Contraception

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'''''Contraception''''' is the term used to describe an intentional prevention of the conception of a child.  This term may also be used to describe the intentional prevention of pregnancy, which may be defined differently from conception.
 
'''''Contraception''''' is the term used to describe an intentional prevention of the conception of a child.  This term may also be used to describe the intentional prevention of pregnancy, which may be defined differently from conception.
{{stub}}
 
 
  
 
==Synopsis==
 
==Synopsis==
Until about 1970, Orthodox churches generally opposed the use of contraception.  Since that time a "new consensus" has emerged, not just in America. This new view basically holds that contraception is acceptable within a Christian marriage if:
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Opinions about contraception have varied in the Orthodox Church. There is complete unanimity that no form of contraception that is abortifacient is acceptable and there are definitive ecumenical canons that proscribe abortifacients.  The Fathers of the Church, such as Ss. Athanasius the Great, John Chrysostom, Epiphanios, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, Caesarious, Gregory the Great, Augustine of Canterbury and Maximos the Confessor, all explicitely condemned abortion as well as the use of abortifacients. However there are a range of opinions on the issue of non-abortifacient contraception.  
:1) the means of contraception is not abortifacient,
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:2) if it is used with the blessing of one's spiritual father, and  
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:3) if children are not completely excluded from the marriage.
+
  
The statement on marriage and family from the 10th All-American Council of the Orthodox Church in America follows along these lines:
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:1) There are those who hold the view that sex should only be for the purpose of procreation, and so even natural family planning would be prohibited.
  
* http://www.oca.org/DOCmarriage.asp?ID=19.
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:2)There are those who argue that natural family planning is acceptable, because it simply involves abstinence from sex during times when fertility is likely.
  
This "new consensus" has not gone unchallenged. Some teach that intercourse within marriage should be for procreation only. Others hold a view somewhat similar to the [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] position, which would allow family planning in principle, i.e., Natural Family Planning, while at the same time opposing contraception—many Orthodox hierarchs and theologians from around the world lauded ''Humanae Vitae'' when it was issued. A few think the "new consensus" position is too conservative and more freely allow contraception.
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:3)There are those who teach that non-abortifacient contraception is acceptable if it is used with the blessing of one's spiritual father, and if it is not used simply to avoid having children for purely selfish reasons. [http://www.oca.org/DOCmarriage.asp?ID=19 The statement on marriage and family from the 10th All-American Council of the Orthodox Church in America] follows along these lines, as does [http://orthodoxeurope.org/page/3/14.aspx "The Bases of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church," section XII. 3], which was approved by the 2000 Council of the Russian Orthodox Church.
  
Many people, on all sides, believe that this change in thinking on this issue of contraception has not received adequate examination. Too often it has become tied up in identity politics, with various groups accusing the other of western influence. It is true that this discussion is closely related to a number of complex issues that have not fully been addressed in Orthodox theology. Roman Catholics are sometimes bewildered by how the Orthodox Church could allow such a change in teaching. One might respond by saying that the dynamics of the Orthodox tradition function much differently than Rome's, and that this issue must be worked through in a manner quite different from a magisterial decree.
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While some local churches have issued official statements on this issue, it is not an issue that has been clearly defined by the entire Church.
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Vocal opponents to the prevailing view of contraception in Orthodoxy today include [incomplete]:
 +
Bp. Hilarion of Vienna [ROC], Bp. Artemije of Kosovo [SOC], Fr. Josiah Trenham, Fr. Patrick Reardon, Fr. John Schroedel and Fr. Patrick Danielson.
  
 
==Methods==
 
==Methods==
Line 27: Line 25:
  
 
===Withdrawal===
 
===Withdrawal===
Besides being ineffective, methods of withdrawl have traditionally been opposed by the Church as over-indulgence of the flesh.
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Besides being ineffective, methods of withdrawal have traditionally been opposed by the Church as over-indulgence of the flesh.
  
 
===Barrier Contraceptives===
 
===Barrier Contraceptives===
 
<!-- Types. Statistics. Opinions. -->
 
<!-- Types. Statistics. Opinions. -->
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===Intrauterine devices (IUD)===
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The presence of a device in the uterus prompts the release of substances hostile to both sperm and eggs; the presence of copper increases this spermicidal effect. However, the same effect is believed to harm developing embryos. While the primary mechanism of the IUD is spermicidal/ovicidal, post-fertilization mechanisms are believed to contribute significantly to their effectiveness. Because Christians define fertilization as the beginning of life, this secondary effect is considered by them as early [[abortion]].
  
 
===Hormonal Contraceptives===
 
===Hormonal Contraceptives===
* [http://www.cbhd.org/catalog/books_only_pages/pillpacket.htm The Pill: Addressing the Scientific and Ethical Questions of the Abortifacient Issue] - A collection of recent scholarly articles and statements edited by Linda Bevington and Russell DiSilvestro [Links to ordering info and a description of the booklet]
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* [http://www.cbhd.org/xcart/customer/product.php?productid=21677&cat=&page= The Pill: Addressing the Scientific and Ethical Questions of the Abortifacient Issue] - A collection of recent scholarly articles and statements edited by Linda Bevington and Russell DiSilvestro [Links to ordering info and a description of the booklet]
* [http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=4Q5WONWSEUDMWCRBAELCFFA?type=healthNews&storyID=2510169 Study: Pill Use May Raise Cervical Cancer Risk]
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<!--* [http://reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml;jsessionid=4Q5WONWSEUDMWCRBAELCFFA?type=healthNews&storyID=2510169 Study: Pill Use May Raise Cervical Cancer Risk] --->
 
* [http://www.epm.org/bcp.html Does the Birth Control Pill Cause Abortions?] - A very helpful and easy to read booklet by Randy Alcorn. The full version is online in various formats, and there is a minimal charge for a print copy.
 
* [http://www.epm.org/bcp.html Does the Birth Control Pill Cause Abortions?] - A very helpful and easy to read booklet by Randy Alcorn. The full version is online in various formats, and there is a minimal charge for a print copy.
* [http://www.epm.org/pilldebate.html The Growing Debate about the Abortifacient Effect of the Birth Control Pill and the Principle of the Double Effect] - by Dr. Walt L. Larrimore
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* [http://www.epm.org/articles/pilldebate2.html The Growing Debate about the Abortifacient Effect of the Birth Control Pill and the Principle of the Double Effect] - by Dr. Walt L. Larimore
* [http://archfami.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/9/2/126?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=postfertilization&searchid=1052273133039_87&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=archfami Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent] - Article by Dr. Walter L. Larrimore
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* [http://archfami.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/9/2/126?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=postfertilization&searchid=1052273133039_87&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=archfami Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent] - Article by Dr. Walter L. Larimore
* PBS aired a documentary a little while ago on “The Pill.
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* PBS aired a documentary a little while ago on "The Pill." Their [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pill extensive website] contains video interviews, social history and documentary, a contraception timeline, a flash presentation of how the Pill works, internet links, and many other resources. A transcript of the television show is also available online.
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* [http://www.kaisernetwork.org/daily_reports/rep_index.cfm?DR_ID=15052 Government Lists All Estrogens Used in Oral Contraceptives, Hormone Replacement Therapy as 'Known Human Carcinogens']
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* [http://www.pilltruth.com/ Pilltruth.com] - More information about hormonal contraceptives
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===Sterilization===
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==Bibliography==
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*[[H. Tristram Engelhardt|Engelhardt, H. Tristram]], Jr. ''Foundations of Christian Bioethics''. Swets & Zeitlinger, 2000. See especially Chapter Five.
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*Evdokimov, Paul. ''The Sacrament of Love: The Nuptial Mystery in the Light of the Orthodox Tradition''. Crestwood: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1985. See especially pp. 174-180.
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*[[John Meyendorff|Meyendorff, John]]. ''Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective'', second expanded edition. Crestwood: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1975. See especially Chapter Thirteen.
 +
*Sherrard, Philip. "Humanae Vitae: Notes on the Encyclical Letter of Pope Paul VI," in ''Sobornost'' 5:8 (1969).
 +
*Zaphiris, Chrysostomos. "The Morality of Contraception: An Eastern Orthodox Opinion," in ''The Journal of Ecumenical Studies'' 11:4 (1974). ''Note:'' http://jonathanscorner.com/writing/contraception/ provides a commentary on Zaphiris 1974 and an "opposing views" piece to the "new concensus".
 +
*Zion, William Basil. ''Eros and Transformation: Sexuality and Marriage: An Eastern Orthodox Perspective''. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992. Chapter Seven is entitled "Orthodoxy and Contraception."
 +
 
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==See also==
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*[[Abortion]]
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*[[Marriage]]
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==External links==
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===Organizations===
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*[http://www.orthodoxnfp.org The Orthodox Natural Family Planning Association]
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<!-- *[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/orthodoxnfp/ Orthodox NFP Discussion List] - A discussion group for those working to implement NFP in an Orthodox context --->
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===Discussion Group Threads relevant to the topic of Orthodoxy and Contraception===
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* [https://listserv.indiana.edu/archives/orthodox.html The "Indiana" List archives] (search under contraception, birth control, or natural family planning) <!-- http://listserv.indiana.edu/cgi-bin/wa?S1=orthodox --->
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* [http://www.monachos.net/mb/messages/4226/1140.html?1030056988 Monachos.net Discussion Community] - Discussion on birth control
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<!--* [http://www.orthodoxfamily.com/cgi-bin/UltraBoard/UltraBoard.cgi?action=Read&BID=22&TID=1&SID=2773 OrthodoxFamily.com] discussion on NFP --->
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* [http://www.byzcath.org/cgibin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=2&t=001383 ByzCath.org discussion on birth control] - Includes Byzantine Catholic and Orthodox Perspectives
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<!-- * [http://www.cin.org/archives/apolo/199811/0543.html Catholic Information Network discussion on contraception] - Includes Byzantine Catholic and Orthodox Perspectives --->
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<!-- * [http://www.stmichael.org/cgi-dir/yabb/YaBB.cgi?board=Questions&action=display&num=87 St. Michael the Archangel Discussion Group] - Discussion with reference to contraception and the Orthodox Church --->
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<!-- * [http://pub141.ezboard.com/fgregsdiscussionboardgodtalk.showMessage?topicID=1980.topic Greg K.'s ezBoard Discussion List] --->
 +
 
 +
 
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[[Category:Bioethics]]
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[[Category:Ethics]]

Revision as of 15:25, December 8, 2008

Contraception is the term used to describe an intentional prevention of the conception of a child. This term may also be used to describe the intentional prevention of pregnancy, which may be defined differently from conception.

Contents

Synopsis

Opinions about contraception have varied in the Orthodox Church. There is complete unanimity that no form of contraception that is abortifacient is acceptable and there are definitive ecumenical canons that proscribe abortifacients. The Fathers of the Church, such as Ss. Athanasius the Great, John Chrysostom, Epiphanios, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, Caesarious, Gregory the Great, Augustine of Canterbury and Maximos the Confessor, all explicitely condemned abortion as well as the use of abortifacients. However there are a range of opinions on the issue of non-abortifacient contraception.

1) There are those who hold the view that sex should only be for the purpose of procreation, and so even natural family planning would be prohibited.
2)There are those who argue that natural family planning is acceptable, because it simply involves abstinence from sex during times when fertility is likely.
3)There are those who teach that non-abortifacient contraception is acceptable if it is used with the blessing of one's spiritual father, and if it is not used simply to avoid having children for purely selfish reasons. The statement on marriage and family from the 10th All-American Council of the Orthodox Church in America follows along these lines, as does "The Bases of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church," section XII. 3, which was approved by the 2000 Council of the Russian Orthodox Church.

While some local churches have issued official statements on this issue, it is not an issue that has been clearly defined by the entire Church.

Vocal opponents to the prevailing view of contraception in Orthodoxy today include [incomplete]: Bp. Hilarion of Vienna [ROC], Bp. Artemije of Kosovo [SOC], Fr. Josiah Trenham, Fr. Patrick Reardon, Fr. John Schroedel and Fr. Patrick Danielson.

Methods

Methods of family planning can be broken down into five categories: Natural Family Planning, withdrawal, barrier contraceptives, hormonal contraceptives, and sterilization. A distinction is implicit here between birth control or family planning and contraception. Whereas the former terms may include all five categories, "contraception" is usually reserved for those methods which more directly inhibit or act against conception.

Natural Family Planning

Even many people who accept the "new consensus" position as outlines above think that Natural Family Planning (NFP) is superior to contraception. It is often said that the dynamics of NFP (similar to the fasts of the Church) serve as a kind of catechesis for marital sexuality, emphasizing the need for self-control and honoring God-given fertility while at the same time recognizing the need for intimacy and allowing for a responsible family planning. NFP is also useful for couples having difficulty conceiving. Additionally, because of the awareness of the woman's cycle that it brings it can also help a woman spot health risks manifested through irregularities in the cycle.

Modern methods of Natural Family Planning differ greatly from the old "rhythm" method, which worked by marking days on a calendar and required a regular cycle length to be effective. NFP can be used by women with irregular cycles, as well as by women who are breastfeeding or pre-menopausal. With proper use, NFP is as effective as the Pill.

Withdrawal

Besides being ineffective, methods of withdrawal have traditionally been opposed by the Church as over-indulgence of the flesh.

Barrier Contraceptives

Intrauterine devices (IUD)

The presence of a device in the uterus prompts the release of substances hostile to both sperm and eggs; the presence of copper increases this spermicidal effect. However, the same effect is believed to harm developing embryos. While the primary mechanism of the IUD is spermicidal/ovicidal, post-fertilization mechanisms are believed to contribute significantly to their effectiveness. Because Christians define fertilization as the beginning of life, this secondary effect is considered by them as early abortion.

Hormonal Contraceptives

Sterilization

Bibliography

  • Engelhardt, H. Tristram, Jr. Foundations of Christian Bioethics. Swets & Zeitlinger, 2000. See especially Chapter Five.
  • Evdokimov, Paul. The Sacrament of Love: The Nuptial Mystery in the Light of the Orthodox Tradition. Crestwood: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1985. See especially pp. 174-180.
  • Meyendorff, John. Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective, second expanded edition. Crestwood: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1975. See especially Chapter Thirteen.
  • Sherrard, Philip. "Humanae Vitae: Notes on the Encyclical Letter of Pope Paul VI," in Sobornost 5:8 (1969).
  • Zaphiris, Chrysostomos. "The Morality of Contraception: An Eastern Orthodox Opinion," in The Journal of Ecumenical Studies 11:4 (1974). Note: http://jonathanscorner.com/writing/contraception/ provides a commentary on Zaphiris 1974 and an "opposing views" piece to the "new concensus".
  • Zion, William Basil. Eros and Transformation: Sexuality and Marriage: An Eastern Orthodox Perspective. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992. Chapter Seven is entitled "Orthodoxy and Contraception."

See also

External links

Organizations

Discussion Group Threads relevant to the topic of Orthodoxy and Contraception

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