Church of Poland
|The Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church|
|Founder(s)||Ss. Cyril and Methodius|
|Autocephaly/Autonomy recognized||1924 by Constantinople, 1948 by Russia|
|Current primate||Metropolitan Sawa|
|Possessions abroad||Brasil, Italy|
|Liturgical language(s)||Church Slavonic, Polish|
|Musical tradition||Russian Chant, Polish Chant, Znamenny Chant|
|Calendar||Julian, Revised Julian|
|Population estimate||509,100  - 550,000|
|Official website||Church of Poland|
The Church of Poland is the autocephalous Orthodox Christian church in the country of Poland. The church has six dioceses and is currently led by Metropolitan Sawa, Archbishop of Warsaw and Metropolitan of All Poland.
While the majority of people in Poland are Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christians have resided in the area that makes up modern-day Poland since the missions of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in the ninth century. In the 13th century there were two Orthodox dioceses centered around Chełm and Przemyśl. Under the Union of Brest in 1596 the vast majority of these Orthodox believers were brought under the spiritual leadership of the Bishop of Rome (the Roman Catholic pope) as Greek Catholics (Uniates). They were, however, allowed to continue several Eastern practices, including a Slavonic liturgy, married priests, and communion with both wine and bread. Loyalties of the faithful between Orthodoxy and the Unia have varied over the ensuing centuries, and tolerance between the ruling regimes and the people has varied as the borders changed. The martyrdom of Maxim Sandovich illustrates the tenseness of these relations.
In an attempt to reduce antagonism in Poland after World War I, the Orthodox leadership in Poland and the Polish government arranged for the Orthodox in Poland to organize as an autocephalous church, which was recognized by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1924. In 1948, the Patriarch of Russia also recognized the autocephaly of the Church of Poland.
Today, the Church of Poland is led by the Archbishop of Warsaw and Metropolitan of All Poland and includes six dioceses/eparchies: Warsaw and Bielsk, Bialystok and Gdansk, Lodz and Poznan, Wroclaw and Szczecin, Lublin and Chelm, and Przemysl and Nowy Sacz. Most Orthodox Christians are located in eastern Poland, where Old Church Slavonic is the liturgical language. There are a few parishes throughout Poland where Polish is used during services. The Holy Synod has translated and published St John Chrysostom's and St Basil's Liturgies, as well as the Presanctified Liturgy of St. Gregory Dialogus. In recent decades Orthodox believers have also returned to the Lemko region, which is part of the Eparchy of Przemysl and Nowy Sacz. Old Church Slavonic is generally used as the liturgical language in the Lemko area. It is estimated that there are about one million Orthodox in Poland.
- His Beatitude Sawa, Archbishop of Warsaw and Metropolitan of All Poland
- His Eminence Simon, Archbishop of Lodz and Poznan
- His Eminence Adam, Archbishop of Przemysl and Nowy Sacz
- His Eminence Jeremiah, Archbishop of Wroclaw and Szczecin
- His Eminence Abel, Archbishop of Lublin and Chelm
- His Grace Miron, Archbishop of Hajnowka and auxiliary for the Polish Army
- His Grace James, Archbishop of Bialystok and Gdansk
- His Grace Gregory, Bishop of Supraśl
- His Grace George, Bishop of Siemiatycze
- His Grace Paisios, Bishop of Piotrkow
|Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Orthodoxy|
| Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople | Alexandria | Antioch | Jerusalem |
Russia | Serbia | Romania | Bulgaria | Georgia | Cyprus | Greece | Poland | Albania | Czech Lands and Slovakia | OCA*
|Sinai | Finland | Estonia* | Japan* | China* | Ukraine*|
|The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.|