Byzantine Revival Architecture

From OrthodoxWiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Gallery: link)
m
 
(17 intermediate revisions by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Image:AlexanderNevskiCathedral.jpg|right|thumb|230px|[[w:Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia|Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia]], by [[w:Alexander Pomerantsev|Alexander Pomerantsev]].]]
 
[[Image:AlexanderNevskiCathedral.jpg|right|thumb|230px|[[w:Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia|Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia]], by [[w:Alexander Pomerantsev|Alexander Pomerantsev]].]]
'''Neo-Byzantine architecture''' is an [[w:Revivalism (architecture)|architectural revival style]], most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public buildings. It emerged in 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of 19th century in the Russian Empire. An isolated Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II.  
+
The '''Byzantine Revival''' or '''Neo-Byzantine''' movement was an [[w:Revivalism (architecture)|architectural revival]] movement most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public buildings. It emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of 19th century in the Russian Empire; an isolated Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II.  
  
Neo-Byzantine architecture incorporates elements of the [[Byzantine style]] associated with [[w:Eastern Christian|Eastern]] and [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christian]] architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of [[Ravenna]].
+
Neo-Byzantine architecture incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with [[w:Eastern Christian|Eastern]] and [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christian]] architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of [[Ravenna]]. The style is characterized by round arches, vaults and domes, brick and stucco surfaces, symbolic ornamentation, and the use of decorative mosaics.  
  
 
==German countries==
 
==German countries==
[[Image:Christuskirche Matzleinsdorf Wien.jpg|thumb|right|210px|Christuskirche in Matzleindorf, 1858—1860]]
+
[[Image:Christuskirche Matzleinsdorf Wien.jpg|thumb|right|140px|Christuskirche in Matzleindorf, 1858—1860]]
 
Earliest example of emerging Byzantine-[[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] architecture was the [[w:St. Boniface's Abbey, Munich|Abbey of Saint Boniface]], laid down by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1835 and completed in 1840. The basilica followed the rules of 6th century [[Ravenna]] architecture, although its [[w:corinthian order|corinthian order]] was a clear deviation from the historical Byzantine art. In 1876 Ludwig II of Bavaria commissioned Neo-Byzantine interiors of the Neuschwanstein Castle, complete with mosaic images of [[Justinian I]] and Greek saints.
 
Earliest example of emerging Byzantine-[[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] architecture was the [[w:St. Boniface's Abbey, Munich|Abbey of Saint Boniface]], laid down by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1835 and completed in 1840. The basilica followed the rules of 6th century [[Ravenna]] architecture, although its [[w:corinthian order|corinthian order]] was a clear deviation from the historical Byzantine art. In 1876 Ludwig II of Bavaria commissioned Neo-Byzantine interiors of the Neuschwanstein Castle, complete with mosaic images of [[Justinian I]] and Greek saints.
  
 
Danish architect [[w:Theophil Hansen|Theophil Hansen]] became a supporter of the style in the 1850s. His major works belonged to [[w:Neo-Grec|Neo-Grec]] style, however, Hansen as a professor of Byzantine art in University of Vienna shaped a generation of architects that popularized Neo-Byzantine architecture in Austro-Hungary, Serbia and post-war Yugoslavia. Hansen's own Neo-Byzantine work include the Greek Church of Trinity (1856—1858) in Vienna and Chistuskirche in Matzleindorf (1858—1860).
 
Danish architect [[w:Theophil Hansen|Theophil Hansen]] became a supporter of the style in the 1850s. His major works belonged to [[w:Neo-Grec|Neo-Grec]] style, however, Hansen as a professor of Byzantine art in University of Vienna shaped a generation of architects that popularized Neo-Byzantine architecture in Austro-Hungary, Serbia and post-war Yugoslavia. Hansen's own Neo-Byzantine work include the Greek Church of Trinity (1856—1858) in Vienna and Chistuskirche in Matzleindorf (1858—1860).
  
==Russia==
+
==Russian Empire==
 +
The [[w:Sophia Cathedral|Sophia Cathedral]] in Pushkin (1782—1788) was the earliest and isolated experiment with Byzantine treatment of otherwise [[w:neoclassicism|neoclassical]] structures. In 1830s [[w:Nicholas I of Russia|Nicholas I of Russia]] promoted the so-called ''Russo-Byzantine'' style of churches designed by [[w:Konstantin Thon|Konstantin Thon]]. Nicholas I despised true Byzantine art; Thon's style in fact had little common with it. Notably, Thon routinely replaced the circular Byzantine arch with a keel-shaped gable, and the hemispherical Byzantine dome with an onion dome; layout and structural scheme of his churches clearly belonged to neoclassical standard.
  
[[w:Sophia Cathedral|Sophia Cathedral]] in Pushkin (1782—1788) was the earliest and isolated experiment with Byzantine treatment of otherwise [[w:neoclassicism|neoclassical]] structures. In 1830s [[w:Nicholas I of Russia|Nicholas I of Russia]] promoted the so-called ''Russo-Byzantine'' style of churches designed by [[w:Konstantin Thon|Konstantin Thon]]. Nicholas I despised true Byzantine art; Thon's style in fact had little common with it. Notably, Thon routinely replaced the circular Byzantine arch with a keel-shaped gable, and the hemispherical Byzantine dome with an onion dome; layout and structural scheme of his churches clearly belonged to neoclassical standard.
+
True Byzantine art, popularized by [[w:Grigory Gagarin|Grigory Gagarin]] and [[w:David Grimm|David Grimm]], was adopted by [[w:Alexander II of Russia|Alexander II of Russia]] as the de-facto official style of the Orthodox Church. Byzantine architecture became a vehicle of Orthodox expansion on the frontiers of Empire (Congress Poland, [[w:Crimea|Crimea]], the [[w:Caucasus|Caucasus]]). However, few buildings were completed in Alexander II reign due to financial troubles. [[w:Alexander II of Russia|Alexander III]] changed state preference in favor of Russian Revival trend based on 16th-17th century Moscow and Yaroslavl tradition, yet Byzantine architecture remained a common choice, especially for large cathedrals. Neo-Byzantine cathedrals concentrated in the western provinces (Poland, Lithuania), the Army bases in Caucasus and [[w:Central Asia|Central Asia]], the Cossack hosts and the industrial region in [[w:Urals|Urals]] around the city of Perm. Architects [[w:David Grimm|David Grimm]] and [[w:Vasily Kosyakov|Vasily Kosyakov]] developed a unique national type of a single-dome Byzantine cathedral with four symmetrical [[w:pendetive|pendetive]] apses that became de-facto standard in 1880s-1890s.
 
+
True Byzantine art, popularized by [[w:Grigory Gagarin|Grigory Gagarin]] and [[w:David Grimm|David Grimm]], was adopted by [[w:Alexander II of Russia|Alexander II of Russia]] as the de-facto official style of the Orthodox Church. Byzantine architecture became a vehicle of Orthodox expansion on the frontiers of Empire (Congress Poland, [[w:Crimea|Crimea]], the [[w:Caucasus|Caucasus]]). However, few buildings were completed in Alexander II reign due to financial troubles. [[w:Alexander II of Russia|Alexander III]] changed state preference in favor of [[Russian Revival]] trend based on 16th-17th century Moscow and Yaroslavl tradition, yet Byzantine architecture remained a common choice, especially for large cathedrals. Neo-Byzantine cathedrals concentrated in the western provinces (Poland, Lithuania), the Army bases in Caucasus and [[w:Central Asia|Central Asia]], the Cossack hosts and the industrial region in [[w:Urals|Urals]] around the city of Perm. Architects [[w:David Grimm|David Grimm]] and [[w:Vasily Kosyakov|Vasily Kosyakov]] developed a unique national type of a single-dome Byzantine cathedral with four symmetrical [[w:pendetive|pendetive]] apses that became de-facto standard in 1880s-1890s.
+
  
 
The reign of [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas II]] was notable for the architects's turn from this standard back to [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] legacy, peaking in the [[w:Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt|Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt]] and [[w:Poti|Poti]] cathedral. These designs employed reinforced concrete that allowed very fast construction schedule; their interiors contained clear references to contemporary [[w:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]] yet the exteriors were a clear homage to medieval Constantinople. Russian Neo-Byzantine tradition was terminated by the [[w:Russian revolution of 1917|revolution of 1917]] but was continued by emigrant architects in Yugoslavia and [[w:Harbin|Harbin]].
 
The reign of [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas II]] was notable for the architects's turn from this standard back to [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] legacy, peaking in the [[w:Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt|Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt]] and [[w:Poti|Poti]] cathedral. These designs employed reinforced concrete that allowed very fast construction schedule; their interiors contained clear references to contemporary [[w:Art Nouveau|Art Nouveau]] yet the exteriors were a clear homage to medieval Constantinople. Russian Neo-Byzantine tradition was terminated by the [[w:Russian revolution of 1917|revolution of 1917]] but was continued by emigrant architects in Yugoslavia and [[w:Harbin|Harbin]].
  
==United States==
+
<center>
 +
<gallery>
 +
Image:Novoafonsky monastyr.jpg|[[w:New Athos|New Athos]] Monastery in [[w:Abkhazia|Abkhazia]].
  
 +
Image:St Volodymyr Cathedral Interior 2.jpg|Interior of [[w:St. Vladimir's Cathedral|St. Vladimir's Cathedral]] in Kiev.
 +
 +
Image:Saint Petersburg Kronstadt.jpg|[[w:Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt|Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt]].
 +
 +
Image:Kazan church in Voskresensky Novodevichy monastery from cemetery.jpg|[[w:Novodevichy Cemetery (Saint Petersburg)|Novodevichy Cemetery]] church (1908-15) in St. Petersburg.
 +
 +
Image:Храм святого Владимира 5.jpg|The [[w:Chersonesus Cathedral|Saint Vladimir Cathedral]] in [[w:Chersonesus Taurica|Chersonesus]], 19th century, commemorating the presumed place of [[Vladimir of Kiev|St. Vladimir]]'s baptism, (1850 - ).
 +
 +
Image:St Petersburg Dmitry Solunsky church.jpg|Church of Dmitry Solunsky in Saint Petersburg (1861–1866) by Roman Kuzmin.
 +
 +
Image:Astrakhan Temple of St Vladimira.jpg|In 1888 Vasily Kosyakov found the ultimate proportion of a single-dome design. Blueprints of his [[w:Astrakhan|Astrakhan]] church were copied in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, before the original was completed (1895–1904).
 +
 +
Image:Novocherkassk.jpg|[[w:Novocherkassk|Novocherkassk]], Russia, 1891–1905.
 +
 +
Image:Blagoveschensky church in Kharkov.jpg|[[w:Annunciation Cathedral, Kharkiv|Annunciation Cathedral, Kharkov]], Ukraine, 1888–1901.
 +
 +
Image:Christ the Saviour Cathedral (Borki, Ukraine).jpg|Christ the Savior Cathedral in Borki (Kharkiv Oblast, Ukraine), ca. 1900; this was the inspiration for the St. Sophia Cathedral in Harbin.
 +
 +
Image:Belogorsky Monastery, near Kungir, in the Perm District of Russia.jpg|[[Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral (Perm Krai, Russia)|Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral]], Russia. Begun 1902; Consecration, 7 June 1917. Also known as the “Urals Athos.”
 +
</gallery>
 +
</center>
 +
 +
==United States==
 
In the United States and elsewhere, the Neo-Byzantine style is often seen in [[w:Vernacular architecture|vernacular]] amalgamations with other Medieval revivalist styles such as [[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] and [[w:Gothic revival|Gothic]], or even with the [[w:Mission Revival Style architecture|Mission Revival]] or [[w:Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture|Spanish Colonial Revival]] styles.
 
In the United States and elsewhere, the Neo-Byzantine style is often seen in [[w:Vernacular architecture|vernacular]] amalgamations with other Medieval revivalist styles such as [[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] and [[w:Gothic revival|Gothic]], or even with the [[w:Mission Revival Style architecture|Mission Revival]] or [[w:Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture|Spanish Colonial Revival]] styles.
  
 
Notable American examples include many buildings on the campus of Rice University in Texas, [[w:St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church (Philadelphia)|St. Francis de Sales Church]] in Philadelphia, [[w:Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis|Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis]] and the [[w:Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception|Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception]] built between 1920 and 1959 in Washington, D.C. In the early 1980s, famed American architect [[w:Philip Johnson|Philip Johnson]] designed a [[w:Post-Modernist|Post-Modernist]] addition to the Cleveland Play House that reflects Byzantine influences, and could thus be termed Neo-Byzantine.
 
Notable American examples include many buildings on the campus of Rice University in Texas, [[w:St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church (Philadelphia)|St. Francis de Sales Church]] in Philadelphia, [[w:Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis|Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis]] and the [[w:Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception|Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception]] built between 1920 and 1959 in Washington, D.C. In the early 1980s, famed American architect [[w:Philip Johnson|Philip Johnson]] designed a [[w:Post-Modernist|Post-Modernist]] addition to the Cleveland Play House that reflects Byzantine influences, and could thus be termed Neo-Byzantine.
  
==United Kingdom==
+
<center>
 +
<gallery>
 +
File:StSophiaLosAngeles.JPG|[[St. Sophia Cathedral (Los Angeles, California)]], 1952.
  
From about 1850 to 1880 in the English city of Bristol a related style known as [[w:Bristol Byzantine|Bristol Byzantine]] was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the [[Byzantine style]] with [[w:Moorish architecture|Moorish architecture]].
+
File:St Francis de Sales (Philadelphia).jpg|[[w:St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church (Philadelphia)|St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church]], Philadelphia (1907).
In South London there is Christ Church,North Brixton by Beresford Pite, 1897-1903. Just a few metres from the Oval Cricket Ground.
+
 
 +
</gallery>
 +
</center>
 +
 
 +
==United Kingdom==
 +
From about 1850 to 1880 in the English city of Bristol a related style known as [[w:Bristol Byzantine|Bristol Byzantine]] was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with [[w:Moorish architecture|Moorish architecture]]. In South London there is Christ Church, North Brixton by Beresford Pite, 1897-1903. Just a few metres from the Oval Cricket Ground.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
* [[Byzantine architecture]]
+
* [[w:Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire|Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire]] at Wikipedia.
* [[Russian architecture]]
+
* [[Russian Revival]]
+
'''Wikipedia'''
+
* [[w:Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire|Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire]]
+
  
 
==Source==
 
==Source==
Line 43: Line 70:
 
<gallery>
 
<gallery>
 
Image:Westminster cathedral front.jpg|The Neo-Byzantine façade of [[w:Westminster Cathedral|Westminster Cathedral]], London.
 
Image:Westminster cathedral front.jpg|The Neo-Byzantine façade of [[w:Westminster Cathedral|Westminster Cathedral]], London.
 
Image:Novoafonsky monastyr.jpg|[[w:New Athos|New Athos]] Monastery in [[w:Abkhazia|Abkhazia]].
 
 
Image:St Volodymyr Cathedral Interior 2.jpg|Interior of [[w:St. Vladimir's Cathedral|St. Vladimir's Cathedral]] in Kiev.
 
 
Image:Saint Petersburg Kronstadt.jpg|[[w:Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt|Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt]].
 
  
 
Image:St Markuskyrkan Belgrad.jpg|[[w:St. Mark's Church, Belgrade|St. Mark's Church, Belgrade]].
 
Image:St Markuskyrkan Belgrad.jpg|[[w:St. Mark's Church, Belgrade|St. Mark's Church, Belgrade]].
 
Image:Kazan church in Voskresensky Novodevichy monastery from cemetery.jpg|[[w:Novodevichy Cemetery (Saint Petersburg)|Novodevichy Cemetery]] church (1908-15) in St. Petersburg.
 
  
 
Image:Trieste Serb-orthodox church of San-Spiridione3.jpg|Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spiridio, Trieste.
 
Image:Trieste Serb-orthodox church of San-Spiridione3.jpg|Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spiridio, Trieste.
 
Image:Neuschwanstein throne room 00180u.jpg|Painting of the Neuschwanstein Castle Throne Room.
 
  
 
Image:Poti Cathedral.jpg|The Neo-Byzantine [[w:Poti Cathedral|cathedral at Poti]], Georgia, 1906–7.
 
Image:Poti Cathedral.jpg|The Neo-Byzantine [[w:Poti Cathedral|cathedral at Poti]], Georgia, 1906–7.
 
Image:Kauno soboras 2007-04-06.jpg|[[w:St. Michael the Archangel Church, Kaunas|St. Michael the Archangel Church in Kaunas]], Lithuania, was built in Roman-Byzantine style.
 
 
Image:St Petersburg Dmitry Solunsky church.jpg|Church of Dmitry Solunsky in Saint Petersburg (1861–1866) by Roman Kuzmin.
 
  
 
Image:Tbilisi Cathedral 1900s.jpg|[[w:Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis|Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis]], Georgia, 1871-72 and 1889-97.  
 
Image:Tbilisi Cathedral 1900s.jpg|[[w:Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis|Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tiflis]], Georgia, 1871-72 and 1889-97.  
  
Image:Astrakhan Temple of St Vladimira.jpg|In 1888 Vasily Kosyakov found the ultimate proportion of a single-dome design. Blueprints of his [[w:Astrakhan|Astrakhan]] church were copied in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, before the original was completed (1895–1904).
+
Image:Kauno soboras 2007-04-06.jpg|[[w:St. Michael the Archangel Church, Kaunas|St. Michael the Archangel Church in Kaunas]], Lithuania, was built in Roman-Byzantine style.
  
 
Image:Znamenskaya cerkov Vilnius.jpg|The church of the Theotokos [[w:Orans|Orans]] in Vilnius (1899–1903) demonstrates typical features of developed Byzantine revival: exposed two-tone, striped, masonry; four symmetrical apses tightly fused into the main dome; arcades blending into the domes; and a relatively small belltower.
 
Image:Znamenskaya cerkov Vilnius.jpg|The church of the Theotokos [[w:Orans|Orans]] in Vilnius (1899–1903) demonstrates typical features of developed Byzantine revival: exposed two-tone, striped, masonry; four symmetrical apses tightly fused into the main dome; arcades blending into the domes; and a relatively small belltower.
  
Image:Novocherkassk.jpg|[[w:Novocherkassk|Novocherkassk]], Russia, 1891–1905.
+
Image:Saint Sophia - Harbin, China.jpg|[[St. Sophia Cathedral (Harbin, China)|Church of the Holy Wisdom of God]], [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China, 1907, 1923-32.
  
Image:Blagoveschensky church in Kharkov.jpg|Kharkov, Ukraine, 1888–1901.
+
Image:Annunciation-harbin.jpg|Annunciation of the Theotokos (Blagovescekaya Church), Harbin, China, 1930-41. Destroyed in 1970.
  
Image:Saint Sophia - Harbin, China.jpg|[[St. Sophia Cathedral (Harbin, China)|Church of the Holy Wisdom of God]], [[w:Harbin|Harbin]], China, 1932.
+
Image:Temple Saint Sava.jpg|[[w:Temple of Saint Sava|Temple of Saint Sava]], Belgrade (1935-41, 1985-present), by [[w:Aleksandar Deroko|Aleksandar Deroko]].
  
Image:Temple Saint Sava.jpg|[[w:Temple of Saint Sava|Temple of Saint Sava]], Belgrade (1935-41, 1985-present), by [[w:Aleksandar Deroko|Aleksandar Deroko]].  
+
Image:Metropolitan Church of St Nicholas - Volos, Greece.jpg|Metropolitan Church of St Nicholas - Volos, Greece. Designed by renowned Greek architect Aristotelis Zachos (1871-1939).
 +
 
 +
Image:Catedral Metropolitana Ortodoxa de São Paulo-Brazil (Church of Antioch).JPG|Cathedral in Sao Paulo of the Orthodox Church of Antioch (1940s-)
  
 
Image:Cathedralmajormarseille.jpg|Romano-Byzantine style [[w:Marseille Cathedral|Cathedral de la Major]] (1852-93) in Marseilles.
 
Image:Cathedralmajormarseille.jpg|Romano-Byzantine style [[w:Marseille Cathedral|Cathedral de la Major]] (1852-93) in Marseilles.
  
 +
Image:Neuschwanstein throne room 00180u.jpg|Painting of the Neuschwanstein Castle Throne Room.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
</center>
 +
 +
==Further reading==
 +
* Anthony Cutler. ''The Tyranny of Hagia Sophia: Notes on Greek Orthodox Church Design in the United States.'' '''Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.''' Vol. 31, No. 1 (Mar., 1972), pp. 38-50.
 +
* Slobodan Ćurčić. ''The Role of Late Byzantine Thessalonike in Church Architecture in the Balkans.'' '''Dumbarton Oaks Papers.''' Vol. 57, Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike (2003), pp. 65-84 (+photos).
  
 
[[Category:Church architecture]]
 
[[Category:Church architecture]]

Latest revision as of 16:23, June 3, 2012

The Byzantine Revival or Neo-Byzantine movement was an architectural revival movement most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public buildings. It emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of 19th century in the Russian Empire; an isolated Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II.

Neo-Byzantine architecture incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with Eastern and Orthodox Christian architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of Ravenna. The style is characterized by round arches, vaults and domes, brick and stucco surfaces, symbolic ornamentation, and the use of decorative mosaics.

Contents

German countries

Christuskirche in Matzleindorf, 1858—1860

Earliest example of emerging Byzantine-Romanesque architecture was the Abbey of Saint Boniface, laid down by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1835 and completed in 1840. The basilica followed the rules of 6th century Ravenna architecture, although its corinthian order was a clear deviation from the historical Byzantine art. In 1876 Ludwig II of Bavaria commissioned Neo-Byzantine interiors of the Neuschwanstein Castle, complete with mosaic images of Justinian I and Greek saints.

Danish architect Theophil Hansen became a supporter of the style in the 1850s. His major works belonged to Neo-Grec style, however, Hansen as a professor of Byzantine art in University of Vienna shaped a generation of architects that popularized Neo-Byzantine architecture in Austro-Hungary, Serbia and post-war Yugoslavia. Hansen's own Neo-Byzantine work include the Greek Church of Trinity (1856—1858) in Vienna and Chistuskirche in Matzleindorf (1858—1860).

Russian Empire

The Sophia Cathedral in Pushkin (1782—1788) was the earliest and isolated experiment with Byzantine treatment of otherwise neoclassical structures. In 1830s Nicholas I of Russia promoted the so-called Russo-Byzantine style of churches designed by Konstantin Thon. Nicholas I despised true Byzantine art; Thon's style in fact had little common with it. Notably, Thon routinely replaced the circular Byzantine arch with a keel-shaped gable, and the hemispherical Byzantine dome with an onion dome; layout and structural scheme of his churches clearly belonged to neoclassical standard.

True Byzantine art, popularized by Grigory Gagarin and David Grimm, was adopted by Alexander II of Russia as the de-facto official style of the Orthodox Church. Byzantine architecture became a vehicle of Orthodox expansion on the frontiers of Empire (Congress Poland, Crimea, the Caucasus). However, few buildings were completed in Alexander II reign due to financial troubles. Alexander III changed state preference in favor of Russian Revival trend based on 16th-17th century Moscow and Yaroslavl tradition, yet Byzantine architecture remained a common choice, especially for large cathedrals. Neo-Byzantine cathedrals concentrated in the western provinces (Poland, Lithuania), the Army bases in Caucasus and Central Asia, the Cossack hosts and the industrial region in Urals around the city of Perm. Architects David Grimm and Vasily Kosyakov developed a unique national type of a single-dome Byzantine cathedral with four symmetrical pendetive apses that became de-facto standard in 1880s-1890s.

The reign of Nicholas II was notable for the architects's turn from this standard back to Hagia Sophia legacy, peaking in the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt and Poti cathedral. These designs employed reinforced concrete that allowed very fast construction schedule; their interiors contained clear references to contemporary Art Nouveau yet the exteriors were a clear homage to medieval Constantinople. Russian Neo-Byzantine tradition was terminated by the revolution of 1917 but was continued by emigrant architects in Yugoslavia and Harbin.

United States

In the United States and elsewhere, the Neo-Byzantine style is often seen in vernacular amalgamations with other Medieval revivalist styles such as Romanesque and Gothic, or even with the Mission Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival styles.

Notable American examples include many buildings on the campus of Rice University in Texas, St. Francis de Sales Church in Philadelphia, Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception built between 1920 and 1959 in Washington, D.C. In the early 1980s, famed American architect Philip Johnson designed a Post-Modernist addition to the Cleveland Play House that reflects Byzantine influences, and could thus be termed Neo-Byzantine.

United Kingdom

From about 1850 to 1880 in the English city of Bristol a related style known as Bristol Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. In South London there is Christ Church, North Brixton by Beresford Pite, 1897-1903. Just a few metres from the Oval Cricket Ground.

See also

Source

Gallery

Further reading

  • Anthony Cutler. The Tyranny of Hagia Sophia: Notes on Greek Orthodox Church Design in the United States. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. Vol. 31, No. 1 (Mar., 1972), pp. 38-50.
  • Slobodan Ćurčić. The Role of Late Byzantine Thessalonike in Church Architecture in the Balkans. Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Vol. 57, Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike (2003), pp. 65-84 (+photos).
Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
interaction
Donate

Please consider supporting OrthodoxWiki. FAQs

Toolbox