Constantine XI Palaiologos

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[[Image:Constantinos XI Palaiologos.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Constantine XI Palaiologos]]
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[[Image:Constantine XI Palaiologos.jpg|right|thumb|The right-believing Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos the Ethnomartyr.]]
'''Constantine XI Palaeiologos''', or '''Palaeologos''' (Gr: ''Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος''), was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor of the [[Palaiologos Dynasty]], born 1404 AD in [[Mystras]], and ruled from 1449 until his death in [[May 29]], 1453, at the [[Fall of Constantinople]]. He is also referred to as '''Dragases'''.
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The right-believing Emperor '''Constantine XI Palaiologos''' the [[Ethnomartyr]] (Gr: ''Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος'', also '' '''Dragases''' ''), was the last reigning emperor of the [[Palaiologos Dynasty]] as well as the last of the Roman Emperors. Born in 1404 AD in [[Mystras]], he ruled from 1449 until his death on [[May 29]], 1453, at the [[Fall of Constantinople]].  
  
 
== Brief history ==
 
== Brief history ==
Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. It had long been under the Frankish principality of  'Achaia' <ref> '''Achaia''': A state established by the Crusaders. </ref> Constantine was crowned Emperor [[January 6]], 1449 AD succeeding his brother and a little less than five years in 1453 AD was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Constantine, with some 8,000 Greeks, Venetians, and Genoese, had faced 150,000 Turkish besiegers under the Sultan, and after almost two months of heroic defense, directed by the emperor, the city and the empire fell. Constantine died fighting with the last of his men.<ref>[http://www.answers.com/topic/constantine-xi Columbia Encyclopedia: Constantine XI].</ref>. Going back to Augustus and the ancient Roman Empire, he was the 138th and last Roman Emperor.
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Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. It had long been under the Frankish principality of  'Achaia' <ref> 'Achaia': A state established by the Crusaders. </ref> Constantine was crowned Emperor [[January 6]], 1449 AD succeeding his brother. A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Constantine, with some 8,000 Greeks, Venetians, and Genoese, had faced 150,000 Turkish besiegers under the Sultan, and after almost two months of heroic defense, directed by the emperor, the city and the empire fell. Constantine died fighting with the last of his men.<ref>[http://www.answers.com/topic/constantine-xi Columbia Encyclopedia: Constantine XI].</ref>. Going back to Augustus and the ancient Roman Empire, he was the 138th and last Roman Emperor.
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<gallery>
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Image:Constantinos XI Palaiologos.jpg|<small>Constantine XI Palaiologos</small>
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Image:CPalaeologos.JPG|<small>Statue of Constantine XI Palaeiologos, Mystra, Greece</small>
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Image:CPalaeologos2.JPG|<small>Close up of Statue</small>
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</gallery>
  
 
== Saintly Status ==
 
== Saintly Status ==
::Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholics consider Constantine XI a [[saint]], but he has not been officially recognized as such. One of the reasons for this was that in the centuries of Ottoman rule, any effort on the part of the Orthodox Church to officially glorify Constantine XI as a saint would have been seen as an act of rebellion, and hence decidedly ill-advised. After the [[w:Greek War of Independence|Greek War of Independence]] (1821-1831), when the Greek Orthodox Church once again had freedom to act, an official act of glorification was thought to be superfluous, on account of longstanding veneration as a saint and martyr, specifically, a national martyr or ethnomartyr, (Greek: Eθνομάρτυρας). However, the erection of the statue of "''Saint Constantine XI the Ethnomartyr''" in the square in front of the [[w:Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens|Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens]], with the formal blessing of the Church authorities, appears to be a semi-official act of recognition. His feast falls on [[May 29|29 May]].<ref>[[w:Constantine_XI#Unofficial_saint|Constantine XI: Unofficial Saint]] at Wikipedia.</ref>.
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Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholics consider Constantine XI a [[saint]], but he has not been officially recognized as such. One of the reasons for this was that in the centuries of Ottoman rule, any effort on the part of the Orthodox Church to officially glorify Constantine XI as a saint would have been seen as an act of rebellion, and hence decidedly ill-advised. After the Greek War of Independence (1821-1831), when the Greek Orthodox Church once again had freedom to act, an official act of glorification was thought to be superfluous, on account of longstanding veneration as a saint and [[martyr]], specifically, a national martyr or ethnomartyr, (Greek: Eθνομάρτυρας).  
  
The Russian Menologion indicates commemoration days for the Emperor on [[May 29]] and [[May 30]]. The entry under May 30 is as follows:  ''‘On this day we commemorate the suffering of the right-believing Emperor Constantine under the ungodly Turkish King, who himself became ruler.’'' The entry for May 29 reads simply: ''‘Emperor Constantine, who suffered under the Turks.’''<ref>[http://rumkatkilise.org/statusconstantineXI.htm A Special Note Concerning the Status of Blessed Constantine XI]. Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.</ref>.
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However, the erection of the statue of "''Saint Constantine XI the Ethnomartyr''" in the square in front of the [[Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens]], with the formal blessing of the Church authorities, appears to be a semi-official act of recognition. His feast falls on [[May 29|29 May]].<ref>[[w:Constantine_XI#Unofficial_saint|Constantine XI: Unofficial Saint]] at Wikipedia.</ref>.
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The Russian Menologion indicates commemoration days for the Emperor on [[May 29]] and [[May 30]]. The entry under May 30 is as follows:  ''‘On this day we commemorate the suffering of the right-believing Emperor Constantine under the ungodly Turkish King, who himself became ruler.’'' The entry for May 29 reads simply: ''‘Emperor Constantine, who suffered under the Turks.’''<ref>[http://rumkatkilise.org/statusconstantineXI.htm A Special Note Concerning the Status of Blessed Constantine XI]. Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.</ref>.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
* UNESCO World Heritage site of '''[[Mystras]]'''
 
* UNESCO World Heritage site of '''[[Mystras]]'''
* St. '''[[Ipomoni]]''', ''Born as'' '''Helen Dragases''' ''before becoming a nun and assuming the name Ipomoni. She was the mother of Constantine XI Palaiologos''. She lived a monastic life for over 25 years, after entering into the habit after the death of her husband. She died 1450AD and is commemorated by the church [[May 29]]. The relics of her skull and her icon are found at the Monastery of St. Patapios, Loutraki of Korinthos, Greece.
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* St. '''[[Ipomoni]]''', ''Born as'' '''Helena Dragaš''' <ref>Before becoming a [[nun]] and assuming the name Ipomoni, Helena was the mother of Constantine XI Palaiologos. She lived a [[monasticism|monastic]] life for over 25 years, after entering into the habit after the death of her husband. She died 1450AD and is commemorated by the church [[May 29]]. The [[relics]] of her skull and her icon are found at the Monastery of St. Patapios, Loutraki of Korinthos, Greece.</ref>
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== Further Reading ==
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* [[w:Donald Nicol|Donald M. Nicol]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=lnSmnmL984YC&pg=PP1&dq=The+Immortal+Emperor#PPP1,M1 The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans]''. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521894093, 9780521894098 (174 pp)
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
[[Category:Rulers]]
 
[[Category:Rulers]]
 
<gallery>
 
Image:CPalaeologos.JPG|Statue of Constantine XI Palaeiologos, Mystra, Greece
 
Image:CPalaeologos2.JPG|Close up of Statue
 
</gallery>
 
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
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* [http://rumkatkilise.org/constantineXI.htm Great Martyr and Emperor Constantine XI]. The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.
 
* [http://rumkatkilise.org/constantineXI.htm Great Martyr and Emperor Constantine XI]. The Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.
 
* [http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Constantine:XI.htm Constantine XI]. EconomicExpert.com.
 
* [http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Constantine:XI.htm Constantine XI]. EconomicExpert.com.
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*[http://penelopecoins.com/index.php?p=item&cid=3&id=14 Coinage of Constantine XI:]
  
 
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[[Category:Roman Emperors]]
 
[[Category:Rulers]]
 
[[Category:Rulers]]
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[[Category:Martyrs]]
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[[Category:Saints]]
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[[Category:Byzantine Saints]]
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[[Category:Greek Saints]]
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[[Category:Orthodoxy and Islam]]
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[[Category:15th-century saints]]
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[[ro:Constantin al XI-lea]]

Latest revision as of 10:54, October 23, 2012

The right-believing Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos the Ethnomartyr.

The right-believing Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos the Ethnomartyr (Gr: Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, also Dragases ), was the last reigning emperor of the Palaiologos Dynasty as well as the last of the Roman Emperors. Born in 1404 AD in Mystras, he ruled from 1449 until his death on May 29, 1453, at the Fall of Constantinople.

Contents

Brief history

Constantine was the son of Emperor Manuel II. He was trained as a soldier and in 1441 conquered the Morea Peninsula of Greece. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' [1] Constantine was crowned Emperor January 6, 1449 AD succeeding his brother. A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Constantine, with some 8,000 Greeks, Venetians, and Genoese, had faced 150,000 Turkish besiegers under the Sultan, and after almost two months of heroic defense, directed by the emperor, the city and the empire fell. Constantine died fighting with the last of his men.[2]. Going back to Augustus and the ancient Roman Empire, he was the 138th and last Roman Emperor.

Saintly Status

Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholics consider Constantine XI a saint, but he has not been officially recognized as such. One of the reasons for this was that in the centuries of Ottoman rule, any effort on the part of the Orthodox Church to officially glorify Constantine XI as a saint would have been seen as an act of rebellion, and hence decidedly ill-advised. After the Greek War of Independence (1821-1831), when the Greek Orthodox Church once again had freedom to act, an official act of glorification was thought to be superfluous, on account of longstanding veneration as a saint and martyr, specifically, a national martyr or ethnomartyr, (Greek: Eθνομάρτυρας).

However, the erection of the statue of "Saint Constantine XI the Ethnomartyr" in the square in front of the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, with the formal blessing of the Church authorities, appears to be a semi-official act of recognition. His feast falls on 29 May.[3].

The Russian Menologion indicates commemoration days for the Emperor on May 29 and May 30. The entry under May 30 is as follows: ‘On this day we commemorate the suffering of the right-believing Emperor Constantine under the ungodly Turkish King, who himself became ruler.’ The entry for May 29 reads simply: ‘Emperor Constantine, who suffered under the Turks.’[4].

See also

Further Reading

Notes

  1. 'Achaia': A state established by the Crusaders.
  2. Columbia Encyclopedia: Constantine XI.
  3. Constantine XI: Unofficial Saint at Wikipedia.
  4. A Special Note Concerning the Status of Blessed Constantine XI. Society of St. John Chrysostom of Ayatriada Rum Katoliki Kilise.
  5. Before becoming a nun and assuming the name Ipomoni, Helena was the mother of Constantine XI Palaiologos. She lived a monastic life for over 25 years, after entering into the habit after the death of her husband. She died 1450AD and is commemorated by the church May 29. The relics of her skull and her icon are found at the Monastery of St. Patapios, Loutraki of Korinthos, Greece.

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