Church of Estonia (Ecumenical Patriarchate)

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[[Image:Tallinn.jpg|right|350px|thumb|Churches in Tallinn, capital of Estonia]]
 
{{church|
 
{{church|
name=Estonian Orthodox Church|
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name=The Orthodox Church of Estonia|
founder=|
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founder=—|
 
independence=1917|
 
independence=1917|
 
recognition=1923, 1996 by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]|
 
recognition=1923, 1996 by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]|
primate=[[Stephanos (Charalambites) of Tallinn|Metr. Stephanos]]|
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primate=[[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Metr. Stephanos]]|
 
hq=Tallinn, Estonia|
 
hq=Tallinn, Estonia|
territory=Estonia|
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territory=Republic of Estonia|
possessions=|
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possessions=—|
 
language=Estonian|
 
language=Estonian|
music=|
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music=[[Byzantine chant|Byzantine]] and [[Estonian chant|Estonian]]|
calendar=|
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calendar=[[Revised Julian Calendar]]|
population=20,000[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=33]|
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population=28,000[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=33]|
website=[http://www.orthodoxa.org/index.html Church of Estonia]
+
website=[http://www.eoc.ee/ Church of Estonia]
 
}}
 
}}
The '''Church of Estonia''' or '''Estonian Orthodox Church''' ('''Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik''') is an [[autonomy|autonomous]] Orthodox church.
+
The '''Church of Estonia''' or '''Orthodox Church of Estonia''' ('''Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik''') is an [[autonomy|autonomous]] Orthodox church whose [[primate]] is confirmed by the [[Church of Constantinople]].  Its official name in English is the '''Orthodox Church of Estonia'''.
  
The current primate of the Church is His Eminence [[Stephanos (Charalambites) of Tallinn|Stephanos]], [[Metropolitan]] of Tallinn and all Estonia (elected 1999).
+
The current primate of the church is His Eminence [[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Stephanos]], [[Metropolitan]] of Tallinn and all Estonia (elected 1999).
  
 
+
This autonomous church should not be confused with the [[Church of Estonia (Moscow Patriarchate)|church of the similar name]] which is an [[exarchate]] of the [[Moscow Patriarchate]].
{{stub}}
+
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
<b>1030</b> – The first mention of Orthodox congregations in Estonia.  
+
Orthodox missionaries were active among the Estonians in the southeast regions of the area, closest to [[Pskov]], in the 10th through 12th centuries.  The first mention of an Orthodox [[congregation]] in Estonia was in 1030 in Tartu. Around 600 AD on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi) the Estonians erected a fortress named Tarbatu. In 1030 the Kievan prince, Jaroslav the Wise, raided Tarbatu and built his own fort in this place as well as the congregation in a [[cathedral]] dedicated to St. [[George the Trophy-bearer]].  Orthodox Christians were later expelled from the city by the Germans in 1472, who [[martyr]]ed their [[priest]], Isidor, along with a number of Orthodox faithful (the group is commemorated on [[January 8]]).
  
 +
Little is known about the history of the church in the area until the 17th and 18th centuries, when many [[Old Believers]] fled there from Russia to avoid the liturgical reforms introduced by Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]].
  
<b>17 th- 18 th centuries</b> – The Old Believers fled from Russia to Estonia to avoid the changes in the Orthodox Church and persecution by the officials.  
+
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Estonia was a part of the Tsarist Russian Empire, having been conquered by Tsar [[Peter the Great]].  A large number of Estonians, particularly rural people, were converted to the Orthodox faith in the hope of obtaining land.  Numerous Orthodox churches were built.  In 1850 the Diocese of Riga (in Latvia) was established by the [[Church of Russia]] and many Estonian Orthodox believers included.  In the late 19th century, a wave of [[Russification]] was introduced, supported by the Russian hierarchy but not by local Estonian [[clergy]].  The St. [[Alexander Nevsky]] Cathedral in Tallinn and the Pühtitsa Dormition [[Stavropigial|Stavropegic]] Convent (Kuremäe) in East Estonia were also built around this time.
  
 +
In 1917 the first Estonian, Platon (Paul Kulbusch), was [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] Bishop of Riga and Vicar of Tallinn. Two years later, the Bolsheviks murdered Platon and his [[deacon]] for political reasons.  81 years later, in 2000, Bp. Platon was [[glorification|proclaimed a saint]] by the Churches of Constantinople and Russia, commemorated on [[January 14]].
  
<b>1850</b> – The Riga Diocese was established and Estonian Orthodox believers were also included.  
+
After the Estonian Republic was proclaimed in 1918, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, St. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]], in 1920 recognised the Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) as being independent. Archbishop Aleksander Paulus was elected and installed as the head of the Estonian church.  In 1923 Abp. Aleksander turned to the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive canonical recognition. The same year the OCE was canonically subordinated to the Patriarchy of Constantinople and gained extensive [[autonomy]].
 +
 +
Before 1941, one fifth of the total Estonian population (who had been mostly Lutheran since the 16th century occupation of Estonia by Sweden) were Orthodox Christians under the Patriarchy of Constantinople.  There were 158 parishes in Estonia and 183 clerics in the Estonian church.  There was also a Chair of Orthodoxy in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. There was a [[monastery]] in Petseri, two convents in Narva and Kuremäe, a priory in Tallinn and a [[seminary]] in Petseri. The ancient monastery in Petseri (Pechory, which used to belong to the Estonian Republic, now belongs to Russia) was preserved from the mass church destructions that occurred in Soviet Russia.  
  
 +
In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union, whose government undertook a general programme of the dissolution of all ecclesiastical independence within its territory.  From 1942 to 1944, however, autonomy under Constantinople was temporarily revived.  In 1945, a representative of the Moscow Patriarchate dismissed the members of the OCE synod who had remained in Estonia and established a new organisation, the Diocesan Council.  Orthodox believers in occupied Estonia were thus subordinated to being a diocese within the Russian Orthodox Church.
  
<b>18th-19th centuries</b> – Estonia was a part of the Tsarist Russian Empire. A large number of Estonians, particularly country people, were converted to the Orthodox faith in the hope of obtaining land. Numerous Orthodox churches were built.  
+
Just before the second Soviet occupation in 1944 and the dissolution of the Estonian synod, the [[primate]] of the church, Metropolitan Aleksander, went into exile along with 21 clergymen and about 8,000 Orthodox believers. The Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile with its synod in Sweden continued its activity according to the canonical statutes, until the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991. Before he died in 1953, Metr. Aleksandr established his community as an [[exarchate]] under Constantinople.  Most of the other bishops and clergy who remained behind were deported to Siberia.  In 1958, a new synod was established in exile, and the church organized from Sweden.
  
 +
[[Image:Ecum. Patriarch Bartholomew.jpg|thumb|125px|left|Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I of Constantinople]]]]
 +
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, divisions within the Orthodox community in Estonia arose between those who wished to remain under Russian authority and those who wished to return to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with the dispute often taking place along ethnic lines, many Russians having immigrated to Estonia during the Soviet occupation.  Lengthy negotiations between the two patriarchates failed to produce any agreement.
  
The end of the 19th century – A wave of Russification supported by the Orthodox Church (but not by most of the Estonian clergy). Building of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn and the Pukhtitsa Dormition Stavropegic Convent (Kuremäe) in East Estonia.  
+
In 1993, the synod of the Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile was re-registered as the legal successor of the autonomous Orthodox Church of Estonia, and on [[February 20]], 1996, Ecumenical Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I]] renewed the [[tomos]] granted to the OCE in 1923, restoring its canonical subordination to the Ecumenical Patriarchate.  This action brought immediate protest from Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] of the Moscow Patriarchate, which regarded the Estonian church as being part of its territory, and the Patriarch of Moscow temporarily removed the name of the Ecumenical Patriarch from the [[diptychs]].
  
 +
[[Image:Stefanos of Tallinn.jpg|125px|right|thumb|Metr. [[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Stephanos (Charalambides)]]]]
 +
An agreement was reached in which local congregations could choose which jurisdiction to follow.  The Orthodox community in Estonia, which accounts for about 14% of the total population, remains divided, with the majority of faithful (mostly ethnic Russians) remaining under Moscow.  As of a government report of November 2003, about 20,000 believers (mostly ethnic Estonians) in 60 parishes are part of the autonomous church, with 150,000 faithful in 31 parishes, along with the monastic community of Pukhitsa, paying allegiance to Moscow.
  
<b>1917</b> – The first Estonian, Platon (Paul Kulbusch), was ordained Bishop of Riga and Vicar of Tallinn. Later in 1919, the Bolsheviks murdered Platon for political reasons. (In 2000, Bishop Platon was declared as a saint both by the Patriarchy of Constantinople and the Moscow Patriarchy.)
+
In 1999, the church gained a resident hierarch (it had been under the Archbishop of [[Church of Finland|Finland]] as ''[[locum tenens]]''), Metropolitan [[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Stephanos (Charalambides)]], who had formerly been an [[auxiliary bishop]] under the Ecumenical Patriarchate's Metropolitan of France.
  
 +
In 2013, in response to a joint invitation by the Autonomous Church of Estonia and the President of the Republic of Estonia, His All-Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew traveled to Tallinn, Estonia, on September 4, 2013, in order to preside over celebrations for the 90th anniversary since the declaration of the Estonian Church as Autonomous by the Mother Church of Constantinople.
  
<b>1920</b> – After the Estonian Republic was proclaimed in 1918, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, Tikhon, recognised the Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) as being independent. Archbishop Aleksander Paulus was elected and ordained for life as the head of the OCE.  
+
==Estonian Orthodoxy today==
 +
The Orthodox Church of Estonia today consists of 73 parishes, served by 3 bishops, 33 priests and 9 deacons, and a convent.
  
 +
{{churches}}
  
<b>1923</b> – Archbishop Aleksander Paulus turned to the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive canonical recognition. The same year the OCE was canonically subordinated to the Patriarchy of Constantinople and gained extensive autonomy.
+
==Sources==
 
+
*''Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity'', pp. 183-4
 
+
*[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg-us.aspx?eccpageID=33&IndexView=toc The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church] by Ronald Roberson, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar
<b>Until 1941</b> – One-fifth of the total Estonian population was Orthodox Christians under the Patriarchy of Constantinople.  
+
There were 158 parishes in Estonia, 183 clerics in the OCE. There was a Chair of Orthodoxy in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. There was a monastery in Petseri, two convents – in Narva and Kuremäe, a priory in Tallinn and a seminary in Petseri.
+
 
+
The ancient monastery in Petseri (Pechory, which used to belong to the Estonian Republic, now belongs to Russia) was preserved from the mass church destructions that occurred in Soviet Russia.
+
 
+
 
+
<b>1940-1945</b> – In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union. In 1945, an authorised representative of the Patriarchy of Moscow dismissed the members of the OCE Synod who had remained in Estonia and established a new organisation – the Diocesan Council. Orthodox believers in occupied Estonia were now subordinated to a diocese within the Russian Orthodox Church.
+
 
+
Just before the second Soviet occupation in 1944, the Head of the Church, Metropolitan Aleksander went into exile, along with 21 clergymen and about 8 thousand Orthodox believers. The Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile with Synod in Sweden continued its activity by the Statute until the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991.
+
 
+
 
+
<b>1993</b> – The Synod of the Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile was re-registered as the legal successor of the autonomous Orthodox Church of Estonia.
+
 
+
 
+
<b>1996</b> – Bartholomeos, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, renewed the tomos granted to the OCE in 1923 by which the OCE restored its canonical subordination to the Patriarchy of Constantinople.
+
 
+
 
+
The Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) is an autonomous Church i.e. a local independent Orthodox Church. It has existed in Estonia as such since it was given autonomy by the Ecumenical Patriarchy of Constantinople in 1923. It was dissolved during the Stalinist occupation in 1945 and was restored legally in 1993 and canonically in 1996.
+
 
+
== Estonian Orthodoxy Today ==
+
 
+
== Church structure ==
+
 
+
{{churches}}
+
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
+
*[http://www.eoc.ee/ Orthodox Church of Estonia - Official Site]
* [http://www.orthodoxa.org/index.html Orthodox Church of Estonia - Official Site]
+
*[http://www.orthodoxa.org/ Orthodox Estonia]
* [http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=33 The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church] by Ronald Roberson, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar
+
*[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg-us.aspx?eccpageID=33&IndexView=toc "The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church"] in ''The Eastern Christian Churches: A Brief Survey'' (2008) by Ronald Roberson, on the CNEWA website.
 +
*[http://www.patriarchate.org/news/releases/his-all-holiness-in-estonia/ His All-Holiness in Estonia]
  
 
[[Category:Jurisdictions|Estonia]]
 
[[Category:Jurisdictions|Estonia]]
 +
 +
[[el:Εκκλησία της Εσθονίας]]
 +
[[fr:Église d'Estonie (Patriarcat œcuménique)]]
 +
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă a Estoniei]]

Latest revision as of 08:22, February 7, 2014

Churches in Tallinn, capital of Estonia
The Orthodox Church of Estonia
Founder(s)
Autocephaly/Autonomy declared 1917
Autocephaly/Autonomy recognized 1923, 1996 by Constantinople
Current primate Metr. Stephanos
Headquarters Tallinn, Estonia
Primary territory Republic of Estonia
Possessions abroad
Liturgical language(s) Estonian
Musical tradition Byzantine and Estonian
Calendar Revised Julian Calendar
Population estimate 28,000[1]
Official website Church of Estonia

The Church of Estonia or Orthodox Church of Estonia (Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik) is an autonomous Orthodox church whose primate is confirmed by the Church of Constantinople. Its official name in English is the Orthodox Church of Estonia.

The current primate of the church is His Eminence Stephanos, Metropolitan of Tallinn and all Estonia (elected 1999).

This autonomous church should not be confused with the church of the similar name which is an exarchate of the Moscow Patriarchate.

Contents

History

Orthodox missionaries were active among the Estonians in the southeast regions of the area, closest to Pskov, in the 10th through 12th centuries. The first mention of an Orthodox congregation in Estonia was in 1030 in Tartu. Around 600 AD on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi) the Estonians erected a fortress named Tarbatu. In 1030 the Kievan prince, Jaroslav the Wise, raided Tarbatu and built his own fort in this place as well as the congregation in a cathedral dedicated to St. George the Trophy-bearer. Orthodox Christians were later expelled from the city by the Germans in 1472, who martyred their priest, Isidor, along with a number of Orthodox faithful (the group is commemorated on January 8).

Little is known about the history of the church in the area until the 17th and 18th centuries, when many Old Believers fled there from Russia to avoid the liturgical reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, Estonia was a part of the Tsarist Russian Empire, having been conquered by Tsar Peter the Great. A large number of Estonians, particularly rural people, were converted to the Orthodox faith in the hope of obtaining land. Numerous Orthodox churches were built. In 1850 the Diocese of Riga (in Latvia) was established by the Church of Russia and many Estonian Orthodox believers included. In the late 19th century, a wave of Russification was introduced, supported by the Russian hierarchy but not by local Estonian clergy. The St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn and the Pühtitsa Dormition Stavropegic Convent (Kuremäe) in East Estonia were also built around this time.

In 1917 the first Estonian, Platon (Paul Kulbusch), was consecrated Bishop of Riga and Vicar of Tallinn. Two years later, the Bolsheviks murdered Platon and his deacon for political reasons. 81 years later, in 2000, Bp. Platon was proclaimed a saint by the Churches of Constantinople and Russia, commemorated on January 14.

After the Estonian Republic was proclaimed in 1918, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, St. Tikhon, in 1920 recognised the Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) as being independent. Archbishop Aleksander Paulus was elected and installed as the head of the Estonian church. In 1923 Abp. Aleksander turned to the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive canonical recognition. The same year the OCE was canonically subordinated to the Patriarchy of Constantinople and gained extensive autonomy.

Before 1941, one fifth of the total Estonian population (who had been mostly Lutheran since the 16th century occupation of Estonia by Sweden) were Orthodox Christians under the Patriarchy of Constantinople. There were 158 parishes in Estonia and 183 clerics in the Estonian church. There was also a Chair of Orthodoxy in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. There was a monastery in Petseri, two convents in Narva and Kuremäe, a priory in Tallinn and a seminary in Petseri. The ancient monastery in Petseri (Pechory, which used to belong to the Estonian Republic, now belongs to Russia) was preserved from the mass church destructions that occurred in Soviet Russia.

In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union, whose government undertook a general programme of the dissolution of all ecclesiastical independence within its territory. From 1942 to 1944, however, autonomy under Constantinople was temporarily revived. In 1945, a representative of the Moscow Patriarchate dismissed the members of the OCE synod who had remained in Estonia and established a new organisation, the Diocesan Council. Orthodox believers in occupied Estonia were thus subordinated to being a diocese within the Russian Orthodox Church.

Just before the second Soviet occupation in 1944 and the dissolution of the Estonian synod, the primate of the church, Metropolitan Aleksander, went into exile along with 21 clergymen and about 8,000 Orthodox believers. The Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile with its synod in Sweden continued its activity according to the canonical statutes, until the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991. Before he died in 1953, Metr. Aleksandr established his community as an exarchate under Constantinople. Most of the other bishops and clergy who remained behind were deported to Siberia. In 1958, a new synod was established in exile, and the church organized from Sweden.

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, divisions within the Orthodox community in Estonia arose between those who wished to remain under Russian authority and those who wished to return to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with the dispute often taking place along ethnic lines, many Russians having immigrated to Estonia during the Soviet occupation. Lengthy negotiations between the two patriarchates failed to produce any agreement.

In 1993, the synod of the Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile was re-registered as the legal successor of the autonomous Orthodox Church of Estonia, and on February 20, 1996, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I renewed the tomos granted to the OCE in 1923, restoring its canonical subordination to the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This action brought immediate protest from Patriarch Alexei II of the Moscow Patriarchate, which regarded the Estonian church as being part of its territory, and the Patriarch of Moscow temporarily removed the name of the Ecumenical Patriarch from the diptychs.

An agreement was reached in which local congregations could choose which jurisdiction to follow. The Orthodox community in Estonia, which accounts for about 14% of the total population, remains divided, with the majority of faithful (mostly ethnic Russians) remaining under Moscow. As of a government report of November 2003, about 20,000 believers (mostly ethnic Estonians) in 60 parishes are part of the autonomous church, with 150,000 faithful in 31 parishes, along with the monastic community of Pukhitsa, paying allegiance to Moscow.

In 1999, the church gained a resident hierarch (it had been under the Archbishop of Finland as locum tenens), Metropolitan Stephanos (Charalambides), who had formerly been an auxiliary bishop under the Ecumenical Patriarchate's Metropolitan of France.

In 2013, in response to a joint invitation by the Autonomous Church of Estonia and the President of the Republic of Estonia, His All-Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew traveled to Tallinn, Estonia, on September 4, 2013, in order to preside over celebrations for the 90th anniversary since the declaration of the Estonian Church as Autonomous by the Mother Church of Constantinople.

Estonian Orthodoxy today

The Orthodox Church of Estonia today consists of 73 parishes, served by 3 bishops, 33 priests and 9 deacons, and a convent.


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The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.



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