Desert Fathers

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From the Sayings of the Desert Fathers (Part I)
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{{Spirituality}}
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The '''Desert Fathers''' were early [[monasticism|monastic]] founders in the deserts of Egypt, fleeing the cities and making their lives in the wilderness, living in [[asceticism]] and solitude.
  
Abba Ammonas was asked, 'What is the "narrow and hard way?" (Mt. 7.14) He replied, 'The "narrow and hard way" is this, to control your thoughts, and to strip yourself of your own will, for the sake of God. This is also the meaning of the sentence, "Lo, we have left everything and followed you." (Mt. 19.27)
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==Glossary Definition==
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The phrase "desert fathers" encompasses an influential fourth century group of [[Hermit|hermits]] and cenobites who settled in the Egyptian desert. The origins of Western [[monasticism]] lie in these primitive hermitages and religious communities. [[Paul of Thebes]] is the first hermit recorded to set the tradition of monastic asceticism and contemplation, and [[Pachomius the Father of Coenobitic Monasticism|Pachomius of Thebaid]] is considered the founder of cenobitism, or early monasticism. At the end of the third century, however, the revered [[Anthony the Great|Anthony of Egypt]] oversaw colonies of hermits in the middle region. He soon became the archetypal recluse and religious hero for the Western church--a fame due in no small part to the vast encomiums displayed in [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]]' biography of him ([http://www.zeitun-eg.net/ecf1.htm ''Vita St. Antoni'']). These early monastics drew a sizeable following to their austere retreats through the influence of their simple, individualistic, rugged, and concentrated search for salvation and unity with God. The desert fathers were often appealed to for spiritual guidance and counsel by their disciples. Their responses were recorded and collected in a work called [[The Paradise of the Desert Fathers|Paradise or Apophthegms of the Fathers]]. ([http://www2.evansville.edu/ecoleweb/glossary/desert.html Definition by Emily K. C. Strand].)
  
It was said of him that he had a hollow in his chest channelled out by the tears which fell from his eyes all his life while he sat at his manual work. When Abba Poemen learned that he was dead, he said weeping, 'Truly you are blessed, Abba Arsenius, for you wept for yourself in this world! He who does not weep for himself here below will weep eternally hereafter; so it is impossible not to weep, either voluntarily or when compelled through suffering.' [i.e. the latter suffering in hell]
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{{stub}}
  
It was also said of him (Abba Arsenius) that on Saturday evenings, preparing for the glory of Sunday, he would turn his back on the sun and stretch out his hands in prayer towards the heavens, till once again the sun shone on his face. Then he would sit down.
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==See also==
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*''[[Sayings of the Desert Fathers]]''
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*''[[The Paradise of the Desert Fathers]]''
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* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desert_Fathers Desert Fathers on Wikipedia]
  
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==Published works==
  
It was said of Abba Ammoes that when he went to church, he did not allow his disciple to walk beside him but only at a certain distance; and if the latter came to ask him about his thoughts, he would move away from him as soon as he had replied, saying to him, 'It is for fear that, after edifying words, irrelevant conversation should slip in, that I do not keep you with me.'
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* Apophthegmata Patrum. ''The Desert Christian: Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Alphabetical Collection'' ISBN 0026238608
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* Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna. ''The Ancient Fathers of the desert: Translated narratives from the Evergetinos on passions and perfection in Christ''. ISBN 0916586782
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* Beasley-Topliffe, Keith, ed. ''Seeking a Purer Christian Life: Sayings and Stories of the Desert Fathers and Mothers''. ISBN 0835809021
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* Carrigan, Henry L. ''Eternal Wisdom from the Desert: Writings from the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 1557252831
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* Chryssavgis, John; Ward, Benedicta. ''In the Heart of the Desert: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers''. ISBN 0941532518
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* Cowan, James. ''Desert Father: In the Desert with Saint Anthony''. ISBN 1590301455
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* Gruen, Anselm. ''Heaven Begins Within You: Wisdom from the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0824518187
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* Keller, David G. R. ''Oasis Of Wisdom: The Worlds of the Desert Fathers and Mothers''.
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* Mayers, Gregory. ''Listen to the Desert: Secrets of Spiritual Maturity from the Desert Fathers and Mothers''. ISBN 0892439300
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* [[John Anthony McGuckin|McGuckin, John Anthony]]. ''The Book of Mystical Chapters : Meditations on the Soul's Ascent, from the Desert Fathers and Other Early Christian Contemplatives''. ISBN 1590300076
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* Merton, Thomas. ''The Wisdom of the Desert: Sayings from the Desert Fathers of the Fourth Century''. ISBN 1590300394 ISBN 0859690032
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* Merton, Thomas. ''Wisdom of the Desert''.  ISBN 0811201023
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* Merton, Thomas. ''The Wisdom of the Desert''.  ISBN 0877739765, ISBN 086012276X, ISBN 0811203131
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* Nomura, Yushi (translation and art); Nouwen, Henri J. M. (introduction). ''Desert Wisdom: Sayings from the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 1570753717
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* Nomura, Yushi. ''Desert Wisdom: Sayings from the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0385180799, ISBN 0385180780
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* Strohmeier, John, ed. ''St. Antony of Egypt: The Holy Life and Teachings of the First Desert Father''. ISBN 0972520066
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* Swan, Laura. ''The Forgotten Desert Mothers: Sayings, Lives, and Stories of Early Christian Women''. ISBN 0809140160
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* Waddell, Helen. ''The Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0375700196
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* Ward, Benedicta (translator). ''The Desert Fathers: Sayings of the Early Christian Monks''. ISBN 0140447318
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* Ward, Benedicta. ''Discernment in the Desert Fathers: Diakrisis in the Life and Thought of Early Egyptian Monasticism''. ISBN 978-1556353390
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* Ward, Benedicta (translator). ''The Sayings of the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0879079592
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* Ward, Benedicta. ''The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers: The Apophthegmata Patrum''. ISBN 0728300346
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* Ward, Benedicta. ''The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0745939759
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* Ward, Benedicta; Russell, Norman. ''Lives of the Desert Fathers: The Historia Monachorum in Aegypto''. ISBN 0879079347
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* Ward, Benedicta; [[Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh|Bloom, Anthony]]. ''The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers''. ISBN 0728301091
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* ''Wisdom of the Desert Fathers'' (1979). Eastern Orthodox Books. ISBN 0899811086
  
It was said of Abba Ammoes that he had fifty measures of wheat for his use and had put them out in the sun, Before they were properly dried off, he saw something in that place which seemed to him to be harmful so he said to his servants, 'Let us go away from here.' But they were grieved at this. Seeing their dismay he said to them, 'Is it because of the loaves that you are sad? Truly, I have seen monks fleeing, leaving their white-washed cells and also their parchments, and they did not close the doors, but went leaving them open.'
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==External link==
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*[http://ammasarah.wordpress.com/ The sayings of a desert mother as presented in both the ''Apophthegmata'' and in the lesser known ''Matericon''.]
  
Abba Abraham told of a man of Scetis who was a scribe and did not eat bread. A brother came to beg him to copy a book. The old man whose spirit was engaged in contemplation, wrote, omitting some phrases and with no punctuation. The brother, taking the book and wishing to punctuate it, noticed that words were missing. So he said to the old man, 'Abba, there are some phrases missing.' The old man said to him, 'Go, and practise first that which is written, then come back and I will write the rest.' [Scetis=Sheheet]
 
  
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[[Category:Desert Fathers]]
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[[Category:Hesychasm]]
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[[Category:Monastics]]
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[[Category:Saints]]
  
There was in the Cells an old man called Apollo. If someone came to find him about doing a piece of work, he would set out joyfully, saying, 'I am going to work with Christ today, for the salvation of my soul, for that is the reward he gives.'
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[[fr:Pères du désert]]
 
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[[ro:Părinţii pustiei]]
Abba Doulas, the disciple of Abba Bessarion said, 'One day when we were walking beside the sea I was thirsty and I said to Abba Bessarion, "Father, I am very thirsty." He said a prayer and said to me, "Drink some of the sea water." The water proved sweet when I drank some. I even poured some into a leather bottle for fear of being thirsty later on. Seeing this, the old man asked me why I was taking some. I said to him, "Forgive me, it is for fear of being thirsty later on." Then the old man said, "God is here, God is everywhere." '
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A brother questioned Abba Poemen in this way, 'My thoughts trouble me, making me put my sins aside, and concern myself with my brother's faults'. The old man told him the following story about Abba Dioscorus (the monk), 'In his cell he wept over himself, while his disciple was sitting in another cell. When the latter came to see the old man he asked him, "Father, why are you weeping?" "I am weeping over my sins," the old man answered him. Then his disciple said, "You do not have any sins, Father." The old man replied, "Truly, my child, if I were allowed to see my sins, three or four men would not be enough to weep for them."
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This is what Abba Daniel, the Pharanite, said, 'Our Father Abba Arsenius told us of an inhabitant of Scetis, of notable life and of simple faith; through his naïveté he was deceived and said, "The bread which we receive is not really the body of Christ, but a symbol. Two old men having learnt that he had uttered this saying, knowing that he was outstanding in his way of life, knew that he had not spoken through malice, but through simplicity. So they came to find him and said, "Father, we have heard a proposition contrary to the faith on the part of someone who says that the bread which we receive is not really the body of Christ, but a symbol." The old man said, "it is I who have said that." Then the old men exhorted him saying, "Do not hold this position, Father, but hold one in conformity with that which the catholic Church has given us. We believe, for our part, that the bread itself is the body of Christ as in the beginning, God formed man in his image, taking the dust of the earth, without anyone being able to say that it is not the image of God, even though it is not seen to be so; thus it is with the bread of which he said that it is his body; and so we believe that it is really the body of Christ." The old man said to them, "As long as I have not been persuaded by the thing itself, I shall not be fully convinced." So they said, "Let us pray God about this mystery throughout the whole of this week and we believe that God will reveal it to us." The old man received this saying with joy and he prayed in these words, "Lord, you know that it is not through malice that I do not believe and so that I may not err through ignorance, reveal this mystery to me, Lord Jesus Christ." The old men returned to their cells and they also prayed God, saying, "Lord Jesus Christ, reveal this mystery to the old man, that he may believe and not lose his reward." God heard both the prayers. At the end of the week they came to church on Sunday and sat all three on the same mat, the old man in the middle. Then their eyes were opened and when the bread was placed on the holy table, there appeared as it were a little child to these three alone. And when the priest put out his hand to break the bread, behold an angel descended from heaven with a sword and poured the child's blood into the chalice. When the priest cut the bread into small pieces, the angel also cut the child in pieces. When they drew near to receive the sacred elements the old man alone received a morsel of bloody flesh. Seeing this he was afraid and cried out, "Lord, I believe that this bread is your flesh and this chalice your blood." Immediately the flesh which he held in his hand became bread, according to the mystery and he took it, giving thanks to God. Then the old men said to him, "God knows human nature and that man cannot eat raw flesh and that is why he has changed his body into bread and his blood into wine, for those who receive it in faith. "Then they gave thanks to God for the old man, because he had allowed him not to lose the reward of his labour. So all three returned with joy to their own cells.'
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It was said of Abba Helladius that he spent twenty years in the Cells, without ever raising his eyes to see the roof of the church.
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(Abba Epiphanius) added, 'A man who receives something from another because of his poverty or his need has therein his reward, and because he is ashamed, when he repays it he does so in secret. But it is the opposite for the Lord God; he receives in secret, but he repays in the presence of the angels, the archangels and the righteous.'
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It was said concerning Abba Agathon that some monks came to find him having heard tell of his great discernment. Wanting to see if he would lose his temper they said to him 'Aren't you that Agathon who is said to be a fornicator and a proud man?' 'Yes, it is very true,' he answered. They resumed, 'Aren't you that Agothon who is always talking nonsense?' 'I am." Again they said 'Aren't you Agothon the heretic?' But at that he replied 'I am not a heretic.' So they asked him, 'Tell us why you accepted everything we cast you, but repudiated this last insult.' He replied 'The first accusations I take to myself for that is good for my soul. But heresy is separation from God. Now I have no with to be separated from God.' At this saying they were astonished at his discernment and returned, edified.
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(Abba Evagrius) said; 'Take away temptations and no one will be saved.'
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An Egyptian brother came to see Abba Zeno in Syria, and accused himself to the old man about his temptations. Filled with admiration, Zeno said, ' The Egyptians hide the virtues they possess and ceaselessly accuse themselves of faults they do not have, while the Syrians and Greeks pretend to have virtues they do not have, and hide the faults of which they are guilty.'
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In a village there was said to be a man who fasted to such a degree that he was called 'the Faster'. Abba Zeno had heard of him, and he sent for him. The other came gladly. They prayed and sat down. The old man began to work in silence. Since he could not succeed in talking to him the Faster began to get bored. So he said to the old man 'Pray for me, Abba, for I want to go.' The old man said to him. 'Why?' The other replied, 'Because my heart is as if it were on fire and I do not know what is the matter with it. For truly, this when I was in the village and I fasted until the evening, nothing like this happened to me.' The old man said, 'In the village you fed yourself through your ears. But goo away and from now on eat at the ninth hour and whatever you do, do it secretly.' As soon as he had begun to act on this advice, the Faster found it difficult to wait until the ninth hour. And those who knew him said, 'The Faster is possessed by the devil.' So he went to tell this to the old man who said to him, 'This way is according to God.'
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One day Abba Moses said to brother Zacharias, 'Tell me what I ought to do?' At these words the latter threw himself on the ground at the old man's feet and said, 'Are you asking me, Father?' The old man said to him 'Believe me, Zacharias, my son, I have seen the Holy Spirit descending upon you and since then I am constrained to ask you.' Then Zacharias drew his hood off his head put it under his feet and trampled on it, saying, 'The man who does not let himself be treated thus, cannot become a monk.'
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Abba Zeno said, 'If a man wants God to hear his prayer quickly, then before he prays for anything else, even his own soul, when he stands and stretches out his hands towards God, he must pray with all his heart for his enemies. Through this action God will hear everything that he asks.'
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Abba Gerontius of Petra said that many, tempted by the pleasures of the body, commit fornication, not in their body but in their spirit, and while preserving their bodily virginity, commit prostitution in their soul. 'thus it is good, my well-beloved, to do that which is written and for each one to guard his own heart with all possible care.' (prov. 4.23)
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One day Abba Arsenius consulted an old Egyptian monk about his own thoughts Someone noticed this and said to him, 'Abba Arsenius, how is it that you with such a good Latin and Greek education, ask this peasant about your thoughts?' He replied, 'I have indeed been taught Latin and Greed, but I do not know even the alphabet of this peasant.'
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Abba Elias, the minister, said, 'What can sin do where there is penitence? And of what use is love where there is pride?'
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(Abba Isaiah) said to those who were making a good beginning by putting themselves under the direction of the holy Fathers, 'As with purple dye, the first colouring is never lost.' And, 'Just as young shoots are easily trained back and bent, so it is with beginners who live in submission.'
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(Abba Isaiah) also said that when there was an agape and the brethren were eating in the church and talking to one another, the priest of Pelusia reprimanded them in these words, 'Brethren, be quiet. For I have seen a brother eating with you and drinking as many cups as you and his prayer is ascending to the presence of God like fire.'
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(Abba Isaiah) also said 'When God wishes to take pity on a soul and it rebels, not bearing anything and doing its own will, he then allows it to suffer that which it does not want, in order that it may seek him again.'
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The old men said to Abba Agothon to Abba Elias, in Egypt, 'He is a good Abba.' The old man answered them, 'In comparison with his own generation, he is good.' They said to him, 'And what is he in comparison with the ancients?' He gave them this answer, 'I have said to you that in comparison with his generation he is good but as to that of the ancients, in Scetis I have seen a man who, like Joshua the son of Nun could make the sun stand still in the heavens.' At these words they were astounded and gave glory to God.
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(Abba Theodore) said 'If you are friendly with someone who happens to fall into the temptation of fornication, offer him your hand, if you can, and deliver him from it. But if he falls into heresy and you cannot persuade him to turn from it, separate yourself quickly from him, in case, if you delay, you too may be dragged down with him into the pit.
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A brother came to Abba Theodore and began to converse with him about things which he had never yet put into practice. So the old man said to him, 'You have not yet found a ship nor put your cargo aboard it and before you have sailed, you have already arrived at the city. Do the work first; then you will have the speed you are making now.'
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Abba Theodore of Pherme said, 'The man who remains standing when he repents, has not kept the commandment.'
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A brother said to Abba Theodore, 'I wish to fulfil the commandments.' The old man told him that Abba Theonas had said to him, 'I want to fill my spirit with God.' Taking some flour to the bakery, he had made loaves which he gave to the poor who asked him for them; others asked for more, and he gave them the baskets, then the cloak he was wearing, and he came back to his cell with his loins girded with his cape. Afterwards he took himself to task telling himself that he had still not fulfilled the commandment of God.'
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The same Abba Theophilus, the archbishop, came to Scetis one day. The brethren who were assembled said to Abba Pambo, 'Say something to the Archbishop, so that he may be edified.' The old man said to them, 'If he is not edified by my silence, he will not be edified by my speech.'
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It was said about (Abba Theodore) that, though he was made a deacon at Scetis he refused to exercise the office and fled to many places from it. Each time the old men brought him back to Scetis, saying, 'Do not leave your deaconate.' Abba Theodore said to them, 'Let me pray God that he may tell me for certain whether I ought to take my part in the liturgy.' Then he prayed God in this manner, 'If it is your will then I should stand in this place, make me certain of it.' Then appeared to him a column of fire, reaching from earth to heaven, and a voice said to him, 'IF you can become like this pillar, go be a deacon.' On hearing this he decided never to accept the office. When he went to church the brethren bowed before him saying, 'If you do not wish to be a deacon, at least hold the chalice.' But he refused, saying, 'If you do not leave me alone, I shall leave this place.' So they left him in peace.
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Abba Theodore of Scetis said, 'A thought comes to me which troubles me and does not leave me free; but not being able to lead me to act, it simply stops me progressing in virtue; but a vigilant man would cut it off and get up to pray.'
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Abba Theodor said, 'Privation of food mortifies the body of the monk.'
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Another old man said, 'Vigils mortify it still more.'
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Amma Theodora said, 'Let us strive to enter by the narrow gate, Just as the trees, if they have not stood before the winter's storms cannot bear fruit, so it is with us; this present age is a storm and it is only through many trials and temptations that we can obtain an inheritance in the kingdom of heaven.'
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The same amma said that a teacher ought to be a stranger to the desire for domination, vain-glory, and pride; one should not be able to fool him by flattery, nor blind him by gifts, nor conquer him by the stomach, nor dominate him by anger; but he should be patient, gentle and humble as far as possible; he must be tested and without partisanship, full of concern, and a lover of souls.
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She also said that neither asceticism, nor vigils nor any kind of suffering are able to save, only true humility can do that. There was an anchorite who was able to banish the demons; and he asked them, 'What makes you go away?' 'Is it fasting?' They replied, 'We do not eat or drink.' 'Is it vigils?' They replied, 'We do not sleep.' 'Is it separation from the world?' 'We live in the deserts.' 'What power sends you away then?' They said, 'Nothing can overcome us, but only humility.' 'Do you see how humility is victorious over the demons?'
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It was said of Abba John the Dwarf that he withdrew and lived in the desert at Scetis with an old man of Thebes. His Abba, taking a piece of dry wood, planted it and said to him, 'Water it every day with a bottle of water, until it bears fruit.' Now the water was so far away that he had to leave in the evening and return the following morning. At the end of three years the wood came to life and bore fruit. Then the old man took some of the fruit and carried it to the church saying to the brethren, 'Take and eat the fruit of obedience.'
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It was said of Abba John the Dwarf, that one day he said to his elder brother, 'I should like to be free of all care, like the angels, who do not work, but ceaselessly offer worship to God.' So he took off his cloak and went away into the desert. After a week he came back to his brother. When he knocked on the door, he heard his brother say, before he opened it 'Who are you?' He said, 'I am John, your brother.' But he replied, 'John has become an angel, and henceforth he is no longer among men.' Then the other begged him saying. 'It is I.' However, his brother did not let him in, but left him there in distress until morning. Then, opening the door, he said to him, 'You are a man and you must once again work in order to eat.' Then John made a prostration before him, saying, 'Forgive me.'
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One day when he was sitting in front of the church, the brethren were consulting him about their thoughts. One of the old men who saw it became a prey to jealousy and said to him, 'John, your vessel is full of poison.' Abba John said to him, 'That is very true, Abba; and you have said that when you only see the outside, but if you were able to see the inside, too, what would you say then?'
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Some brethren came one day to test him to see whether he would let his thoughts get dissipated and speak of the things of this world. They said to him 'We give thanks to God that this year there has been much rain and the palm trees have been able to drink, and their shoots have grown, and the brethren have found manual work.' Abba John said to them, 'So it is when the Holy Spirit descends into the hearts of men; they are renewed and they put forth leaves in the fear of God.'
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It was said of him (Abba John the Dwarf) that one day he was weaving rope for two baskets, but he made it into one without noticing, until it had reached the wall, because his spirit was occupied in contemplation.
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Abba John said, 'I am like a man sitting under a great tree, who sees wild beasts and snakes coming against him in great numbers. When he cannot withstand them any longer, he runs to climb the tree and is saved. It is just the same with me; I sit in my cell and I am aware of evil thoughts coming against me, and when I have no more strength against them, I take refuge in God by prayer and I am saved from the enemy.'
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Abba Poemen said of Abba John the Dwarf that he had prayed God to take his passions away from him so that he might become free from care. He went and told an old man this; 'I find myself in peace, without an enemy,' he said. The old man said to him, 'Go beseech God to stir up warfare so that you may regain the affliction and humility that you used to have, for it is by warfare that the soul makes progress.' So he besought God and when warfare came, he no longer prayed that it might be taken away, but said, 'Lord, give me strength for the fight.'
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Abba John said, 'We have put the light burden on one side, that is to say, self-accusation, and we have loaded ourselves with a heavy one, that is to say, self-justification.'
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He also said, 'Humility and the fear of God are above all virtues.'
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Abba John gave this advice, 'Watching means to sit in the cell and be always mindful of God. This is what is meant by, "I was on the watch and God came to me." (Matt. 25:36)
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One of the Fathers said of him, 'Who is this John, who by his humility has all
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Scetis hanging from his little finger?'
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Abba John the Dwarf said, 'There was a spiritual old man who lived a secluded life. He was held in high estimation in the city and enjoyed a great reputation. He was told that a certain old man, at the point of death, was calling for him, to embrace him before he fell asleep. He thought to himself, if I go by day, men will run after me, giving me great honour, and I shall not be at peace in all that. So I will go in the evening in the darkness and I shall escape everyone's notice. But lo, two angels were sent by God with lamps to give him light. Then the whole city came out to see his glory. The more he wished to Flee from glory, the more he was glorified. In this was accomplished that which is written: "He who humbles himself will be exalted." ' (Luke 14:11)
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Abba John the Dwarf said, 'a house is not built by beginning at the top and working down. You must begin with the foundations in order to reach the top. They said to him, 'What does this saying mean?' He said, 'The foundation is our neighbour, whom we must win, and that is the place to begin. For all the commandments of Christ depend on this one.'
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Abba Poemen said that Abba John said that the saints are like a group of trees, each bearing different fruit, but watered from the same source. The practices of one saint differ from those of another, but it is the same Spirit that works in all of them.
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Abba John said to his brother, 'Even if we are entirely despised in the eyes of men, let us rejoice that we are honoured in the sight of God.'
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The old man (Abba John the Dwarf) said, 'You know that the first blow the devil gave to Job was through his possessions; and he saw that he had not grieved him nor separated him from God. Whith the second blow, he touched his flesh, but the brave athlete did not sin by any word that came out of his mouth in that either. In fact, he had within his heart that which is of God, and he drew on that source unceasingly.'
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An old man came to Abba John's cell and found him asleep with an angel standing above him, fanning him. Seeing this, he withdre. When Abba John got up, he said to his disciple, 'Did anyone come in while I was asleep?' he said, 'Yes, an old man.' Then Abba John knew that this old man was his equal, and that he had seen the angel.
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(Abba Isidore) said, 'When I was younger and remained in my cell I set no limit to prayer; the night was for me as much the time of prayer as the day.'
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Abba Isidore went one day to see Abba Theophilus, pope of Alexandria and when he returned to Scetis the brethren asked him, 'What is going on in the city?' But he said to them, 'Truly, brothers, I did not see the face of anyone there, except that of the archbishop.' Hearing this they were very anxious and said to him, 'Has there been a disaster there, then, Abba?' He said 'Not at all, but the thought of looking at anyone did not get the better of me' At these words they were filled with admiration, and strengthened in their intention of guarding the eyes from all distraction.
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(Abba Isidore of Pelusia) said, 'Prize virtues and do not be the slave of glory; for the former are immortal, while the latter soon fades.'
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He also said, 'The heights of humility are great and so are the depths of boasting; I advise you to attend to the first and not to fall into the second.'
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Abba Lot went to see Abba Joseph and said to him, 'Abba as far as I can I say my little office, I fast a little, I pray and meditate, I live in peace and as far as I can, I purify my thoughts. What else can I do?' then the old man stood up and stretched his hands towards heaven. His fingers became like ten lamps of fire and he said to him, 'If you will, you can become all flame.'
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(Abba James) said, 'Just as a lamp lights up a dark room, so the fear of God when it penetrates the heart of a man illuminates him, teaching him all the virtues and commandments of God.'
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He also said, 'We do not need words only, for, at the present time, there are many words among men, but we need works, for this is what is required, not words which do not bear fruit.'
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Abba John of the Cells told us this story: 'There was in Egypt a very rich and beautiful courtesan, to whom noble and powerful people came. Now one day she happened to be near the church and she wanted to go in. The sub-deacon, who was standing at the doors, would not allow her to enter saying, "You are not worthy to enter the house of God, for you are impure." The Bishop heard the noise of their argument and came out. Then the courtesan said to him, "He will not let me enter the church." So the Bishop said to her, "You are not allowed to enter it, for you are not pure." She was filled with compunction and said to him, "Henceforth I will not commit fornication any more." The bishop said to her, "If you bring your wealth here, I shall know that you will not commit fornication any more." She brought her wealth and the bishop burnt it all in the fire. Then she went into the church, weeping and saying, "If this has happened to me below, what would I not have suffered above?" So she was converted and became a vessel of election.'
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(Abba Isidore the priest) said, 'If you fast regularly, do not be inflated with pride, but if you think highly of yourself because of it, then you had better eat meat. It is better for a man to eat meat than to be inflated with pride and to glorify himself.'
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It was said of Abba John the Persian that when some evildoers came to him, he took a basin and wanted to wash their feet. But they were filled with confusion, and began to do penance.
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From Palistine, Abba Hilarion went to the mountain to Abba Anthony. Abba Anthony said to him, 'You are welcome, torch which awakens the day.' Abba Hilarion said, 'Peace to you, pillar of light, giving light to the world.'
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The holy Fathers were making predictions about the last generation. They said 'What have we ourselves done?' One of them, the great Abba Ischyrion replied, 'We ourselves have fulfilled the commandments of God.' The others replied, 'And those who come after us, what will they do?' He said, 'They will struggle to achieve half our works.' They said, 'And to those who come after them, what will happen?' He said, 'THE MEN OF THAT GENERATION WILL NOT ACCOMPLISH ANY WORKS AT ALL AND TEMPTATION WILL COME UPON THEM; AND THOSE WHO WILL BE APPROVED IN THAT DAY WILL BE GREATER THAN EITHER US OR OUR FATHERS.'
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Abba Copres said, 'blessed is he who bears affliction with thankfulness.'
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One day, the inhabitants of Scetis assembled together to discuss Melchizedek and they forgot to invite Abba Copres. Later on they called him and asked him about this matter. Tapping his mouth three times, he said 'Alas for you, Copres! For that which God commanded you do, you have put aside, and you are wanting to learn something which you have not been required to know about.' When they heard these words, the brothers fled to their cells.
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Abba Cyrus of Alexandria was asked about the temptation of fornication, and he replied, 'If you do not think about it, you have no hope, for if you are not thinking about it, you are doing it. I mean, he who does not fight against the sin and resist it in his spirit will commit the sin physically. It is very true that he who is fornicating in fact is not worried about thinking about it.
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Some of the monks who are called Euchites went to Enaton to see Abba Lucius. the Old man asked them, 'What is your manual work?' They said , 'We do not touch manual work but as the Apostle says, we pray without ceasing.' The old man asked them if they did not eat and they replied they did. So he said to them "'When you are eating, who prays for you then?' Again he asked them if they did not sleep and they replied they did. and he said to them, 'When you are a asleep, who prays for you the?' They could not find any answer to give him. He said to them, 'Forgive me, but you do not act as you speak. I will show you how, while doing my manual work, I pray without interruption. I sit down with God, soaking my reeds and plaiting my ropes, and I say "God, have mercy on me, according to your great goodness and according to the multitude of your mercies, save me from my sins." ' So he asked them if this were not prayer and they replied it was. Then he said to them, 'So when I shave spend the whole day working and praying, making thirteen pieces of money more or less, I put two pieces of money outside the door and I pay for my food with the rest of the money. He who takes the two pieces of money prays for me when I am eating and when I am sleeping; so , by the grace of God, I fulfil the precept to pray without ceasing.'
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They said of Abba Macarius the Great that he became, as it is written, a god upon earth, because, just as God protects the world, so Abba Macarius would cover the faults which he saw, as though he did not see them; and those which he heard, as though he did not hear them.
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The angel when giving the rules of monasticism to St. Pachomius said to him: "... He laid down that in the course of the day they should make twelve prayers, and at the lamp-lighting time twelve, and in the nightly vigils twelve, and at the ninth hour three. When the multitude goes to eat, he laid down that a psalm should be sung before each prayer. As Pachomius objected to the angel that the prayer were too few ..."
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The same Abba Macarius while he was in Egypt discovered a man who owned a beast of burden engaged in plundering Macarius' goods. So he came up to the thief as if he was a stranger and he helped him to load the animal. He saw him off in great peace of soul saying, 'We have brought nothing into this world, and we cannot take anything out of the world.' (1Tim.6.7) 'The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord.' (Job 1.21)
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Abba Macarius was asked, 'How should one pray?' The old man said 'There is no need at all to make long discourses; it is enough to stretch out one's hands and say, "Lord, as you will, and as you know, have mercy." And if the conflict grows fiercer say, "Lord, help!" He knows very well what we need and he shews us his mercy.'
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A brother went to Abba Matoes and said to him, 'How is it that the monks of Scetis did more than the Scriptures required in loving their enemies more than themselves?' Abba Matoes said to him, 'As for me I have not yet managed to love those who love me as I love myself.'
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It was said of Abba Silvanus that at Scetis he had a disciple called Mark whose obedience was great. He was a scribe. The old man loved him because of his obedience. He had eleven other disciples who were hurt because he loved him more than them. When they knew this, the elders were sorry about it and they came one day to him to reproach him about it. Taking them with him, he went to knock at each cell, saying, 'Brother so and so, come here; I need you,' but none of them came immediately. Coming to Mark's cell, he knocked and said, 'Mark.' Hearing the old man's voice, he jumped up immediately and the old man sent him off to serve and said to the elders, 'Fathers, where are the other brothers?' Then he went into Mark's cell and picked up his book and noticed that he had begun to write the letter 'omega' ["w"] but when he had heard the old man, he had not finished writing it. Then the elders said, 'Truly, Abba, he whom you love, we love too and God loves him.'
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Abba Poemen said of Abba Nisterus that he was like the serpent of brass which Moses made for the healing of the people: he possessed all virtue and without speaking, he healed everyone.
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Abba Xanthias said, 'The thief was on the cross and he was justified by a single word; and Judas who was counted in the number of the apostles lost all his labour in one single night and descended from heaven to hell. Therefore, let no-one boast of his good works, for all those who trust in themselves fall.'
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(Abba Poemen) said, 'The beginning of evil is heedlessness.'
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This article is one of many more articles about the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Christian Apostolic Church of Egypt. These articles can be obtained electronically from Copt-Net Repository: http://www.coptic.net/
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Latest revision as of 17:18, August 5, 2012

This article forms part of the series
Orthodox Spirituality
Holy Mysteries
Baptism - Chrismation
Eucharist - Confession
Marriage - Ordination
Holy Unction
Three Stages
Catharsis/Purification
Theoria/Illumination
Theosis/Divinization
Hesychasm
Nepsis - Metanoia
Hesychia - Phronema
Mysticism - Nous
Asceticism
Chastity - Obedience
Stability - Fasting
Poverty - Monasticism
Virtues
Humility - Generosity
Chastity - Meekness
Temperance - Contentment
Diligence
Prayer
Worship - Veneration
Prayer Rule - Jesus Prayer
Relics - Sign of the Cross
Church Fathers
Apostolic Fathers
Desert Fathers
Cappadocians
The Philokalia
The Ladder of Divine Ascent
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The Desert Fathers were early monastic founders in the deserts of Egypt, fleeing the cities and making their lives in the wilderness, living in asceticism and solitude.

Contents

Glossary Definition

The phrase "desert fathers" encompasses an influential fourth century group of hermits and cenobites who settled in the Egyptian desert. The origins of Western monasticism lie in these primitive hermitages and religious communities. Paul of Thebes is the first hermit recorded to set the tradition of monastic asceticism and contemplation, and Pachomius of Thebaid is considered the founder of cenobitism, or early monasticism. At the end of the third century, however, the revered Anthony of Egypt oversaw colonies of hermits in the middle region. He soon became the archetypal recluse and religious hero for the Western church--a fame due in no small part to the vast encomiums displayed in Athanasius' biography of him (Vita St. Antoni). These early monastics drew a sizeable following to their austere retreats through the influence of their simple, individualistic, rugged, and concentrated search for salvation and unity with God. The desert fathers were often appealed to for spiritual guidance and counsel by their disciples. Their responses were recorded and collected in a work called Paradise or Apophthegms of the Fathers. (Definition by Emily K. C. Strand.)


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See also

Published works

  • Apophthegmata Patrum. The Desert Christian: Sayings of the Desert Fathers: The Alphabetical Collection ISBN 0026238608
  • Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna. The Ancient Fathers of the desert: Translated narratives from the Evergetinos on passions and perfection in Christ. ISBN 0916586782
  • Beasley-Topliffe, Keith, ed. Seeking a Purer Christian Life: Sayings and Stories of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. ISBN 0835809021
  • Carrigan, Henry L. Eternal Wisdom from the Desert: Writings from the Desert Fathers. ISBN 1557252831
  • Chryssavgis, John; Ward, Benedicta. In the Heart of the Desert: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. ISBN 0941532518
  • Cowan, James. Desert Father: In the Desert with Saint Anthony. ISBN 1590301455
  • Gruen, Anselm. Heaven Begins Within You: Wisdom from the Desert Fathers. ISBN 0824518187
  • Keller, David G. R. Oasis Of Wisdom: The Worlds of the Desert Fathers and Mothers.
  • Mayers, Gregory. Listen to the Desert: Secrets of Spiritual Maturity from the Desert Fathers and Mothers. ISBN 0892439300
  • McGuckin, John Anthony. The Book of Mystical Chapters : Meditations on the Soul's Ascent, from the Desert Fathers and Other Early Christian Contemplatives. ISBN 1590300076
  • Merton, Thomas. The Wisdom of the Desert: Sayings from the Desert Fathers of the Fourth Century. ISBN 1590300394 ISBN 0859690032
  • Merton, Thomas. Wisdom of the Desert. ISBN 0811201023
  • Merton, Thomas. The Wisdom of the Desert. ISBN 0877739765, ISBN 086012276X, ISBN 0811203131
  • Nomura, Yushi (translation and art); Nouwen, Henri J. M. (introduction). Desert Wisdom: Sayings from the Desert Fathers. ISBN 1570753717
  • Nomura, Yushi. Desert Wisdom: Sayings from the Desert Fathers. ISBN 0385180799, ISBN 0385180780
  • Strohmeier, John, ed. St. Antony of Egypt: The Holy Life and Teachings of the First Desert Father. ISBN 0972520066
  • Swan, Laura. The Forgotten Desert Mothers: Sayings, Lives, and Stories of Early Christian Women. ISBN 0809140160
  • Waddell, Helen. The Desert Fathers. ISBN 0375700196
  • Ward, Benedicta (translator). The Desert Fathers: Sayings of the Early Christian Monks. ISBN 0140447318
  • Ward, Benedicta. Discernment in the Desert Fathers: Diakrisis in the Life and Thought of Early Egyptian Monasticism. ISBN 978-1556353390
  • Ward, Benedicta (translator). The Sayings of the Desert Fathers. ISBN 0879079592
  • Ward, Benedicta. The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers: The Apophthegmata Patrum. ISBN 0728300346
  • Ward, Benedicta. The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers. ISBN 0745939759
  • Ward, Benedicta; Russell, Norman. Lives of the Desert Fathers: The Historia Monachorum in Aegypto. ISBN 0879079347
  • Ward, Benedicta; Bloom, Anthony. The Wisdom of the Desert Fathers. ISBN 0728301091
  • Wisdom of the Desert Fathers (1979). Eastern Orthodox Books. ISBN 0899811086

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