Cyrus of Alexandria

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'''Cyrus of Alexandria''' was the [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] during the first half of the seventh century, one of the authors of [[Monothelitism]] and last [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] prefect of Egypt. He died about 641, and was condemned as [[heretic]] in 680.
 
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'''Cyrus of Alexandria''' was a Greek Orthodox patriarch Patriarch of Alexandria in the seventh century, one of the authors of [[Monothelitism]] and last [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] prefect of Egypt; died about 641. He is condemned as heretic
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==Biography==
 
==Biography==
He had been since 620 Bishop of Phasis in Colchis when the [[Byzantine Emperor]] [[Heraclius]], in the course of his [[Byzantine-Persian Wars|Persian campaign]] of 626, consulted him about a plan for bringing the [[Monophysites]] (a Christological heresy) of Egypt back to the Church and to the support of the empire. The plan, suggested by Sergius, [[Patriarch of Constantinople]], consisted of confessing the [[Council of Chalcedon|faith of Chalcedon]] on the two natures of Christ, while practically nullifying it by the admission of one theandric will and operation, ''eu telèma kai mia energeia''. Cyrus hesitated at first, but being assured by Sergius that this formula was opposed to neither [[Church Fathers|the Fathers]] nor to Chalcedon and was destined to achieve great results, he became a staunch supporter of it, and was, in return, raised by Heraclius to the then vacant [[see]] of Alexandria in 630.  
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He had been since 620 Bishop of Phasis in Colchis when the [[Byzantine Emperor]] [[Heraclius]], in the course of his Persian campaign of 626, consulted him about a plan for bringing the [[Monophysitism|Monophysites]] (a Christological [[heresy]]) of Egypt back to the Church and to the support of the empire. The plan, suggested by [[Sergius I of Constantinople|Sergius]], [[Patriarch of Constantinople]], consisted of confessing the [[Council of Chalcedon|faith of Chalcedon]] on the two natures of Christ, while practically nullifying it by the admission of one theandric will and operation, ἔυ θέλημα καὶ μία ἐνέργεια (''eu telèma kai mia energeia''). Cyrus hesitated at first, but being assured by Sergius that this formula was opposed to neither [[Church Fathers|the Fathers]] nor to Chalcedon and was destined to achieve great results, he became a staunch supporter of it, and was, in return, raised by Heraclius to the then vacant [[see]] of Alexandria in 630.  
  
Once a [[patriarch]], Cyrus set himself vigorously to effect the desired union. In a synod held at Alexandria, he proposed what is known as the ''klèrothoria'' or "Satisfactio", an agreement in nine articles, the seventh of which is a bold assertion of the Monothelite heresy. The Monophysites (Theodosians or Severians) welcomed the agreement but remarked that Chalcedon was coming to them, not they to Chalcedon.  
+
Once a [[patriarch]], Cyrus set himself vigorously to effect the desired union. In a [[synod]] held at Alexandria, he proposed what is known as the πληροφορία (''plèrothoria'') or "Satisfactio," an agreement in nine articles, the seventh of which is a bold assertion of the Monothelite heresy. The Monophysites (Theodosians or Severians) welcomed the agreement but remarked that [[Chalcedon]] was coming to them, not they to Chalcedon.  
  
The union thus effected was adroitly exploited, with a view to win over [[Pope Honorius I]] to Monothelism. Cyrus attended another synod at Cyprus under [[Arkadios II]], at which he served as moderator and permitted Monothelite opponents to submit their case to the Emperor. When Cyrus received the Emperor's Monothelite response, the [[Ecthesis]], Cyrus signed it in 637. This compromise proved ineffective, and soon fell into discredit under the name of ''enoosis hydrobatès'', contemptuously called the "washy union".  
+
The union thus effected was adroitly exploited, with a view to win over [[Pope]] [[Honorius I of Rome|Honorius I]] to Monothelism. Cyrus attended another synod at Cyprus under [[Arcadius II of Cyprus|Arcadius II]], at which he served as moderator and permitted Monothelite opponents to submit their case to the Emperor. When Cyrus received the Emperor's Monothelite response, the [[Ecthesis]], Cyrus signed it in 637. This compromise proved ineffective, and soon fell into discredit under the name of ἔνωσις ὑδροβαφής (''enoosis hydrobatès''), contemptuously called the "washy union."
  
 
When Caliph Omar's general, Amru, threatened the Prefecture of Egypt, Cyrus was made prefect and entrusted with the conduct of the war. Certain humiliating stipulations, to which he subscribed for the sake of peace, angered his imperial master so much that he was recalled and harshly accused of connivance with the [[Islam|Muslims]]; however, he was soon restored to his former authority, owing to the impending siege of Alexandria, but could not avert the fall of the great city in 640 and died shortly after.
 
When Caliph Omar's general, Amru, threatened the Prefecture of Egypt, Cyrus was made prefect and entrusted with the conduct of the war. Certain humiliating stipulations, to which he subscribed for the sake of peace, angered his imperial master so much that he was recalled and harshly accused of connivance with the [[Islam|Muslims]]; however, he was soon restored to his former authority, owing to the impending siege of Alexandria, but could not avert the fall of the great city in 640 and died shortly after.
  
 
==Writings==
 
==Writings==
From Cyrus we have three letters to Sergius and the "Satisfactio", all preserved in the acts of the Roman Synod of the Lateran and of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council|Sixth Œcumenical Council]] ([[Giovanni Domenico Mansi|Mansi]], X, 1004; XI, 560, 562, 964).  
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From Cyrus we have three letters to Sergius and the "Satisfactio," all preserved in the acts of the Roman Synod of the Lateran and of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] ([[w:Giovanni Domenico Mansi|Mansi]], X, 1004; XI, 560, 562, 964).  
  
The first letter is an acceptation of the Ecthesis; in the second Cyrus describes his perplexity between [[Pope Leo I|Pope Leo]] and Sergius; the conversion of the Theodosians is narrated in the third.  
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The first letter is an acceptation of the Ecthesis; in the second Cyrus describes his perplexity between Pope [[Leo the Great|Leo]] and Sergius; the conversion of the Theodosians is narrated in the third.  
  
The seventh article of the "Satisfactio" the others are irrelevant reads thus: "The one and same Christ, the Son, performs the works proper to God and to man by one theandric operation [] according to St. Dionysius".  
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The seventh article of the "Satisfactio"—the others are irrelevant—reads thus: "The one and same Christ, the Son, performs the works proper to God and to man by one theandric operation [μιᾴ θεανδρικῇ ένεργεία (''mia theandriki energia'')] according to St. Dionysius."
  
Cyrus' chief opponents, [[St. Sophronius]], died in 637 (Epistola synodica, Mansi, XI, 480), and [[Maximus the Confessor|St. Maximus]], died in 662 (''Epistola ad Nicandrum; disputatio cum Pyrrho'', P.G., XCI, 101, 345), reproached him for falsifying the then much-respected text of Dionysius and substituting for (new). They showed, moreover, the inanity of his claim to the support of the Fathers, and explained how the Divine and human natures of Christ, sometimes styled one, because they belong to the same person and work in perfect harmony, can no more by physically identified than the natures from which they proceed. Historians are not agreed as to how Cyrus came by this error. Some think that he was, from the outset, a Monophysite at heart. Others, with more reason, hold that he was led into error by Sergius and Heraclius.  
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Cyrus' chief opponents, St. [[Sophronius I of Jerusalem|Sophronius]], died in 637 (''Epistola synodica'', Mansi, XI, 480), and [[Maximus the Confessor|St. Maximus]], died in 662 (''Epistola ad Nicandrum; disputatio cum Pyrrho'', P.G., XCI, 101, 345), reproached him for falsifying the then much-respected text of Dionysius and substituting μιᾴ for καινῇ (new). They showed, moreover, the inanity of his claim to the support of the Fathers, and explained how the Divine and human natures of Christ, sometimes styled one, because they belong to the same person and work in perfect harmony, can no more by physically identified than the natures from which they proceed. Historians are not agreed as to how Cyrus came by this error. Some think that he was, from the outset, a Monophysite at heart. Others, with more reason, hold that he was led into error by Sergius and Heraclius.  
  
Cyrus' communications with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, also survive to this day.<sup>[http://wamohammadah.maktoobblog.com/?post=265055],[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muqawqis]</sup> Cyrus offered Maria, a Coptic girl, as a gift to Prophet Mohammad.<sup>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_al-Qibtiyya]</sup>
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Cyrus' communications with Mohammad, the [[Prophet]] of [[Islam]], also survive to this day.<ref>[http://wamohammadah.maktoobblog.com/?post=265055 (Arabic)] and [[w:Muqawqis|''Muqawqis'' at Wikipedia]]</ref> Cyrus offered Maria, a Coptic girl, as a gift to Prophet Mohammad.<ref>[[w:Maria_al-Qibtiyya|''Maria al-Qibtiyya'' at Wikipedia]]</ref>
  
Cyrus was posthumously condemned as a heretic in the Lateran Council of 649 ([[Heinrich Joseph Dominicus Denzinger|Denzinger]], Enchiridion, 217, 219) and in 680 at the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] (Denzinger, 238; Mansi, XI, 554) together with Pope Honorius and patriarchs Pyrus, Paul and Sergius .
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Cyrus was posthumously condemned as a heretic in the [[Lateran Council]] of 649 ([[w:Heinrich Joseph Dominicus Denzinger|Denzinger]], Enchiridion, 217, 219) and in 680 at the Sixth Ecumenical Council (Denzinger, 238; Mansi, XI, 554) together with Pope Honorius and Sergius, [[Pyrrhus I of Constantinople|Pyrrhus]], [[Paul II of Constantinople|Paul]], and [[Peter of Constantinople|Peter]], Patriarchs of Constantinople from 610 to 666.<ref>''The Seven Ecumenical Councils: The Sixth Ecumenical Council. The Third Council of Constantinople. [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf214.xiii.viii.html The Sentence Against the Monothelites. Session XIII.]'' from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library</ref>
  
==Source==
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cyrus_of_Alexandria&oldid=132622113 Wikipedia]
 
  
 
{{start box}}
 
{{start box}}
{{succession box|
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{{succession|
before=[[Patriarch George I of Alexandria|George I]]|
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before=?|
title=[[List of Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria|Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
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title=Bishop of Phasis|
years=[[631]]&ndash;[[643]]|
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years=620-630|
after=[[Patriarch Peter IV of Alexandria|Peter IV]]|}}
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after=?}}
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{{succession|
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before=George I|
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title=[[Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
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years=630-643|
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after=[[Peter IV of Alexandria|Peter IV]]}}
 
{{end box}}
 
{{end box}}
  
[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]
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==Sources==
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*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/herbermann/cathen04.html?term=Cyrus%20of%20Alexandria Cyrus of Alexandria] from the ''Catholic Encyclopedia'', v. 4, at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
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*[[w:Cyrus_of_Alexandria&oldid=132622113|''Cyrus of Alexandria'' at Wikipedia]]
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==References==
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
==External link==
 +
*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/hcc4.i.xi.vi.html History of Monotheletism and Dyotheletism] from the ''History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D. 590-1073.'' at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
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[[Category:Bishops]]
 
[[Category:Bishops]]
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[[Category:7th-century bishops]]
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[[Category:Heretics]]
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[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]

Latest revision as of 16:24, February 24, 2013

Cyrus of Alexandria was the Patriarch of Alexandria during the first half of the seventh century, one of the authors of Monothelitism and last Byzantine prefect of Egypt. He died about 641, and was condemned as heretic in 680.

Contents

Biography

He had been since 620 Bishop of Phasis in Colchis when the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, in the course of his Persian campaign of 626, consulted him about a plan for bringing the Monophysites (a Christological heresy) of Egypt back to the Church and to the support of the empire. The plan, suggested by Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, consisted of confessing the faith of Chalcedon on the two natures of Christ, while practically nullifying it by the admission of one theandric will and operation, ἔυ θέλημα καὶ μία ἐνέργεια (eu telèma kai mia energeia). Cyrus hesitated at first, but being assured by Sergius that this formula was opposed to neither the Fathers nor to Chalcedon and was destined to achieve great results, he became a staunch supporter of it, and was, in return, raised by Heraclius to the then vacant see of Alexandria in 630.

Once a patriarch, Cyrus set himself vigorously to effect the desired union. In a synod held at Alexandria, he proposed what is known as the πληροφορία (plèrothoria) or "Satisfactio," an agreement in nine articles, the seventh of which is a bold assertion of the Monothelite heresy. The Monophysites (Theodosians or Severians) welcomed the agreement but remarked that Chalcedon was coming to them, not they to Chalcedon.

The union thus effected was adroitly exploited, with a view to win over Pope Honorius I to Monothelism. Cyrus attended another synod at Cyprus under Arcadius II, at which he served as moderator and permitted Monothelite opponents to submit their case to the Emperor. When Cyrus received the Emperor's Monothelite response, the Ecthesis, Cyrus signed it in 637. This compromise proved ineffective, and soon fell into discredit under the name of ἔνωσις ὑδροβαφής (enoosis hydrobatès), contemptuously called the "washy union."

When Caliph Omar's general, Amru, threatened the Prefecture of Egypt, Cyrus was made prefect and entrusted with the conduct of the war. Certain humiliating stipulations, to which he subscribed for the sake of peace, angered his imperial master so much that he was recalled and harshly accused of connivance with the Muslims; however, he was soon restored to his former authority, owing to the impending siege of Alexandria, but could not avert the fall of the great city in 640 and died shortly after.

Writings

From Cyrus we have three letters to Sergius and the "Satisfactio," all preserved in the acts of the Roman Synod of the Lateran and of the Sixth Ecumenical Council (Mansi, X, 1004; XI, 560, 562, 964).

The first letter is an acceptation of the Ecthesis; in the second Cyrus describes his perplexity between Pope Leo and Sergius; the conversion of the Theodosians is narrated in the third.

The seventh article of the "Satisfactio"—the others are irrelevant—reads thus: "The one and same Christ, the Son, performs the works proper to God and to man by one theandric operation [μιᾴ θεανδρικῇ ένεργεία (mia theandriki energia)] according to St. Dionysius."

Cyrus' chief opponents, St. Sophronius, died in 637 (Epistola synodica, Mansi, XI, 480), and St. Maximus, died in 662 (Epistola ad Nicandrum; disputatio cum Pyrrho, P.G., XCI, 101, 345), reproached him for falsifying the then much-respected text of Dionysius and substituting μιᾴ for καινῇ (new). They showed, moreover, the inanity of his claim to the support of the Fathers, and explained how the Divine and human natures of Christ, sometimes styled one, because they belong to the same person and work in perfect harmony, can no more by physically identified than the natures from which they proceed. Historians are not agreed as to how Cyrus came by this error. Some think that he was, from the outset, a Monophysite at heart. Others, with more reason, hold that he was led into error by Sergius and Heraclius.

Cyrus' communications with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam, also survive to this day.[1] Cyrus offered Maria, a Coptic girl, as a gift to Prophet Mohammad.[2]

Cyrus was posthumously condemned as a heretic in the Lateran Council of 649 (Denzinger, Enchiridion, 217, 219) and in 680 at the Sixth Ecumenical Council (Denzinger, 238; Mansi, XI, 554) together with Pope Honorius and Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter, Patriarchs of Constantinople from 610 to 666.[3]


Succession box:
Cyrus of Alexandria
Preceded by:
?
Bishop of Phasis
620-630
Succeeded by:
?
Preceded by:
George I
Patriarch of Alexandria
630-643
Succeeded by:
Peter IV
Help with box



Sources

References

  1. (Arabic) and Muqawqis at Wikipedia
  2. Maria al-Qibtiyya at Wikipedia
  3. The Seven Ecumenical Councils: The Sixth Ecumenical Council. The Third Council of Constantinople. The Sentence Against the Monothelites. Session XIII. from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library

External link

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