the Great]] to his see in Constantinople and anathematized any who altered the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], abrogating the decrees of the [[Robber Council of 869-870]].  This council wasn't at first accepted as ecumenical by the West but later repudiated in favor the [[Robber Council of 869-870|robber council]] which have deposed Photius.
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* VIII.  [[Eighth Ecumenical Council|Fourth Council of Constantinople]], (879-880); restored St. [[Photius the Great]] to his see in Constantinople and anathematized any who altered the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], abrogating the decrees of the [[Robber Council of 869-870]].  This council was at first accepted as ecumenical by the West but later repudiated in favor the [[Robber Council of 869-870|robber council]] which had deposed Photius.
  
 
* IX.  [[Ninth Ecumenical Council|Fifth Council of Constantinople]], (1341-1351); affirmed [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology according to St. [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemned the Westernized philosopher [[Barlaam of Calabria]].
 
* IX.  [[Ninth Ecumenical Council|Fifth Council of Constantinople]], (1341-1351); affirmed [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology according to St. [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemned the Westernized philosopher [[Barlaam of Calabria]].
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
  
* [http://oca.org/pages/orth_chri/Orthodox-Faith/Doctrine/The-Councils.html The Councils] - Fr. Thomas Hopko's outline of the Ecumenical Councils (in "the rainbow series" [[Orthodox_Catechisms_in_English|catechism]])
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* [http://oca.org/pages/orth_chri/Orthodox-Faith/Doctrine/The-Councils.html The Councils] - Fr. Thomas Hopko's outline of the Ecumenical Councils (in "the rainbow series" [[Orthodox_Catechisms_in_English|catechism]])
 
* [http://home.it.net.au/~jgrapsas/pages/Ecumenical_Councils.htm The Ecumenical Councils of the Orthodox Church] by the V. Rev. N. Patrinacos
 
* [http://home.it.net.au/~jgrapsas/pages/Ecumenical_Councils.htm The Ecumenical Councils of the Orthodox Church] by the V. Rev. N. Patrinacos
 
* [http://www.geocities.com/trvalentine/orthodox/8-9synods.html The Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils]
 
* [http://www.geocities.com/trvalentine/orthodox/8-9synods.html The Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils]
* [http://mb-soft.com/believe/txw/orthcoun.htm Orthodox Church Listing of Synods or Councils]
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* [http://mb-soft.com/believe/txw/orthcoun.htm Orthodox Church Listing of Synods and Councils]
  
  

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Seven or Nine Ecumenical Councils?

As far as some Orthodox are concerned, since the Seventh Ecumenical Council there has been no synod or council of the same scope as any of the Ecumenical councils. Local meetings of hierarchs have been called "pan-Orthodox," but these have invariably been simply meetings of local hierarchs of whatever Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions are party to a specific local matter. From this point of view, there has been no fully "pan-Orthodox" (Ecumenical) council since 787. Unfortunately, the use of the term "pan-Orthodox" is confusing to those not within Eastern Orthodoxy, and it leads to mistaken impressions that these are ersatz ecumenical councils rather than purely local councils to which nearby Orthodox hierarchs, regardless of jurisdiction, are invited.

Others, including 20th century theologians Fr. John S. Romanides and Fr. George Metallinos (both of whom refer repeatedly to the "Eighth and Ninth Ecumenical Councils"), Fr. George Dragas, Metropolitan Hierotheos (Vlachos) of Nafpaktos, and the 1848 Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs (which refers explicitly to the "Eighth Ecumenical Council" and was signed by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria as well as the Holy Synods of the first three), regard other synods beyond the Seventh Ecumenical Council as being ecumenical. Those who regard these councils as ecumenical often characterize the limitation of Ecumenical Councils to only seven to be the result of Jesuit influence in Russia, part of the so-called "Western Captivity of Orthodoxy."

List of Ecumenical Councils

    • Quinisext/Penthekte Council (= Fifth and Sixth) or Council in Trullo, (692); mostly an administrative council that raised some local canons to ecumenical status and established principles of clerical discipline. It is not considered to be a full-fledged council in its own right because it did not determine matters of doctrine. This council is accepted by the Orthodox Church as a part of the Sixth Ecumenical Council, but that is rejected by Roman Catholics.


The next two are regarded as ecumenical by some in the Orthodox Church but not by other Orthodox Christians, who instead consider them to be important local councils.


See also


External links

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