Cyril Lucaris

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'''Cyrillos Lukaris''', also '''Cyril I Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''', was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]]. He was [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' from 1601 to 1620 and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I''' for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church after the [[fall of Constantinople]] in 1453, and dominated its history in the seventeenth century. His Calvinist confession caused great controversy in the Orthodox Church.
  
'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or '''Cyril Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' (1572-June 1637) was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]] and a native of Crete. He later became the [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I'''. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and dominated its history in the 17th century.
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==Life==
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Cyril Lucaris was born in Candia (Heraklion), Crete on [[November 13]], 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he studied under a number of eminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. For his later education he traveled through Europe, studied at Venice, Padua, and Geneva. In Geneva, he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by [[John Calvin]]. He developed a great antipathy toward [[Roman Catholic]]ism after he had pursued theological studies in Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and Geneva. In addition to being fluent in Greek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.  
  
In his youth he travelled through Europe, studying at Venice and Padua, and at Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by [[John Calvin]]. In 1602 he was elected Patriarch of Alexandria, and in 1621 Patriarch of Constantinople.
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He was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1593, when he was 21 years old and, later, was ordained a [[priest]] by Patriarch [[Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius Pegas]], Patriarch of Alexandria.
  
Due to Turkish oppression combined with the proselitisation of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit [[missionary|missionaries]], there was a shortage of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and Greek language. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic churches were built next to Orthodox ones; since Orthodox priests were in short demand something had to be done. Due to good relations with the Anglicans, in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton of London built a church for the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 the Greek Orthodox Church in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester College, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall), to become a college for the Greeks, but these plans never came to fruition.
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Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to lead the opposition by the Orthodox to the [[Union of Brest]] that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, he was a professor at the Orthodox academy in Vilnus, now the capital of Lithuania. In 1601, he was elected Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeding Patr. Meletius Pegas, a position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. During this time he re-organized the finances of the patriarchate and repaired churches in addition to preaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Cyprus.
  
In 1753 the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened a school of thought called [[Athoniada]] at [[Mount Athos]], but the Orthodox and Catholics insisted to the Turkish authorities that this should be closed. In 1759 the Athos School was closed. The next option was to send students abroad to study, as long as it was not Catholic thought. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar to Orthodox ones.
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In 1612, he was [[Locum tenens|locum tenens]] of the Church of Constantinople for a short time. On [[November 4]], 1620, the [[Holy Synod]] of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to 1623, 1623 to 1633, 1633 to 1634, 1634 to 1635, and 1637 to 1638, by intrigues involving the the papacy, reformists, Jesuits, and the Ottoman sultan that included schemes against Cyril to discredit him by spreading rumors he was a Calvinist. After each [[deposition]], Patr. Cyril was re-elected by the [[clergy]] supported by the Orthodox population.
  
It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629 he published his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine), but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 in the convocation by [[Dositheos of Jerusalem|Dositheos]], [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synod]] by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned.  
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It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629, his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine) was published in Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. From 1629 to 1633, it appeared in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. The "Confession" started a controversy in the Eastern Church which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheus]], [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synod]] by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Calvinists to him. While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the "Confession" in writing. The orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris himself has continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church. Even Dositheus, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thought it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Church.
  
Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the [[Archbishop of Canterbury|Archbishops of Canterbury]] is extremely interesting. It was in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos—later to become Patriarch of Alexandria (1636-1639)—was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library.  
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Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the [[Archbishop of Canterbury|Archbishops of Canterbury]] is extremely interesting. Through his contacts with the Church of England, he also set up a program of sending young Greeks to England to study. Among these students was the youth from Macedonia, [[Metrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]] who later would become Patriarch of Alexandria. Both Cyril and Metrophanes were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a fine manuscript of the Holy Bible, known as [[Codex Alexandrinus]]. He also sent a manuscript of the [[Pentateuch]], with Arabic translation, to Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.
  
Lucaris was several times temporarily deposed and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the [[Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies. Finally, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad III was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by the [[Janissaries]] in June 1637. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friends, and only brought back to Constantinople after many years.
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While Cyril was several times [[deposition|deposed]] temporarily and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the [[Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies, his death came suddenly. When the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV was about to set out for the Persian War, the [[patriarch]] was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks. Thus, to avoid trouble during his absence, the sultan had Cyril strangled by the [[Janissaries]] in [[June 27]], 1638. His body was thrown into the Bosporus and was later recovered after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at the Monastery of Panagia Kamariotissa on Halki by Patr. Parthenius I.
  
The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Church.
 
  
This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229]).
 
  
 
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before=[[Meletius I of Alexandria|Meletius I]]|
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before=[[Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius I]]|
title=[[List of Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria|Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
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title=[[List of Patriarchs of Alexandria|Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
years=1601 – 1620|
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years=1601-1620|
after=[[Gerasimius I of Alexandria|Gerasimius I]]|}}
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after=[[Gerasimus I of Alexandria|Gerassimus I]]|}}
 
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{{succession|
before=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Anthimus II of Constantinople|Anthimus II]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]|
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before=[[Neophytus II of Constantinople|Neophytus II]]|
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|
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title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]<br>locus tenens|
years=1612, 1620 &ndash; 1623, 1623 &ndash; 1630, 1630 &ndash; 1633, 1633 &ndash; 1634, 1634 &ndash; 1635, 1637 &ndash;1638|
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years= 1612-1612|
after=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople|Gregory IV]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
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after=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timothy II]]}}
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{{succession|
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before=Timothy II|
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title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
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years=1620-1623|
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after=[[Gregory IV of Constantinople|Gregory IV]]}}
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{{succession|
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before=[[Anthimus II of Constantinople|Anthimus II]]|
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title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
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years=1623-1633|
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after=[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]}}
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{{succession|
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before=Cyril II Kontares|
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title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
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years=1633-1634|
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after=[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]}}
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{{succession|
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before=Athanasius III Patelaros|
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title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
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years=1634-1635|
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after=Cyril II Kontares}}
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{{succession|
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before=[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]|
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title=Patriarch of Constantinople|
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years=1637-1638|
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after=Cyril II Kontares}}
 
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==See also==
 
==See also==
* [[Calvinism]]
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*[[Anglican Communion]]
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*[[Western Rite]]
  
==Source==
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==Sources==
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyril_Lucaris Wikipedia: Cyril Lucaris]
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*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Ec-patr: Cyril Lucarius] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website
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*[[w:Cyril_Lucaris|''Cyril Lucaris'' at Wikipedia]]
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*This article incorporates text from the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', which is in the public domain (see also [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229/Cyril-Lucaris entry] in the latest online edition of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'').
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the Calvinist Patriarch]
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*[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc03/htm/ii.11.xvii.htm#ii.11.xvii.p1.15 Cyril Lucar] from ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III: Chamier - Draendorf'' by Philip Schaff at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
* http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ (Short bio with picture)
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*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the "Calvinist Patriarch"] by Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna
* http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm (book review of "''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople''")
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*[http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ Cyril Lucaris] (Short bio with picture)
* http://www.cresourcei.org/creedcyril.html (''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'')
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*[http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm Review by Glanville Downey] of ''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople'' by George A. Hadjiantoniou
* [http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches]
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*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches] by the Most Rev. Archbishop Germanos, Metropolitan of Thyatira
* [http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism]
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*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism] by Canon J. A. Douglas, Ph.D. (a response to the above "Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches"
  
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===Writings===
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*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/creeds1.v.v.html The Confession of Cyril Lucar, A.D. 1631.] from ''Creeds of Christendom'' at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
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*[http://www.crivoice.org/creedcyril.html ''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'']
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[[Category:Bishops]]
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[[Category:17th-century bishops]]
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[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]
 
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
 
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
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[[ro:Chiril Lucaris]]

Revision as of 15:17, February 24, 2013

Cyrillos Lukaris, also Cyril I Lucaris or Cyril Lucar, was a Greek prelate and theologian. He was Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III from 1601 to 1620 and Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril I for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and dominated its history in the seventeenth century. His Calvinist confession caused great controversy in the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Life

Cyril Lucaris was born in Candia (Heraklion), Crete on November 13, 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he studied under a number of eminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. For his later education he traveled through Europe, studied at Venice, Padua, and Geneva. In Geneva, he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by John Calvin. He developed a great antipathy toward Roman Catholicism after he had pursued theological studies in Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and Geneva. In addition to being fluent in Greek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.

He was ordained a deacon in 1593, when he was 21 years old and, later, was ordained a priest by Patriarch Meletius Pegas, Patriarch of Alexandria.

Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to lead the opposition by the Orthodox to the Union of Brest that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, he was a professor at the Orthodox academy in Vilnus, now the capital of Lithuania. In 1601, he was elected Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeding Patr. Meletius Pegas, a position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. During this time he re-organized the finances of the patriarchate and repaired churches in addition to preaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Cyprus.

In 1612, he was locum tenens of the Church of Constantinople for a short time. On November 4, 1620, the Holy Synod of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to 1623, 1623 to 1633, 1633 to 1634, 1634 to 1635, and 1637 to 1638, by intrigues involving the the papacy, reformists, Jesuits, and the Ottoman sultan that included schemes against Cyril to discredit him by spreading rumors he was a Calvinist. After each deposition, Patr. Cyril was re-elected by the clergy supported by the Orthodox population.

It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629, his famous Confessio (Calvinistic in doctrine) was published in Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. From 1629 to 1633, it appeared in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. The "Confession" started a controversy in the Eastern Church which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by Dositheus, Patriarch of Jerusalem, of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Calvinists to him. While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the "Confession" in writing. The orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris himself has continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church. Even Dositheus, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thought it expedient to gloss over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church.

Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the Archbishops of Canterbury is extremely interesting. Through his contacts with the Church of England, he also set up a program of sending young Greeks to England to study. Among these students was the youth from Macedonia, Metrophanes Kritopoulos who later would become Patriarch of Alexandria. Both Cyril and Metrophanes were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a fine manuscript of the Holy Bible, known as Codex Alexandrinus. He also sent a manuscript of the Pentateuch, with Arabic translation, to Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.

While Cyril was several times deposed temporarily and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, who were his bitterest enemies, his death came suddenly. When the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks. Thus, to avoid trouble during his absence, the sultan had Cyril strangled by the Janissaries in June 27, 1638. His body was thrown into the Bosporus and was later recovered after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at the Monastery of Panagia Kamariotissa on Halki by Patr. Parthenius I.


Succession box:
Cyril Lucaris
Preceded by:
Meletius I
Patriarch of Alexandria
1601-1620
Succeeded by:
Gerassimus I
Preceded by:
Neophytus II
Patriarch of Constantinople
locus tenens

1612-1612
Succeeded by:
Timothy II
Preceded by:
Timothy II
Patriarch of Constantinople
1620-1623
Succeeded by:
Gregory IV
Preceded by:
Anthimus II
Patriarch of Constantinople
1623-1633
Succeeded by:
Cyril II Kontares
Preceded by:
Cyril II Kontares
Patriarch of Constantinople
1633-1634
Succeeded by:
Athanasius III Patelaros
Preceded by:
Athanasius III Patelaros
Patriarch of Constantinople
1634-1635
Succeeded by:
Cyril II Kontares
Preceded by:
Neophytus III
Patriarch of Constantinople
1637-1638
Succeeded by:
Cyril II Kontares
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