Church of Serbia

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*[http://www.covekoljublje.org/Default.shtml PHILANTHROPY]
 
*[http://www.covekoljublje.org/Default.shtml PHILANTHROPY]
 
*[http://www.bfspc.bg.ac.yu Theological Faculty of the Serbian Orthodox Church]
 
*[http://www.bfspc.bg.ac.yu Theological Faculty of the Serbian Orthodox Church]
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===Parishes===
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*[http://sppsoc.freeshell.org/ Saints Peter & Paul, Serbian Orthodox Church], Indiana
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[[Category:Jurisdictions|Serbia]]
 
[[Category:Jurisdictions|Serbia]]

Revision as of 03:38, January 5, 2009

Serbia logo.gif

The Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Russia in the diptychs of Constantinople. In the diptychs of the Church of Russia, it ranks seventh.citation needed It exercises jurisdiction over Orthodox Christians in Serbia and surrounding Slavic and other lands as well as exarchates and patriarchal representation churches around the world. The patriarch of Serbia serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is His Holiness Pavle (Stojcevic).

The Patriarchate of Serbia
Church of Serbia
Founder(s) Apostle Andrew, St. Sava of Serbia
Autocephaly/Autonomy declared 1219 (lost in 1766), again in 1879
Autocephaly/Autonomy recognized 1219 by Constantinople, again in 1879
Current primate Patriarch Pavle
Headquarters Belgrade, Serbia
Primary territory Serbia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Republic of Macedonia (disputed), Montenegro, Slovenia
Possessions abroad United States, Canada, Europe, Australia
Liturgical language(s) Church Slavonic; Serbian
Musical tradition Serbian Chant; some Byzantine Chant used
Calendar Julian
Population estimate 15,000,000
Official website Church of Serbia


Contents

History

The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Orthodox communion, located primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and a disputed presence in the Republic of Macedonia. Since many Serbs have emigrated to foreign countries, there are many Serbian Orthodox communities on all continents.

Soon after their arrrival to the Balkans, the Serbian tribes were successively baptised by Christian missionaries and became Orthodox Christians. The consecration of St. Sava as autocephalous archbishop of Serbia in 1219 strengthened various Serbian principalities even more in their ecclesiastical allegiance to Constantinople and the Christian East. Later, as the medieval kingdom of Serbia grew in size and prestige and as Stefan Dusan, king of Serbia from 1331, assumed the imperial title of tsar (1346 to 1355), the archbishopric of Pec was correspondingly raised to the rank of patriarchate. The period before the arrival of the Turks was the time of the greatest flourishing of the Serbian church. After the final Turkish conquest of the most influental Serbian principality in 1459, the greater portion of Serbian lands became a Turkish pasalik (province). After the death of Patriarch Arsenije II in 1463, a successor was not elected. The patriarchate was thus de facto abolished, and the Serbian church passed under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. The Serbian patriarchate was restored in 1557 by the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Makarije, brother of the famous Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic, was elected patriarch in Pec.

The restoration of the patriarchate was of great importance for the Serbs because it helped the spiritual unification of all Serbs in the Ottoman Empire. After consequent Serbian uprisals against the Turkish occupation in which the church had a leading role, the Turks abolished the patriarchate once again in 1766. The church returned once more to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constintinople. This period of so-called "Phanariots" was a period of great spiritual decline because the Greek bishops had very little understanding of their Serbian flock. This was also the period when a great number of Christians converted to Islam to avoid the severe taxes imposed by the Turks in retaliation for uprisings and continued resistance. Many Serbs and their hierarchs migrated to southern Hungary, where the church was autonomous. The seat of the archbishops was moved from Pec to Karlovci. The Serbian Orthodox Church finally regained its independence and became autocephalous again in 1879, the year after the recognition by the Allied powers of Serbia as an independent state. After World War I, all the Serbs were united under one ecclesiastical authority, and the patriarchate was reestablished in 1920 with election of Patriarch Dimitrje, the patriarch's full title being Archbishop of Pec, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, and Patriarch of the Serbs.

During the Second World War, the Serbian Orthodox Church passed through severe trials in which many bishops, priests, and about 700,000 lay Orthodox Christians were killed by Croatian and Muslim fascists (according to the Orthodox Diocese of Raska and Prizren). Hundreds of churches were completely destroyed or desecrated. After the Second World War the church experienced new trials under the communists, who prohibited teaching of religion in schools, confiscated the property of the church, and used various overt and covert means of persecution in order to diminish the influence the church had among the people. It was only after 1989 that the position of the church became tolerable, although church estates have not yet been returned to their lawful owners.

In the Republic of Macedonia

Main articles: Macedonian Orthodox Church, Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid

In 1959, the portion of Yugoslavia known as the Republic of Macedonia was approved by the Serbian patriarchate to have its own autonomous archdiocese. In 1967, however, with government and popular backing, the bishops of the archdiocese proclaimed themselves to be an autocephalous church, styled the Macedonian Orthodox Church, to the protests of the patriarchate. The autocephaly of this church has not been recognized by any of the other Orthodox churches, who have broken off communion with it (though its laity are usually received into communion).

In 2002, at the invitation of the patriarchate, one of the bishops of the breakaway group, Jovan (Vraniskovski) (then Metropolitan of Veles and the Vardar Valley), came into union with the Serbian patriarchate, which thus reestablished its Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid, which is the canonically recognized Orthodox church in the Republic of Macedonia. Tensions between the breakaway group and the patriarchate remain high, and Archbishop Jovan, who was made head of the autonomous archdiocese, was imprisoned for eighteen months by local authorities for allegedly criminal activities. The breakaway church has government backing, and so the activities of the autonomous archdiocese are subject to persecution by the authorities.

Structure of the patriarchate

The supreme authority of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the Holy Assembly of Bishops, composed of all its bishops, who meet twice a year. A permanent synod of six members carries out the administration of the day-to-day affairs of the church. Over the years the Serbian church has had its primate located at several various locations. There have been 54 (44 in Pec) patriarchs in Serbia, and other major metropolitans.

The Serbian Orthodox Church is divided into 40 dioceses, each headed by its own metropolitan, archbishop, or bishop:

Serbia

  • Archdiocese of Belgrade and Sremski Karlovci, with see in Belgrade (including Monastery of Pećka Patrijaršija)

diocesan: Patriarch Dr Pavle coadjutors: Atanasije vicar Bishop of Hvostno, Antonije vicar Bishop of Moravice

  • Diocese of Banat, with see in Vršac

diocesan: Bishop Nikanor

  • Diocese of Backa, with see in Novi Sad

diocesan: Bishop Dr Irinej coadjutor: Dr Porfirije vicar Bishop of Jegra

  • Diocese of Branicevo, with see in Požarevac

diocesan: Bishop Dr Ignjatije

  • Diocese of Vranje, with see in Vranje

diocesan: Bishop Pahomije

  • Diocese of Žica, with see in monastery Žica near Kraljevo

diocesan: Bishop Hrizostom

  • Diocese of Mileševa, with see in Mileševa monastery

diocesan: Bishop Filaret

  • Diocese of Niš, with see in Niš

diocesan: Bishop Irinej

  • Diocese of Ras and Prizren, with see in Prizren

diocesan: Bishop Dr Artemije coadjutor: Teodosije vicar Bishop of Lipljan

  • Diocese of Srem, with see in Sremski Karlovci

diocesan: Bishop Vasilije

  • Diocese of Timok, with see in Zajecar

diocesan: Bishop Dr Justin

  • Diocese of Šabac , with see in Šabac

diocesan: Bishop Lavrentije

  • Diocese of Šumadija, with see in Kragujevac

diocesan: Bishop Jovan

  • Diocese of Valjevo, with see in Valjevo (established in May 2006)

diocesan: Bishop Milutin

Montenegro

  • Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, with see in Cetinje

diocesan: Metropoliten Dr Amfilohije coadjutor: Jovan vicar Bishop of Dioclea

  • Diocese of Budimlje and Nikšic, with see in Đurđevi Stupovi monastery near Berane

diocesan: Bishop Joanikije

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Metropolitanate of Dabar-Bosnia, with see in Sarajevo

diocesan: Metropoliten Dr Nikolaj

  • Diocese of Banja Luka, with see in Banja Luka

diocesan: Bishop Jefrem

  • Diocese of Bihac and Petrovac, with see in Bosanksi Petrovac

diocesan: Bishop Hrizostom

  • Diocese of Zahumlje and Herzegovina, with see in monastery Tvrdoš near Trebinje

diocesan: Bishop Grigorije

  • Diocese of Zvornik and Tuzla, with see in Bijeljina (temporarly, oficially see is in Tuzla )

diocesan: Bishop Vasilije

Croatia

  • Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana, with see in Zagreb; also encompasses Italy and all of Slovenia

diocesan: Metropoliten Jovan

  • Diocese of upper Karlovac, with see in Karlovac

diocesan: Bishop Gerasim

  • Diocese of Dalmatia, with see in Šibenik

diocesan: Bishop Dr Fotije

  • Diocese of Osjecko polje and Baranja, with see in Dalj

diocesan: Bishop Lukijan

  • Diocese of Slavonia, with see in Daruvar

diocesan: Bishop Sava

Romania

  • Diocese of Timisoara, with see in Timisoara

Republic of Macedonia

  • Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid, with see in Ohrid

diocesan: Archibishop Jovan coadjutor: Marko vicar Bishop of Dremevica and Administrator of Bitola

  • Diocese of Polog-Kumanovo, with see in Kumanovo

diocesan: Bishop Joakim

Europe

  • Diocese of Britain and Scandinavia, with see in Stockholm; encompasses parishes in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden and Denmark

diocesan: Bishop Dositej

  • Diocese of Buda (Budim), with see in Sentandreja; encompasses Orthodox Serbs in Hungary

diocesan: Bishop Lukijan

  • Diocese of West Europe, with see in Paris; encompasses Orthodox Serbs in France, Belgium, Netherlands and Spain

diocesan: Bishop Luka

  • Diocese of Central Europe, with see in Himmelstühr monastery; encompasses Serb Orthodox faithful in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

diocesan: Bishop Konstantin

The Americas

  • Metropolitanate of Midwestern America, with see at St. Sava Monastery in Libertyville, Illinois

diocesan: Metropoliten Hristofor

  • Diocese of East America, with see at Holy Trinity Cathedral in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

diocesan: Bishop Dr Mitrofan

  • Diocese of West America, with see at St. Stephen Cathedral in Alhambra, California

diocesan: Bishop Dr Maxim

  • Diocese of Canada, with see at St. Nicholas Cathedral in Hamilton, Ontario

diocesan: Bishop Gorgije

  • Metropolitanate of New Gracanica, Diocese of the United States and Canada, with see at Most Holy Mother of God Monastery in Grayslake, Illinois (former Free Serbian Orthodox Church Diocese for the United States and Canada, which was not in full communion with the Serbian patriarch from 1963 to 1992)

diocesan: Bishop Longin

Australia and Oceania

diocesan: Bishop Irinej

Dioceses are further divided into deaneries, each consisting of several church congregations and parishes. Church congregation consists of one or more parishes.


Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Orthodoxy
Autocephalous Churches
Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople | Alexandria | Antioch | Jerusalem
Russia | Serbia | Romania | Bulgaria | Georgia | Cyprus | Greece | Poland | Albania | Czech Lands and Slovakia | OCA*
Autonomous Churches
Sinai | Finland | Estonia* | Japan* | China* | Ukraine*
The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.



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