Christ the Bridegroom

From OrthodoxWiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (fixed links)
m (link)
 
(20 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{cleanup}}
 
 
[[Image:Bridegroom.jpg|thumb|right|Christ the Bridegroom icon]]
 
[[Image:Bridegroom.jpg|thumb|right|Christ the Bridegroom icon]]
'''Christ The Bridegroom''' comes from the central figure in the parable of the ten Virgins (Matthew 25: 1-13); [[Christ]] is the divine ''Bridegroom of the Church''. This title is suggestive of His divine presence and watchfulness (''"Behold the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night ..."'') during [[Holy Week]].
+
'''Christ the Bridegroom''' is the central figure in the [[parable]] of the ten Virgins (Matthew 25: 1-13); [[Christ]] is the divine Bridegroom of the Church as described in the Book of [[Isaiah]] (chapter 54), as well as the primary image of '''Bridegroom Matins'''. The title is suggestive of his divine presence and watchfulness ("Behold the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night...") during [[Holy Week]] and his selfless love for his Bride, the [[Church]].
  
The '''Bridegroom''' is also the name given to the central icon used in '''The Service of the Bridegroom'''. The '''Bridegroom''' icon and service has been more commonly known as '''"O Nymphios"''' but over the last decade, this title has caused much confusion to the ever-growing English speaking christian population.
+
The '''Bridegroom''' is also the name given to the central icon used in Bridegroom Matins. The Bridegroom icon and service is also commonly known in the Greek tradition as '''O Nymphios'''.
  
== Service of the Bridegroom ==
+
== Bridegroom Matins ==
The '''Service of the Bridegroom''' is a service specific to the first three evenings of [[Holy Week]] and commemorates the last days in the earthly life of our Lord. Incorporated into these services is the theme of the first three days of Holy Week; which is the last teachings of Christ to his disciples. As such, these services incorporate readings and hymns inspiring this theme. The mood of the services is to experience sorrow and to feel Christ's voluntary submission to His passions and highlight the purpose behind the evil that is about to take place against the Lord. The atmosphere is one of mourning (for our sins) and is symbolic of the shame we should feel for the Fall of Adam and Eve, the depths of hell, the lost Paradise and the absence of God. The vestments of the Priest and the altar clothes are black or deep purple to symbolise and enhance the atmosphere of mourning and remembrance of our sins. The main emphasis of the ''Bridegroom Service'' is ''[[metanoia]]'' and each service has its own particular theme on repentance and watchfullness.
+
Bridegroom Matins is a service specific to the first four evenings of [[Holy Week]] (though it is often omitted on Holy Wednesday in favor of the service of [[Holy Unction]]) and commemorates the last days in the earthly life of the Lord. Incorporated into these services is the theme of the first three days of Holy Week; which is the last teachings of Christ to his disciples. As such, these services incorporate readings and hymns inspiring this theme. The mood of the services is to experience sorrow and to feel Christ's voluntary submission to His passions and highlight the purpose behind the evil that is about to take place against the Lord. The atmosphere is one of mourning (for sins) and is symbolic of the shame the Christian should feel for the Fall of Adam and Eve, the depths of hell, the lost Paradise and the absence of God. The vestments of the Priest and the altar clothes are black or deep purple to symbolise and enhance the atmosphere of mourning and remembrance of sins. The main emphasis of the Bridegroom Service is ''[[metanoia]]'' and each service has its own particular theme on repentance and watchfulness.  One of its primary features is its [[troparion]]:
 +
 
 +
:Behold, the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night, and blessed is the servant He shall find vigilant; but unworthy is he whom he shall find neglectful. Beware therefore, O my soul, lest you be weighed down by sleep, lest you be given over to death and be closed out from the kingdom; but rise up crying out: "Holy! Holy! Holy  are You our God; through the intercessions of the Theotokos, have mercy on us."
  
 
=== Palm Sunday evening ===
 
=== Palm Sunday evening ===
During the first service, '''Palm Sunday''' evening, the priest carries the [[icon]] of ''Christ the Bridegroom'' into the church. We sing the ''Hymn of the Bridegroom'' during this procession, and the icon is brought to the front of the church and remains there until Holy Thursday. In the icon, we behold our Christ as the Bridegroom of the Church, bearing the marks of His suffering, yet preparing the way for a marriage Feast for us in His Kingdom. He is dressed in the icon according to the mockery of the Roman guards just prior to his crucifixion.
+
During the first service on [[Palm Sunday]] evening, the priest carries the [[icon]] of Christ the Bridegroom into the church. The Bridegroom troparion is sung during this procession, and the icon is brought to the front of the church and remains there until Holy Thursday. The icon depicts Christ as the Bridegroom of the [[Church]], bearing the marks of his suffering, yet preparing the way for a marriage feast in his Kingdom. He is dressed in the icon according to the mockery of the Roman guards just prior to his crucifixion.
*The crowns - The crown of thorns are a symbol of His marriage to the [Church].
+
*The crowns - a symbol of his marriage to the [[Church]].
*The rope - the rope symbolises our bondage to sin, death and corruption which was loosed only when Christ opened His arms on the Cross. This is highlighted in the Third [[Ode]] of the[[Canon]] of [[Holy Friday]] - ''You have stretched forth Your hands, O Saviour, and gathered the things dispersed of old; and by Your burial in the linen and the grave You have loosed the captives, who shout, "There is none who is Holy apart from You, O Lord."''  
+
*The rope - a symbol of bondage to sin, death and corruption which was loosed with Christ's death on the Cross.
*The reed - a symbol of His humility; God rules his kingdom with humility.
+
*''The reed'' - a symbol of his humility; God rules his kingdom with humility.
  
=== The '''Kontakion''' for Holy Monday ===
+
Sunday evening also includes this kontakion:
The [[Kontakion]] for Sunday evening, eighth tone.
+
:Jacob lamented the loss of Joseph, but that noble one was seated in a chariot and honored as a king; for by not being enslaved then to the pleasures of the Egyptian woman, he was glorified by Him that beholdeth the hearts of men and bestoweth an incorruptible crown.
 
+
''Jacob lamented the loss of Joseph, but that noble one was seated in a chariot and honored as a king; for by not being enslaved then to the pleasures of the Egyptian woman, he was glorified by Him that beholdeth the hearts of men and bestoweth an incorruptible crown.''
+
 
+
=== The Hymn of the Bridegroom ===
+
''Behold, the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night, and blessed is the servant He shall find vigilant; but unworthy is he whom he shall find neglectful. Beware therefore O my soul, lest you be weighed down by sleep, lest you be given over to death and be closed out from the kingdom; but rise up crying out: “Holy! Holy! Holy  are You our God; through the intercessions of the Theotokos, have mercy on us."''
+
  
 
=== Holy Monday evening ===
 
=== Holy Monday evening ===
On '''Holy Monday''', the Blessed Joseph, the son of Jacob the Patriarch, is commemorated because he is seen as a prototype of Christ.  
+
On [[Holy Week|Holy Monday]], the Blessed Joseph, the son of Jacob the Patriarch, is commemorated because he is seen as a prototype of Christ.  
  
Joseph was betrayed by his brothers, thrown into a pit and sold into slavery by them. In the same way, our Lord was rejected, betrayed by His own, and sold into the slavery of death and like Joseph forgave and spared his brothers during the famine when they came to him, so too, [[Jesus]] [[Christ]] offers himself as a sacrifice and forgives all those who come to him in faith.  
+
Joseph was betrayed by his brothers, thrown into a pit and sold into slavery by them. In the same way, the Lord was rejected, betrayed by his own, and sold into the slavery of death and like Joseph forgave and spared his brothers during the famine when they came to him, so too, [[Jesus]] [[Christ]] offers himself as a sacrifice and forgives all those who come to him in faith.  
  
The Gospel reading for the day is '''The Barren Fig Tree''', which Christ cursed and withered because it bore no fruit. The fig tree is representative of those who have heard God's word, but who fail to bear the fruits of faith. Originally the withering of the fig tree was a testimony against those Jews who rejected God's word and His Messiah. However, it is also a warning to all people, in all times, of the importance of not only hearing the God's word, but putting it into action.
+
The Gospel reading for the day is of the Barren Fig Tree, which Christ cursed and withered because it bore no fruit. The fig tree is representative of those who have heard God's word, but who fail to bear the fruits of faith. Originally the withering of the fig tree was a testimony against those Jews who rejected God's word and his Messiah. It is also a warning to all people, in all times, of the importance of not only hearing the God's word, but putting it into action.
  
=== The Kontakion for Holy Tuesday===
+
Monday evening also includes this kontakion:
The [[Kontakion]] for Monday evening, second tone.
+
:Being mindful of the hour of the end, O my soul, and fearing because of the cutting down of the fig tree, labor diligently with the talent that was given thee, O hapless one, and be watchful and cry: Let us not remain outside the bridal chamber of Christ.
 
+
''Being mindful of the hour of the end, O my soul, and fearing because of the cutting down of the fig tree, labor diligently with the talent that was given thee, O hapless one, and be watchful and cry: Let us not remain outside the bridal chamber of Christ.''
+
  
 
===Holy Tuesday evening ===
 
===Holy Tuesday evening ===
On '''Holy Tuesday''', the Parable of the Ten Virgins is read. It tells the story of the five virgins who filled their lamps in preparation for receiving the bridegroom while the other five allowed their lamps to go out and hence were shut out of the marriage feast.  This parable is a warning that we must always be prepared to receive our Lord when He comes again. The theme of the day is reinforced by the expostelarion hymn we sing ''"I see Thy Bridal Chamber adorned, O my Savior, but have no wedding garment that I may enter.  O Giver of Light, enlighten the vesture of my soul, and save me."''
+
On [[Holy Week|Holy Tuesday]], the Parable of the Ten Virgins is read. It tells the story of the five virgins who filled their lamps in preparation for receiving the bridegroom while the other five allowed their lamps to go out and hence were shut out of the marriage feast.  This parable is a warning that Christians must always be prepared to receive the Lord when he comes again. The theme of the day is reinforced by the exaposteilarion hymn:
 
+
: I see Thy Bridal Chamber adorned, O my Savior, but have no wedding garment that I may enter.  O Giver of Light, enlighten the vesture of my soul, and save me.
We also remember [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]] ([[September 7]]). Kassiani was a beautiful young aristocrat, who came from a Byzantium family at the time of the Emperor Theophilos (9th century).  While choosing a bride from a parade of eligible girls, Theophilos became angry at a reply Kassiani gave as a reply to a question of his, so he impulsively chose Theodora, who was standing next to Kassiani, as his bride. Kassiani played a great role in the restoration of the Holy Icons and dedicated her life to the composition of sacred poetry. Heartbroken by Theophilos, one of those poems was this beautiful hymn. It retains the original Byzantine music which may be difficult for all to understand. Theophelos, searched for Kassiani and found her at a convent and the two never saw each other again. Her repentance and love for Christ is the theme of the wonderful ''"Hymn of Kassiani"'' which is chanted on this night, reminding us one more time, before ''"it is too late,"'' that we too may be forgiven if we repent.
+
  
=== The Hymn of Kassiani ===
+
Holy Tuesday's Bridegroom Matins also includes commemoration of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]] ([[September 7]]), also known by the names of ''Kasia'', ''Kasiani'' or ''Ikessia'', was a great [[hymnographer]] from the 9th century. According to the Synaxaristi not many details of her life have been recorded but she has remained in ecclesiastical history for her great hymns. His Eminence Metropolitan Sophronios Eustratiadis of Leontopoleos <ref> Σωφρόνιος Ευστρατιάδης (Μητροπολίτης Λεοντοπόλεως) </ref> writes that Kassiani was "an orphaned girl from the Byzantine era, beautiful and wise, a saintly ascetic and respectful virgin". <ref> «ορφανή κόρη του Βυζαντίου εκ των ευπατρίδων, ωραία και σοφή, οσία ασκήτρια και ευσεβέστατη παρθένος» περ. «Εκκλ. Φάρος Αλεξανδρείας», τ.ΛΑ' (1932) σελ. 92 </ref> Kassiani is also linked to the Emperor Theophilos (9th century) and his search for a bride. Theophilos was angered with a reply by Kassiani to a question of his, and he impulsively chose St. Theodora, who was standing next to Kassiani, to be his elected bride. Kassiani also played a great role in the restoration of the Holy Icons.  
The text is based on the sinful woman who is introduced by the Evangelist St Luke in his Gospel (7:36-50). Kassiani contrasts the repentance of the sinful woman with Eve’s fall (Gen. 3:8-11):
+
  
'''[[Hymn]], Tone 8:'''
+
Heartbroken by Theophilos, one of those poems was the beautiful hymn of Kassiani, which in the Byzantine tradition is such a major feature that the service held on Holy Tuesday evening is often referred to simply as the ''Hymn of Kassiani''. Theophilos searched for Kassiani and found her at a convent and the two never saw each other again. Her repentance and love for Christ is the theme of the wonderful Hymn of Kassiani which is chanted on this night, reminding  all that they may be forgiven if they repent.
''The woman who had fallen into many sins,''
+
''perceiving Your divinity, O Lord,''
+
''Received the dignity of a [[myrrh-bearer]],''
+
''For with lamentation she brought fragrant myrrh to You before Your burial.''
+
''And she cried: Woe is me, for love of sin and stings of lustful passion envelop me as the night, dark and moonless.''
+
''As You cause the clouds to drop down the waters of the sea, accept the fountain of my tears.''
+
''As by Your indescribable condescension You bowed down the heavens,''
+
''so incline to the groaning of my heart.''
+
''I shall kiss Your most pure feet and wipe them with the hair of my head,''
+
''Those same feet whose sound Eve heard at dusk in Paradise when she hid herself in fear.''
+
''Who can count the multitude of my sins?''
+
''Who can measure the depths of Your judgements, O Saviour of my soul?''
+
''Do not turn away from me, Your servant, for You have immeasurable mercy.''
+
  
== The Kontakion for Holy Wednesday ==
+
The text of the hymn, based on the account of the sinful woman who is introduced by the Evangelist St Luke in his Gospel (7:36-50). Kassiani contrasts the repentance of the sinful woman with Eve's fall (Gen. 3:8-11):
The '''[[Kontakion]] for Tuesday evening, fourth tone.
+
:The woman who had fallen into many sins, perceiving Your divinity, O Lord, received the dignity of a [[myrrh-bearer]], for with lamentation she brought fragrant myrrh to You before Your burial.  And she cried:  Woe is me, for love of sin and stings of lustful passion envelop me as the night, dark and moonless.  As You cause the clouds to drop down the waters of the sea, accept the fountain of my tears.  As by Your indescribable condescension You bowed down the heavens, so incline to the groaning of my heart.  I shall kiss Your most pure feet and wipe them with the hair of my head, those same feet whose sound Eve heard at dusk in Paradise when she hid herself in fear.  Who can count the multitude of my sins?  Who can measure the depths of Your judgments, O Saviour of my soul?  Do not turn away from me, Your servant, for You have immeasurable mercy.
  
''I have transgressed far more than the harlot, O Good One, yet have never brought you showers of tears;''
+
Tuesday evening also includes this kontakion:
''but entreating in silence, I fall before you, as I kiss your immaculate feet with love,''
+
:I have transgressed far more than the harlot, O Good One, yet have never brought you showers of tears; but entreating in silence, I fall before you, as I kiss your immaculate feet with love, that as Master you may grant me forgiveness of offences, as I cry out, O Saviour: deliver me from the filth of my works.
''that as Master you may grant me forgiveness of offences, as I cry out,''
+
''O Saviour: deliver me from the filth of my works.''
+
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
*[[Holy Week]]
 
*[[Holy Week]]
 +
*[[Kassiani the Hymnographer]]
 +
*[[Jesus Christ]]
  
== External Links ==
+
== External links ==
*[[w:Kassia|Kassiani on Wikipedia]]
+
*[http://www.svots.edu/news/recent/schmemann-holy-week-monday-wednesday/ Holy Week - Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday] - from ''Holy Week: A Liturgical Explanation for the Days of Holy Week''  (St Vladimir's Seminary Press), by Very Rev. [[Alexander Schmemann]]  
  
[[Category:Services]]
+
[[Category:Liturgics]]
[[Category:Icons]]
+

Latest revision as of 18:04, April 20, 2010

Christ the Bridegroom icon

Christ the Bridegroom is the central figure in the parable of the ten Virgins (Matthew 25: 1-13); Christ is the divine Bridegroom of the Church as described in the Book of Isaiah (chapter 54), as well as the primary image of Bridegroom Matins. The title is suggestive of his divine presence and watchfulness ("Behold the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night...") during Holy Week and his selfless love for his Bride, the Church.

The Bridegroom is also the name given to the central icon used in Bridegroom Matins. The Bridegroom icon and service is also commonly known in the Greek tradition as O Nymphios.

Contents

Bridegroom Matins

Bridegroom Matins is a service specific to the first four evenings of Holy Week (though it is often omitted on Holy Wednesday in favor of the service of Holy Unction) and commemorates the last days in the earthly life of the Lord. Incorporated into these services is the theme of the first three days of Holy Week; which is the last teachings of Christ to his disciples. As such, these services incorporate readings and hymns inspiring this theme. The mood of the services is to experience sorrow and to feel Christ's voluntary submission to His passions and highlight the purpose behind the evil that is about to take place against the Lord. The atmosphere is one of mourning (for sins) and is symbolic of the shame the Christian should feel for the Fall of Adam and Eve, the depths of hell, the lost Paradise and the absence of God. The vestments of the Priest and the altar clothes are black or deep purple to symbolise and enhance the atmosphere of mourning and remembrance of sins. The main emphasis of the Bridegroom Service is metanoia and each service has its own particular theme on repentance and watchfulness. One of its primary features is its troparion:

Behold, the Bridegroom comes in the middle of the night, and blessed is the servant He shall find vigilant; but unworthy is he whom he shall find neglectful. Beware therefore, O my soul, lest you be weighed down by sleep, lest you be given over to death and be closed out from the kingdom; but rise up crying out: "Holy! Holy! Holy are You our God; through the intercessions of the Theotokos, have mercy on us."

Palm Sunday evening

During the first service on Palm Sunday evening, the priest carries the icon of Christ the Bridegroom into the church. The Bridegroom troparion is sung during this procession, and the icon is brought to the front of the church and remains there until Holy Thursday. The icon depicts Christ as the Bridegroom of the Church, bearing the marks of his suffering, yet preparing the way for a marriage feast in his Kingdom. He is dressed in the icon according to the mockery of the Roman guards just prior to his crucifixion.

  • The crowns - a symbol of his marriage to the Church.
  • The rope - a symbol of bondage to sin, death and corruption which was loosed with Christ's death on the Cross.
  • The reed - a symbol of his humility; God rules his kingdom with humility.

Sunday evening also includes this kontakion:

Jacob lamented the loss of Joseph, but that noble one was seated in a chariot and honored as a king; for by not being enslaved then to the pleasures of the Egyptian woman, he was glorified by Him that beholdeth the hearts of men and bestoweth an incorruptible crown.

Holy Monday evening

On Holy Monday, the Blessed Joseph, the son of Jacob the Patriarch, is commemorated because he is seen as a prototype of Christ.

Joseph was betrayed by his brothers, thrown into a pit and sold into slavery by them. In the same way, the Lord was rejected, betrayed by his own, and sold into the slavery of death and like Joseph forgave and spared his brothers during the famine when they came to him, so too, Jesus Christ offers himself as a sacrifice and forgives all those who come to him in faith.

The Gospel reading for the day is of the Barren Fig Tree, which Christ cursed and withered because it bore no fruit. The fig tree is representative of those who have heard God's word, but who fail to bear the fruits of faith. Originally the withering of the fig tree was a testimony against those Jews who rejected God's word and his Messiah. It is also a warning to all people, in all times, of the importance of not only hearing the God's word, but putting it into action.

Monday evening also includes this kontakion:

Being mindful of the hour of the end, O my soul, and fearing because of the cutting down of the fig tree, labor diligently with the talent that was given thee, O hapless one, and be watchful and cry: Let us not remain outside the bridal chamber of Christ.

Holy Tuesday evening

On Holy Tuesday, the Parable of the Ten Virgins is read. It tells the story of the five virgins who filled their lamps in preparation for receiving the bridegroom while the other five allowed their lamps to go out and hence were shut out of the marriage feast. This parable is a warning that Christians must always be prepared to receive the Lord when he comes again. The theme of the day is reinforced by the exaposteilarion hymn:

I see Thy Bridal Chamber adorned, O my Savior, but have no wedding garment that I may enter. O Giver of Light, enlighten the vesture of my soul, and save me.

Holy Tuesday's Bridegroom Matins also includes commemoration of Kassiani (September 7), also known by the names of Kasia, Kasiani or Ikessia, was a great hymnographer from the 9th century. According to the Synaxaristi not many details of her life have been recorded but she has remained in ecclesiastical history for her great hymns. His Eminence Metropolitan Sophronios Eustratiadis of Leontopoleos [1] writes that Kassiani was "an orphaned girl from the Byzantine era, beautiful and wise, a saintly ascetic and respectful virgin". [2] Kassiani is also linked to the Emperor Theophilos (9th century) and his search for a bride. Theophilos was angered with a reply by Kassiani to a question of his, and he impulsively chose St. Theodora, who was standing next to Kassiani, to be his elected bride. Kassiani also played a great role in the restoration of the Holy Icons.

Heartbroken by Theophilos, one of those poems was the beautiful hymn of Kassiani, which in the Byzantine tradition is such a major feature that the service held on Holy Tuesday evening is often referred to simply as the Hymn of Kassiani. Theophilos searched for Kassiani and found her at a convent and the two never saw each other again. Her repentance and love for Christ is the theme of the wonderful Hymn of Kassiani which is chanted on this night, reminding all that they may be forgiven if they repent.

The text of the hymn, based on the account of the sinful woman who is introduced by the Evangelist St Luke in his Gospel (7:36-50). Kassiani contrasts the repentance of the sinful woman with Eve's fall (Gen. 3:8-11):

The woman who had fallen into many sins, perceiving Your divinity, O Lord, received the dignity of a myrrh-bearer, for with lamentation she brought fragrant myrrh to You before Your burial. And she cried: Woe is me, for love of sin and stings of lustful passion envelop me as the night, dark and moonless. As You cause the clouds to drop down the waters of the sea, accept the fountain of my tears. As by Your indescribable condescension You bowed down the heavens, so incline to the groaning of my heart. I shall kiss Your most pure feet and wipe them with the hair of my head, those same feet whose sound Eve heard at dusk in Paradise when she hid herself in fear. Who can count the multitude of my sins? Who can measure the depths of Your judgments, O Saviour of my soul? Do not turn away from me, Your servant, for You have immeasurable mercy.

Tuesday evening also includes this kontakion:

I have transgressed far more than the harlot, O Good One, yet have never brought you showers of tears; but entreating in silence, I fall before you, as I kiss your immaculate feet with love, that as Master you may grant me forgiveness of offences, as I cry out, O Saviour: deliver me from the filth of my works.

See also

External links


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found
Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox