Constantine of Cornwall and Govan

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[[Image:ScsConstantinus-of-Govan-AHart.jpg|right|thumb|King-Martyr St. Constantine of Govan.]]
 
Saint '''Constantine of Cornwall''', also '''Constantine of Dumnonia''', '''Constantine III of Britain''', '''Saint Custennin''', '''Custennin ap Cado''', '''Custennin ap Cadwr''',<ref>[[w:Anthony Birley|Anthony Richard Birley]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JzEp5Di15o8C&dq=inauthor:%22Anthony+Richard+Birley%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s The People of Roman Britain].'' University of California Press, 1980. p.210.<br>
 
Saint '''Constantine of Cornwall''', also '''Constantine of Dumnonia''', '''Constantine III of Britain''', '''Saint Custennin''', '''Custennin ap Cado''', '''Custennin ap Cadwr''',<ref>[[w:Anthony Birley|Anthony Richard Birley]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JzEp5Di15o8C&dq=inauthor:%22Anthony+Richard+Birley%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s The People of Roman Britain].'' University of California Press, 1980. p.210.<br>
:Citing: [[w:Peter Bartrum|P.C. Bartrum]]. ''Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts.'' Cardiff: University of Wales, 1966. p.179.</ref> or '''Costentyn''' (ca. 520-576 AD)<ref name=SYNAX-MARCH-9>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2392/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας ὁ τῆς Κορνουάλλης].'' 9 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)</ref><ref name=NASH-FORD>David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.</ref> is a 6th century Cornish saint that is identified with a minor British king Constantine. After a life of vice, he came to repentance at [[w:St Davids|St Davids]] monastery in Wales. Two places in Cornwall are still named after him.<ref name=LATIN>Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome. ''[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm Constantine March 9].''</ref> In addition, it is maintained that he went from Wales to Ireland and from there went as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland, where he was [[Martyr|martyred]] by pirates at [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]] (Kintyre). However there are difficulties with this latter part of his [[hagiography]] involving a conflation of events with one or more other 'Constantines'.
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:* Cites: [[w:Peter Bartrum|P.C. Bartrum]]. ''Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts.'' Cardiff: University of Wales, 1966. p.179.</ref> '''Costentyn''' or '''Constantine of Govan''' (ca. 520-576 AD)<ref name=SYNAX-MARCH-9>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2392/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας ὁ τῆς Κορνουάλλης].'' 9 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)</ref><ref name=NASH-FORD>David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.</ref> is a 6th century Cornish saint that is identified with a minor British king Constantine, who came to repentance at [[w:St Davids|St Davids]] monastery in Wales, after a life of vice. It is maintained that he went from Wales to Ireland, and from there went as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland, where he was [[Martyr|martyred]] by pirates at [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]] (Kintyre); however there are difficulties with this latter part of his [[hagiography]] involving a conflation of events with one (or two) other 'Constantines'.  
  
His [[feast day]] is observed on [[March 9]],<ref name="SYNAX-MARCH-9"/><ref name="NASH-FORD"/><ref name="LATIN"/> in the tradition of Cornwall and Wales, and on [[March 11]]<ref name=BUTLER>Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). ''[http://www.bartleby.com/210/3/114.html March 11 - St. Constantine, Martyr].'' The Lives of the Saints. Volume III: March. 1866. (Bartleby.com)</ref><ref name=FLEMING>William Canon Fleming (Rector of [[w:St Mary Moorfields|St. Mary’s, Moorsfields]], London). ''[http://www.archive.org/details/completehistoryo00flemuoft A Complete History of the British Martyrs – From the Roman Occupation to Elizabeth’s Reign].'' Proprietors of the Catholic Repository. Little Britain, London, 1902. (pp. 19,141,145)..<br>
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His [[feast day]] is observed on [[March 9]],<ref name="SYNAX-MARCH-9"/><ref name="NASH-FORD"/><ref name=LATIN>Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome. ''[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm Constantine March 9].''</ref> in the tradition of Cornwall and Wales, and on [[March 11]]<ref name=BUTLER>Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). ''[http://www.bartleby.com/210/3/114.html March 11 - St. Constantine, Martyr].'' The Lives of the Saints. Volume III: March. 1866. (Bartleby.com)</ref><ref name=FLEMING>William Canon Fleming (Rector of [[w:St Mary Moorfields|St. Mary’s, Moorsfields]], London). ''[http://www.archive.org/details/completehistoryo00flemuoft A Complete History of the British Martyrs – From the Roman Occupation to Elizabeth’s Reign].'' Proprietors of the Catholic Repository. Little Britain, London, 1902. (pp. 19,141,145)..<br>
:* Cites: [[w:Richard Challoner|Challoner's]] ''' ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JbZWQAAACAAJ&dq=Britannia+Sancta&hl=en&ei=jixlTv3lGKb40gG_gZGECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA Britannia Sancta]'' ''' (Meighan, 1745).</ref><ref>Katherine I. Rabenstein. ''[http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0311.shtml March 11 - Constantine of Scotland M (AC)].'' St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. - Saint of the Day.</ref> in the Scottish and Irish traditions. It is possible that the British king (†576)<ref name="SYNAX-MARCH-9"/> is not the same person as the Scottish martyr (†576,<ref>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/3082/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας βασιλέας τῶν Σκώτων].'' 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref> or †590<ref name="FLEMING"/>).<ref group="note">If it is to be argued that the Scottish martyr Constantine is a separate individual from the Cornish Saint Constantine, then perhaps he was a King of [[w:Damnonii|Damnonia]] (Strathclyde) not Dumnonia (Cornwall); however this is guesswork and there is no way to tell for certain. The ''Great Synaxaristes'' (in the Greek) includes an entry for March 9 for ''"St Constantine the Martyr of Cornwall"'' (†576) (translated), and another entry for May 9 for a ''"St Constantine the Martyr, King of the Scots"'' (†576) (translated), with the exact same death date for both. It also has a third entry for March 11 for ''"St Constantine the King"'' of Strathclyde (†640).</ref> To add to the ambiguity there is another (third?) saint from a slightly later period, King [[Constantine of Strathclyde]] (†640), whose feast day is [[March 11]] as well, but who is said to have reposed in peace (i.e. not the martyr),<ref>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2409/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ βασιλεὺς].'' 11 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref> and whose life has been inextricably conflated with the Scottish king-martyr.
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:* Cites: [[w:Richard Challoner|Challoner's]] ''' ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JbZWQAAACAAJ&dq=Britannia+Sancta&hl=en&ei=jixlTv3lGKb40gG_gZGECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA Britannia Sancta]'' ''' (Meighan, 1745).</ref><ref>Katherine I. Rabenstein. ''[http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0311.shtml March 11 - Constantine of Scotland M (AC)].'' St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. - Saint of the Day.</ref> in the Scottish and Irish traditions. Two places in Cornwall are still named after him today.<ref name="LATIN"/>
  
Therefore the traditions of St. Constantine of Cornwall (identified with the Scottish martyr of the same date), and St. Constantine of Strathclyde are very much confused. Canon [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G.H. Doble]] in his ''Cornish Saints'' says that “the name has given rise altogether to one of the most fearful series of muddles in the whole history of hagiography.”<ref>[http://constantinecornwall.com/the-parish/st-constantine/ Constantine, Cornwall]. (''The Constantine website, serving the community of Constantine in Cornwall'').</ref><ref group="note">In ''"The De Excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date"'' by Thomas O’Sullivan, it has been suggested that "probably two or three Constantines have been confused", and quotes the judgment of Canon [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G. H. Doble]] that:
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It is possible that the British king (†576)<ref name="SYNAX-MARCH-9"/> is not the same person as the Scottish martyr (†576,<ref>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/3082/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας βασιλέας τῶν Σκώτων].'' 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref> or †590<ref name="FLEMING"/>).<ref group="note">If it is to be argued that the Scottish martyr Constantine is a separate individual from the Cornish Saint Constantine, then perhaps he was a King of [[w:Damnonii|Damnonia]] (Strathclyde) not Dumnonia (Cornwall); however this is guesswork and there is no way to tell for certain. The ''Great Synaxaristes'' (in the Greek) includes an entry for March 9 for ''"St Constantine the Martyr of Cornwall"'' (†576), and another entry for May 9 for a ''"St Constantine the Martyr, King of the Scots"'' (†576), with the exact same death date for both. It also has a third entry for March 11 for ''"St Constantine the King"'' of Strathclyde (†640).</ref> To add to the ambiguity there is another saint from a slightly later period, King [[Constantine of Strathclyde]] (†640), whose feast day is on [[March 11]] as well, but who is said to have reposed in peace (i.e. not martyred),<ref>Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2409/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ βασιλεὺς].'' 11 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref> and whose life has been inextricably conflated with the Scottish king-martyr. Therefore the traditions of St. Constantine of Cornwall (identified with the Scottish martyr of the same date), and St. Constantine of Strathclyde are very much confused. Canon [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G.H. Doble]] in his ''Cornish Saints'' says that “the name has given rise altogether to one of the most fearful series of muddles in the whole history of hagiography.”<ref>[http://constantinecornwall.com/the-parish/st-constantine/ Constantine, Cornwall]. (''The Constantine website, serving the community of Constantine in Cornwall'').</ref><ref group="note">In ''"The De Excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date"'' by Thomas O’Sullivan, it has been suggested that "probably two or three Constantines have been confused", and quotes the judgment of Canon [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G. H. Doble]] that:
:“…there is not the smallest evidence that Constantine of Gildas is the St. Constantine whom we find honoured in the five parishes of Devon and Cornwall, as some persons, forgetful of the fact that Constantine was a very common name at the time, have rashly assumed.” (Thomas D. O'Sullivan. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q2U3i1X8B50C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The De Excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date].'' BRILL, 1978. p.95.)</ref>
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:“…there is not the smallest evidence that Constantine of Gildas is the St. Constantine whom we find honoured in the five parishes of Devon and Cornwall, as some persons, forgetful of the fact that Constantine was a very common name at the time, have rashly assumed.”<br>
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:* (Thomas D. O'Sullivan. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q2U3i1X8B50C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The De Excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date].'' BRILL, 1978. p.95.)</ref>
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
Constantine probably succeeded his father, [[w:Cador|Cador]], as King of Dumnonia in the early 6th century. Literary tradition indicates AD 537, after the [[w:Battle of Camlann|Battle of Camlann]] from which, some sources say, "Sir Constantine" was the only survivor.<ref name="NASH-FORD"/>
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Constantine of Cornwall probably succeeded his father, [[w:Cador|Cador]], as King of Dumnonia in the early 6th century. Literary tradition indicates AD 537, after the [[w:Battle of Camlann|Battle of Camlann]] from which, some sources say, "Sir Constantine" was the only survivor.<ref name="NASH-FORD"/> He is reputed to have been married to the daughter of the King of Brittany and to have led a life full of vice and greed until he was led to conversion by [[w:Saint Petroc|Saint Petroc]]:
  
The only contemporary information about him comes from [[Gildas]], who calls him king of ''Damnonia'' (probably [[w:Dumnonia|Dumnonia]]) and castigates him for his various sins, including the murder of two "royal youths" inside a church.<ref group="note">"According to [[w:Geoffrey of Monmouth|Geoffrey of Monmouth]], these were, in fact, the treacherous sons of the evil usurper, [[w:Mordred|Mordred]], who were killed in Winchester & London." (David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.)</ref> Much later, [[w:Geoffrey of Monmouth|Geoffrey of Monmouth]] included the figure in his pseudohistorical chronicle ''[[w:The History of the Kings of Britain|Historia Regum Britanniae]]'', adding fictional details to [[Gildas|Gildas]]' account and making Constantine the successor to King Arthur as King of Britain. Under the influence of Geoffrey, derivative figures appeared in a number of later works.
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<blockquote>One day, while out hunting a deer, his prey took shelter in St. Petroc's cell. So impressed was the King by the saint's power that he and his body guard immediately converted to Christianity. Constantine gave Petroc an ivory hunting horn in commemoration of the event and this was long revered along with the Saint's other relics at [[w:Bodmin Parish Church|Bodmin]]. The King became co-founder of this famous Cornish monastery.<ref name="NASH-FORD"/></blockquote>
  
===Gildas' Account===
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After the death of his queen he resigned the crown to his son, in order to take up the religious life himself.  
[[Gildas]] writing in 547 AD mentions Constantine in chapters 28 and 29 of his work ''[[w:De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae|De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae]].''<ref name=EXCIDIO>''[http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Ruin_of_Britain#28 De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, ch. 28–29].''</ref><ref name=GILES>Giles, John Allen, ed. (1841). ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=3R1mCE7p44MC&printsec=titlepage#v=onepage&q&f=false The Works of Gildas and Nennius].'' London: James Bohn — English translation.</ref> He is one of five [[w:Britons (historical)|Brythonic]] kings whom the author rebukes and compares to Biblical beasts. Constantine is called the "tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia". This Damnonia is generally associated with the kingdom of [[w:Dumnonia|Dumnonia]], a Brythonic kingdom in [[w:South West England|Southwestern Britain]].<ref>[[w:John Edward Lloyd|Lloyd, John Edward]]. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=NYwNAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lloyd+history+of+Wales#v=onepage&q=&f=false A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest].'' Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.</ref> However, it is possible that Gildas was instead referring to the territory of the [[w:Damnonii|Damnonii]] in what was later known as the [[w:Hen Ogledd|Hen Ogledd]] or "Old North".
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Gildas says that despite swearing an oath against deceit and tyranny, Constantine disguised himself in an [[abbot]]'s robes and attacked two "royal youths" praying before a church altar, killing them and their companions. Gildas is clear that Constantine's sins were manifold even before this, as he had committed "many adulteries" after casting off his lawfully wedded wife. Gildas encourages Constantine, whom he knows to still be alive at the time, to repent his sins lest he be damned.<ref name="EXCIDIO"/><ref name="GILES"/>
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<blockquote>He moved amongst his people, founding churches at the two Constantines, near Padstow and Falmouth, and at Illogan; also at Milton Abbot and Dunsford in Devon. Later, he travelled across the Bristol Channel to join St. Dewi (David) at Mynyw ([[w:St Davids|St. Davids]]), where he resided as a monk for many years. He founded the church at Cosheston, near Pembroke, but eventually settled as a hermit in Costyneston (Cosmeston) near Cardiff. He may have died there, though there are persistent stories that he travelled still further north and preached to the people of Galloway before being martyred in Kintyre on 9th March AD 576.<ref name="NASH-FORD"/></blockquote>
  
===Identification===
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However according to Bishop [[w:Richard Challoner|Richard Challoner]]'s hagiography of ''"Saint Constantine, Prince and Priest",'' in ''' ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JbZWQAAACAAJ&dq=Britannia+Sancta&hl=en&ei=jixlTv3lGKb40gG_gZGECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA Britannia Sancta]'' ''' (1745), as listed in William Canon Fleming's ''A Complete History of the British Martyrs'' (1902):
====South-west Britain====
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A Saint Constantine is revered in Devon and Cornwall, and has become identified with the monarch Constantine of Dumnonia (Constantine III of Britain). His name is given to the parish church of Milton Abbot in Devon, and the villages of [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine, Cornwall]] and [[w:Constantine Bay|Constantine Bay]], as well as to extinct chapels in [[w:Illogan|Illogan]] and Dunterton.
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The saint at Constantine Bay was almost certainly the 'wealthy man' of this name mentioned in the ''Life of Saint [[w:Saint Petroc|Petroc]].'' He was converted to Christianity by that holy man at nearby [[w:Little Petherick|Little Petherick]] after the deer Constantine was hunting took shelter with him.  
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<blockquote>Martyred at [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]], in Scotland, on March 11th, 590.<br>
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"The Scottish Breviaries commemorate on March 11th the Feast of Saint Constantine, Martyr. He is said to have been a prince who, after the death of his princess, retired from the world, and, having resigned his kingdom to his son, became a monk in the Monastery of [[w:St Davids|Saint David's]]. Going afterwards to Ireland, he entered a religious house at St. Carthag at [[w:Rahan, County Offaly|Rathene]], where, unknown to any, he served for four years at a mill, until his name was discovered. He was then fully instructed, ordained priest, and sent as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland. Having for many years laboured with Saint [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] for their conversion, he established a religious community of men at [[w:Govan|Govan]], and converted the inhabitants of [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]] to Christianity. At length the happiness he so long desired came to him in his advanced age; he was [[Martyr|slain]] by infidels actuated by hatred of the Christian religion."<ref name="FLEMING"/></blockquote>
  
A Constantine "King of the Cornishmen" also appears in the ''Life of [[David of Wales|Saint David]]'' as having given up his crown in order to enter this saint's monastery at [[w:St Davids|St David's]].  
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==Sources==
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'''Gildas'''<br>
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The only contemporary information about him comes from [[Gildas]], writing in 547 AD, who mentions Constantine in chapters 28 and 29 of his work ''[[w:De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae|De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae]].''<ref name=EXCIDIO>''[http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Ruin_of_Britain#28 De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, ch. 28–29].''</ref><ref name=GILES>Giles, John Allen, ed. (1841). ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=3R1mCE7p44MC&printsec=titlepage#v=onepage&q&f=false The Works of Gildas and Nennius].'' London: James Bohn — English translation.</ref> He is one of five [[w:Britons (historical)|Brythonic]] kings whom the author rebukes and compares to Biblical beasts. Constantine is called the "tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia". This Damnonia is generally associated with the kingdom of [[w:Dumnonia|Dumnonia]], a Brythonic kingdom in [[w:South West England|Southwestern Britain]].<ref>[[w:John Edward Lloyd|Lloyd, John Edward]]. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=NYwNAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lloyd+history+of+Wales#v=onepage&q=&f=false A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest].'' Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.</ref> However, it is possible that Gildas was instead referring to the territory of the [[w:Damnonii|Damnonii]] in what was later known as the [[w:Hen Ogledd|Hen Ogledd]] or "Old North". Gildas says that despite swearing an oath against deceit and tyranny, Constantine disguised himself in an [[abbot]]'s robes and attacked two "royal youths" praying before a church altar, killing them and their companions.<ref group="note">"According to [[w:Geoffrey of Monmouth|Geoffrey of Monmouth]], these were, in fact, the treacherous sons of the evil usurper, [[w:Mordred|Mordred]], who were killed in Winchester & London."<br>
 +
:* (David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.)</ref> Gildas is clear that Constantine's sins were manifold even before this, as he had committed "many adulteries" after casting off his lawfully wedded wife. Gildas encourages Constantine, whom he knows to still be alive at the time, to repent his sins lest he be damned.<ref name="EXCIDIO"/><ref name="GILES"/>
  
====Scotland and Ireland====
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'''Life of Saint Petroc'''<br>
The conversion of a Constantine<ref group="note">"Conversion," be it noted is a term which may apply either to the acceptance of the Christian faith or to the adoption of monastic life.</ref> is also recorded in the ''[[w:Annals of Ulster|Annals of Ulster]]'' in 588 and a Constantine appears in the ''Breviary of Aberdeen'' as entering a monastery in Ireland incognito before joining [[Kentigern of Glasgow|Saint Mungo]] (alias Kentigern) and becoming a missionary to the Picts.
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The ''Life of Saint [[w:Saint Petroc|Petroc]]'' mentions a Constantine who was converted to Christianity by that holy man at nearby [[w:Little Petherick|Little Petherick]] after the deer Constantine was hunting took shelter with him.  
  
According to Bishop [[w:Richard Challoner|Richard Challoner]]'s life of ''"Saint Constantine, Prince and Priest",'' in ''' ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JbZWQAAACAAJ&dq=Britannia+Sancta&hl=en&ei=jixlTv3lGKb40gG_gZGECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA Britannia Sancta]'' ''' (1745), cited by William Canon Fleming in ''A Complete History of the British Martyrs'' (1902):
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'''Life of Saint David'''<br>
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A Constantine "King of the Cornishmen" also appears in the ''Life of [[David of Wales|Saint David]]'' as having given up his crown in order to enter this saint's monastery at [[w:St Davids|St David's]] in Wales.
  
<blockquote>Martyred at [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]], in Scotland, on March 11th, 590.<br>
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'''Geoffrey of Monmouth'''<br>
"The Scottish Breviaries commemorate on March 11th the Feast of Saint Constantine, Martyr. He is said to have been a prince who, after the death of his princess, retired from the world, and, having resigned his kingdom to his son, became a monk in the Monastery of [[w:St Davids|Saint David's]]. Going afterwards to Ireland, he entered a religious house at St. Carthag at [[w:Rahan, County Offaly|Rathene]], where, unknown to any, he served for four years at a mill, until his name was discovered. He was then fully instructed, ordained priest, and sent as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland. Having for many years laboured with Saint [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] for their conversion, he established a religious community of men at [[w:Govan|Govan]], and converted the inhabitants of [[w:Mull of Kintyre|Cantyre]] to Christianity. At length the happiness he so long desired came to him in his advanced age; he was [[Martyr|slain]] by infidels actuated by hatred of the Christian religion."<ref name="FLEMING"/></blockquote>
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Much later, [[w:Geoffrey of Monmouth|Geoffrey of Monmouth]] included the figure in his pseudohistorical chronicle ''[[w:The History of the Kings of Britain|Historia Regum Britanniae]]'', adding fictional details to [[Gildas|Gildas]]' account and making Constantine the successor to King Arthur as King of Britain. Under the influence of Geoffrey, derivative figures appeared in a number of later works.
  
In addition, the ''Life of Saint Kentigern'' names another [[Constantine of Strathclyde|Constantine]] ([[March 11]], †ca.640) as the son and successor [[w:Riderch I of Alt Clut|Riderch Hael]], king of Alt Clut, later known as [[w:Kingdom of Strathclyde|Strathclyde]].<ref>Clarkson, Tim (Winter 1999). "[http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/2/ha2rh.htm Rhydderch Hael]". ''The Heroic Age'' '''1''' (2). Retrieved August 12, 2009.</ref>
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'''Annals of Ulster'''<br>
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The conversion of a Constantine<ref group="note">"Conversion," be it noted is a term which may apply either to the acceptance of the Christian faith or to the adoption of monastic life.</ref> in 588 AD is also recorded in the ''[[w:Annals of Ulster|Annals of Ulster]]''.
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'''Breviary of Aberdeen'''<br>
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A Constantine also appears in the ''Breviary of Aberdeen'' as entering a monastery in Ireland incognito before joining [[Kentigern of Glasgow|Saint Mungo]] (alias Kentigern) and becoming a missionary to the Picts.
  
 
==Veneration==
 
==Veneration==
 
===South-west Britain===
 
===South-west Britain===
The two major centers for the cult of Saint Constantine (of Dumnonia) were the church in [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine Parish]] and the Chapel of Saint Constantine in [[w:St Merryn|St Merryn]] Parish (now [[w:Constantine Bay|Constantine Bay]]), both in Cornwall,<ref>Orme, Nicholas. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=JxIjiMStTKIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q&f=false The Saints of Cornwall].'' Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0198207654</ref> and both of which may have originally supported monastic establishments.<ref group="note">However, Dr. Lynette Olson (1989) has challenged Charles Henderson's assertion (Henderson 1937) that there was a monastic establishment at [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine, Kerrier]], Cornwall.</ref>  
+
[[Image:Constantine Church and Yard.jpg|right|thumb|[[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine, in Kerrier]]: The 15th century Church, dedicated to Saint Constantine.]]
 +
The two major centers for the cult of Saint Constantine (of Dumnonia) were the church in [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine Parish]], and the Chapel of Saint Constantine in [[w:St Merryn|St Merryn]] Parish (now [[w:Constantine Bay|Constantine Bay]]), both in Cornwall.<ref>Orme, Nicholas. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=JxIjiMStTKIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q&f=false The Saints of Cornwall].'' Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0198207654</ref> Both of these may have originally supported monastic establishments, although this has been challenged.<ref group="note">Dr. Lynette Olson (1989) has challenged Charles Henderson's assertion (Henderson 1937) that there was a monastic establishment at [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|Constantine, Kerrier]], Cornwall.</ref>  
 +
 
 +
The saint at [[w:Constantine Bay|Constantine Bay]] was almost certainly the 'wealthy man' of this name mentioned in the ''Life of Saint [[w:Saint Petroc|Petroc]].'' The ruined chapel at Constantine Bay also has a nearby holy well, uncovered in 1911. Taking the waters there was said to bring rain during dry weather. The chapel's splendid font is now in the parish church at [[w:St Merryn|St Merryn]].
  
The ruined chapel at Constantine Bay also has a nearby holy well (uncovered in 1911). Taking the waters there was said to bring rain during dry weather. The chapel's splendid font is now in the parish church at [[w:St Merryn|St Merryn]].  
+
In addition, Constantine's name is given to the parish church of Milton Abbot in Devon, as well as to extinct chapels in [[w:Illogan|Illogan]] and Dunterton.
  
 
The saint's day is generally celebrated on [[March 9]], and an annual "Feast" is held in the [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|village of Constantine]], on the Sunday nearest to March 9.
 
The saint's day is generally celebrated on [[March 9]], and an annual "Feast" is held in the [[w:Constantine, Cornwall|village of Constantine]], on the Sunday nearest to March 9.
  
 
===Scotland and Ireland===
 
===Scotland and Ireland===
The [[w:Govan Old Parish Church|monastery at Govan]] however is said to have been founded by Saint [[Constantine of Strathclyde]] whose shrine at Govan is still in existence. English archaeologist and historian [[w:Ralegh Radford|C. A. R. Radford]] has said that the Constantine whose shrine is at Govan (Constantine of Strathclyde), and the Constantine connected to an important church in the Deanery of [[w:Kirkcudbrightshire|Desnes]] ([[w:Diocese of Galloway|Diocese of Galloway]]) are possibly different men, though the two are inextricably conflated in the hagiographical literature.<ref>[[w:Ralegh Radford|C. A. Ralegh Radford]] (Fellow of the British Academy). ''"[http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/arch-769-1/ahds/dissemination/pdf/vol11/11_105_126.pdf The Early Church In Strathclyde and Galloway]".'' '''Medieval Archaeology''', 11 (1967), pp.105-126. p.118.</ref>
+
English archaeologist and historian [[w:Ralegh Radford|C. A. R. Radford]] has said that the Constantine whose shrine is at [[w:Govan Old Parish Church|Govan]], and the Constantine connected to an important church in the Deanery of [[w:Kirkcudbrightshire|Desnes]] ([[w:Diocese of Galloway|Diocese of Galloway]]) are possibly different men, although the two are inextricably conflated in the hagiographical literature.<ref>[[w:Ralegh Radford|C. A. Ralegh Radford]] (Fellow of the British Academy). ''"[http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/arch-769-1/ahds/dissemination/pdf/vol11/11_105_126.pdf The Early Church In Strathclyde and Galloway]".'' '''Medieval Archaeology''', 11 (1967), pp.105-126. p.118.</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Hymns==
 +
===Troparion - Tone 5<ref name=THYATEIRA>[[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain|Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain]]. ''[http://www.thyateira.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=719&Itemid=151 Constantine of Scotland - King & Martyr]. Feast day: March 11 (+576).</ref>===
 +
Grieving at the loss of thy young spouse,<br>
 +
thou didst renounce the world, O Martyr Constantine,<br>
 +
but seeing thy humility God called thee to leave thy solitude and serve Him as a priest.<br> Following thy example,<br>
 +
we pray for grace to see that we must serve God as He wills<br>
 +
and not as we desire,<br>
 +
that we may be found worthy of His great mercy.
 +
 
 +
===Kontakion - Tone 4<ref name="THYATEIRA"/>===
 +
Thou wast born to be King of Cornwall,<br>
 +
O Martyr Constantine,<br>
 +
and who could have foreseen that thou wouldst become the first hieromartyr of Scotland.<br>
 +
As we sing thy praises, O Saint,<br>
 +
we acknowledge the folly of preferring human plans to the will of our God.
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
* [[Constantine of Strathclyde]]
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
<small><references group="note" /></small>
+
<references group="note" />
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<small><div><references/></div></small>
+
<div><references/></div>
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
Line 57: Line 87:
 
* Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2392/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας ὁ τῆς Κορνουάλλης].'' 9 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)
 
* Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/2392/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας ὁ τῆς Κορνουάλλης].'' 9 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)
 
* Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome. ''[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm Constantine March 9].''
 
* Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome. ''[http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/stdmar.htm Constantine March 9].''
 +
* Vladimir Moss. ''[http://www.orthodox.net/western-saints/constantine-martyr-of-cornwall.html MARTYR CONSTANTINE OF CORNWALL].'' St. Nicholas Russian Orthodox Church (McKinney (Dallas area) Texas).
 +
:(Celebrated March 9 in Wales and Cornwall; March 11 in Scotland; and March 18 in Ireland)
 
* David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.
 
* David Nash Ford's '''Early British Kingdoms (EBK)'''. ''[http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/bios/constsdm.html St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576)].'' Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.
 
* ''[http://www.reference.com/browse/constantine_of_cornwall Constantine_of_Cornwall].'' Reference.com.
 
* ''[http://www.reference.com/browse/constantine_of_cornwall Constantine_of_Cornwall].'' Reference.com.
Line 62: Line 94:
  
 
'''Hagiographies (March 11th)'''
 
'''Hagiographies (March 11th)'''
 +
* [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain|Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain]]. ''[http://www.thyateira.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=719&Itemid=151 Constantine of Scotland - King & Martyr]. Feast day: March 11 (+576).
 
* Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). ''[http://www.bartleby.com/210/3/114.html March 11 - St. Constantine, Martyr].'' The Lives of the Saints. Volume III: March. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
 
* Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). ''[http://www.bartleby.com/210/3/114.html March 11 - St. Constantine, Martyr].'' The Lives of the Saints. Volume III: March. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
 
* William Canon Fleming (Rector of [[w:St Mary Moorfields|St. Mary’s, Moorsfields]], London). ''[http://www.archive.org/details/completehistoryo00flemuoft A Complete History of the British Martyrs – From the Roman Occupation to Elizabeth’s Reign].'' Proprietors of the Catholic Repository. Little Britain, London, 1902. (pp. 19,141,145). (†590)
 
* William Canon Fleming (Rector of [[w:St Mary Moorfields|St. Mary’s, Moorsfields]], London). ''[http://www.archive.org/details/completehistoryo00flemuoft A Complete History of the British Martyrs – From the Roman Occupation to Elizabeth’s Reign].'' Proprietors of the Catholic Repository. Little Britain, London, 1902. (pp. 19,141,145). (†590)
 
* Katherine I. Rabenstein. ''[http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0311.shtml March 11 - Constantine of Scotland M (AC)].'' St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. - Saint of the Day.
 
* Katherine I. Rabenstein. ''[http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0311.shtml March 11 - Constantine of Scotland M (AC)].'' St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. - Saint of the Day.
 
 
'''Hagiography (May 9th)'''
 
'''Hagiography (May 9th)'''
 
* Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/3082/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας βασιλέας τῶν Σκώτων].'' 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)<br>
 
* Great Synaxaristes: {{el icon}} ''[http://www.synaxarion.gr/gr/sid/3082/sxsaintinfo.aspx Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας βασιλέας τῶν Σκώτων].'' 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)<br>
Line 76: Line 108:
 
: <small>(Lists: '''"Custennin ap Cado (probably Saint Custennin) (c.530–c.560)"''')</small>
 
: <small>(Lists: '''"Custennin ap Cado (probably Saint Custennin) (c.530–c.560)"''')</small>
  
'''Other'''
+
'''Monographs'''
* [[w:Charles Henderson (historian)|Henderson, Charles]] (d. 1933), and [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G. H. Doble]] (editor) (1937). ''A history of the parish of Constantine in Cornwall.'' Truro: Royal Institution of Cornwall. (pp.42–43 + footnote).
+
* [[w:Charles Henderson (historian)|Henderson, Charles]] and [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|G. H. Doble]] (Ed.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=rhfyMAAACAAJ&dq=A+history+of+the+parish+of+Constantine+in+Cornwall&hl=en&ei=ASFoTtvBKsPi0QH1r9DKCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA A history of the parish of Constantine in Cornwall].'' Truro: Royal Institution of Cornwall, 1937.  
 
* [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|Gilbert Hunter Doble]]. ''The Saints of Cornwall.'' Volumes 1-4. Printed for the Dean and Chapter of Truro by Parrett & Neves, 1960. ISBN 9781861430472
 
* [[w:Gilbert Hunter Doble|Gilbert Hunter Doble]]. ''The Saints of Cornwall.'' Volumes 1-4. Printed for the Dean and Chapter of Truro by Parrett & Neves, 1960. ISBN 9781861430472
 
* Nicholas Orme. ''The Saints of Cornwall.'' Oxford University Press US, 2000. ISBN 9780198207658
 
* Nicholas Orme. ''The Saints of Cornwall.'' Oxford University Press US, 2000. ISBN 9780198207658
* [http://constantinecornwall.com/the-parish/st-constantine/ Constantine, Cornwall]. (''The Constantine website, serving the community of Constantine in Cornwall'').
 
 
* [[w:Anthony Birley|Anthony Richard Birley]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JzEp5Di15o8C&dq=inauthor:%22Anthony+Richard+Birley%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s The People of Roman Britain].'' University of California Press, 1980.
 
* [[w:Anthony Birley|Anthony Richard Birley]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=JzEp5Di15o8C&dq=inauthor:%22Anthony+Richard+Birley%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s The People of Roman Britain].'' University of California Press, 1980.
  
 
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
 +
* [http://constantinecornwall.com/the-parish/st-constantine/ Constantine, Cornwall]. (''The Constantine website, serving the community of Constantine in Cornwall'').
 
* [http://everything.explained.at/Constantine_III_of_Britain/ Constantine III of Britain explained]. Everything.Explained.At.
 
* [http://everything.explained.at/Constantine_III_of_Britain/ Constantine III of Britain explained]. Everything.Explained.At.
  
Line 91: Line 123:
 
[[Category:Saints of the British Isles]]
 
[[Category:Saints of the British Isles]]
 
[[Category:Pre-Schism Western Saints]]
 
[[Category:Pre-Schism Western Saints]]
 +
[[Category: 6th-century saints]]

Latest revision as of 06:02, October 25, 2012

King-Martyr St. Constantine of Govan.

Saint Constantine of Cornwall, also Constantine of Dumnonia, Constantine III of Britain, Saint Custennin, Custennin ap Cado, Custennin ap Cadwr,[1] Costentyn or Constantine of Govan (ca. 520-576 AD)[2][3] is a 6th century Cornish saint that is identified with a minor British king Constantine, who came to repentance at St Davids monastery in Wales, after a life of vice. It is maintained that he went from Wales to Ireland, and from there went as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland, where he was martyred by pirates at Cantyre (Kintyre); however there are difficulties with this latter part of his hagiography involving a conflation of events with one (or two) other 'Constantines'.

His feast day is observed on March 9,[2][3][4] in the tradition of Cornwall and Wales, and on March 11[5][6][7] in the Scottish and Irish traditions. Two places in Cornwall are still named after him today.[4]

It is possible that the British king (†576)[2] is not the same person as the Scottish martyr (†576,[8] or †590[6]).[note 1] To add to the ambiguity there is another saint from a slightly later period, King Constantine of Strathclyde (†640), whose feast day is on March 11 as well, but who is said to have reposed in peace (i.e. not martyred),[9] and whose life has been inextricably conflated with the Scottish king-martyr. Therefore the traditions of St. Constantine of Cornwall (identified with the Scottish martyr of the same date), and St. Constantine of Strathclyde are very much confused. Canon G.H. Doble in his Cornish Saints says that “the name has given rise altogether to one of the most fearful series of muddles in the whole history of hagiography.”[10][note 2]

Contents

Life

Constantine of Cornwall probably succeeded his father, Cador, as King of Dumnonia in the early 6th century. Literary tradition indicates AD 537, after the Battle of Camlann from which, some sources say, "Sir Constantine" was the only survivor.[3] He is reputed to have been married to the daughter of the King of Brittany and to have led a life full of vice and greed until he was led to conversion by Saint Petroc:

One day, while out hunting a deer, his prey took shelter in St. Petroc's cell. So impressed was the King by the saint's power that he and his body guard immediately converted to Christianity. Constantine gave Petroc an ivory hunting horn in commemoration of the event and this was long revered along with the Saint's other relics at Bodmin. The King became co-founder of this famous Cornish monastery.[3]

After the death of his queen he resigned the crown to his son, in order to take up the religious life himself.

He moved amongst his people, founding churches at the two Constantines, near Padstow and Falmouth, and at Illogan; also at Milton Abbot and Dunsford in Devon. Later, he travelled across the Bristol Channel to join St. Dewi (David) at Mynyw (St. Davids), where he resided as a monk for many years. He founded the church at Cosheston, near Pembroke, but eventually settled as a hermit in Costyneston (Cosmeston) near Cardiff. He may have died there, though there are persistent stories that he travelled still further north and preached to the people of Galloway before being martyred in Kintyre on 9th March AD 576.[3]

However according to Bishop Richard Challoner's hagiography of "Saint Constantine, Prince and Priest", in Britannia Sancta (1745), as listed in William Canon Fleming's A Complete History of the British Martyrs (1902):

Martyred at Cantyre, in Scotland, on March 11th, 590.
"The Scottish Breviaries commemorate on March 11th the Feast of Saint Constantine, Martyr. He is said to have been a prince who, after the death of his princess, retired from the world, and, having resigned his kingdom to his son, became a monk in the Monastery of Saint David's. Going afterwards to Ireland, he entered a religious house at St. Carthag at Rathene, where, unknown to any, he served for four years at a mill, until his name was discovered. He was then fully instructed, ordained priest, and sent as a missionary to the Picts in Scotland. Having for many years laboured with Saint Columba for their conversion, he established a religious community of men at Govan, and converted the inhabitants of Cantyre to Christianity. At length the happiness he so long desired came to him in his advanced age; he was slain by infidels actuated by hatred of the Christian religion."[6]

Sources

Gildas
The only contemporary information about him comes from Gildas, writing in 547 AD, who mentions Constantine in chapters 28 and 29 of his work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae.[11][12] He is one of five Brythonic kings whom the author rebukes and compares to Biblical beasts. Constantine is called the "tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia". This Damnonia is generally associated with the kingdom of Dumnonia, a Brythonic kingdom in Southwestern Britain.[13] However, it is possible that Gildas was instead referring to the territory of the Damnonii in what was later known as the Hen Ogledd or "Old North". Gildas says that despite swearing an oath against deceit and tyranny, Constantine disguised himself in an abbot's robes and attacked two "royal youths" praying before a church altar, killing them and their companions.[note 3] Gildas is clear that Constantine's sins were manifold even before this, as he had committed "many adulteries" after casting off his lawfully wedded wife. Gildas encourages Constantine, whom he knows to still be alive at the time, to repent his sins lest he be damned.[11][12]

Life of Saint Petroc
The Life of Saint Petroc mentions a Constantine who was converted to Christianity by that holy man at nearby Little Petherick after the deer Constantine was hunting took shelter with him.

Life of Saint David
A Constantine "King of the Cornishmen" also appears in the Life of Saint David as having given up his crown in order to enter this saint's monastery at St David's in Wales.

Geoffrey of Monmouth
Much later, Geoffrey of Monmouth included the figure in his pseudohistorical chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae, adding fictional details to Gildas' account and making Constantine the successor to King Arthur as King of Britain. Under the influence of Geoffrey, derivative figures appeared in a number of later works.

Annals of Ulster
The conversion of a Constantine[note 4] in 588 AD is also recorded in the Annals of Ulster.

Breviary of Aberdeen
A Constantine also appears in the Breviary of Aberdeen as entering a monastery in Ireland incognito before joining Saint Mungo (alias Kentigern) and becoming a missionary to the Picts.

Veneration

South-west Britain

Constantine, in Kerrier: The 15th century Church, dedicated to Saint Constantine.

The two major centers for the cult of Saint Constantine (of Dumnonia) were the church in Constantine Parish, and the Chapel of Saint Constantine in St Merryn Parish (now Constantine Bay), both in Cornwall.[14] Both of these may have originally supported monastic establishments, although this has been challenged.[note 5]

The saint at Constantine Bay was almost certainly the 'wealthy man' of this name mentioned in the Life of Saint Petroc. The ruined chapel at Constantine Bay also has a nearby holy well, uncovered in 1911. Taking the waters there was said to bring rain during dry weather. The chapel's splendid font is now in the parish church at St Merryn.

In addition, Constantine's name is given to the parish church of Milton Abbot in Devon, as well as to extinct chapels in Illogan and Dunterton.

The saint's day is generally celebrated on March 9, and an annual "Feast" is held in the village of Constantine, on the Sunday nearest to March 9.

Scotland and Ireland

English archaeologist and historian C. A. R. Radford has said that the Constantine whose shrine is at Govan, and the Constantine connected to an important church in the Deanery of Desnes (Diocese of Galloway) are possibly different men, although the two are inextricably conflated in the hagiographical literature.[15]

Hymns

Troparion - Tone 5[16]

Grieving at the loss of thy young spouse,
thou didst renounce the world, O Martyr Constantine,
but seeing thy humility God called thee to leave thy solitude and serve Him as a priest.
Following thy example,
we pray for grace to see that we must serve God as He wills
and not as we desire,
that we may be found worthy of His great mercy.

Kontakion - Tone 4[16]

Thou wast born to be King of Cornwall,
O Martyr Constantine,
and who could have foreseen that thou wouldst become the first hieromartyr of Scotland.
As we sing thy praises, O Saint,
we acknowledge the folly of preferring human plans to the will of our God.

See also

Notes

  1. If it is to be argued that the Scottish martyr Constantine is a separate individual from the Cornish Saint Constantine, then perhaps he was a King of Damnonia (Strathclyde) not Dumnonia (Cornwall); however this is guesswork and there is no way to tell for certain. The Great Synaxaristes (in the Greek) includes an entry for March 9 for "St Constantine the Martyr of Cornwall" (†576), and another entry for May 9 for a "St Constantine the Martyr, King of the Scots" (†576), with the exact same death date for both. It also has a third entry for March 11 for "St Constantine the King" of Strathclyde (†640).
  2. In "The De Excidio of Gildas: Its Authenticity and Date" by Thomas O’Sullivan, it has been suggested that "probably two or three Constantines have been confused", and quotes the judgment of Canon G. H. Doble that:
    “…there is not the smallest evidence that Constantine of Gildas is the St. Constantine whom we find honoured in the five parishes of Devon and Cornwall, as some persons, forgetful of the fact that Constantine was a very common name at the time, have rashly assumed.”
  3. "According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, these were, in fact, the treacherous sons of the evil usurper, Mordred, who were killed in Winchester & London."
  4. "Conversion," be it noted is a term which may apply either to the acceptance of the Christian faith or to the adoption of monastic life.
  5. Dr. Lynette Olson (1989) has challenged Charles Henderson's assertion (Henderson 1937) that there was a monastic establishment at Constantine, Kerrier, Cornwall.

References

  1. Anthony Richard Birley. The People of Roman Britain. University of California Press, 1980. p.210.
    • Cites: P.C. Bartrum. Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts. Cardiff: University of Wales, 1966. p.179.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας ὁ τῆς Κορνουάλλης. 9 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. (†576)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 David Nash Ford's Early British Kingdoms (EBK). St. Constantine of Cornwall, King of Dumnonia (c.AD 520-576). Nash Ford Publishing, 2001.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Latin Saints of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Rome. Constantine March 9.
  5. Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73). March 11 - St. Constantine, Martyr. The Lives of the Saints. Volume III: March. 1866. (Bartleby.com)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 William Canon Fleming (Rector of St. Mary’s, Moorsfields, London). A Complete History of the British Martyrs – From the Roman Occupation to Elizabeth’s Reign. Proprietors of the Catholic Repository. Little Britain, London, 1902. (pp. 19,141,145)..
  7. Katherine I. Rabenstein. March 11 - Constantine of Scotland M (AC). St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. - Saint of the Day.
  8. Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μάρτυρας βασιλέας τῶν Σκώτων. 9 Μαΐου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  9. Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Κωνσταντίνος ὁ βασιλεὺς. 11 Μαρτίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  10. Constantine, Cornwall. (The Constantine website, serving the community of Constantine in Cornwall).
  11. 11.0 11.1 De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, ch. 28–29.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Giles, John Allen, ed. (1841). The Works of Gildas and Nennius. London: James Bohn — English translation.
  13. Lloyd, John Edward. A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green, and Co., 1912.
  14. Orme, Nicholas. The Saints of Cornwall. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0198207654
  15. C. A. Ralegh Radford (Fellow of the British Academy). "The Early Church In Strathclyde and Galloway". Medieval Archaeology, 11 (1967), pp.105-126. p.118.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain. Constantine of Scotland - King & Martyr. Feast day: March 11 (+576).

Sources

Hagiographies (March 9th)

(Celebrated March 9 in Wales and Cornwall; March 11 in Scotland; and March 18 in Ireland)

Hagiographies (March 11th)

Hagiography (May 9th)

(Saint Constantine the Martyr, King of the Scots, May 9).

Wikipedia

(Lists: "Custennin ap Cado (probably Saint Custennin) (c.530–c.560)")

Monographs

External Links

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