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Atheism is the belief that there is no God. It is not a mere lack of belief in God, nor is it a belief in ignorance of God, but specifically that there is no God. The belief that we cannot know or understand God or anything of a supra-material order (the previously mentioned belief in ignorance) is today generally termed "agnosticism." Both positions are condemned by the Orthodox Church for being a belief in error for denial (explicitly in the case of atheists and some agnostics, implicitly in the case of other agnostics) of the truth of God and Jesus Christ.
- Orthodox Christianity and Militant Atheism in the Twentieth Century from Timothy Ware's The Orthodox Church (2nd ed), Penguin Books, London 1993, pp 145-9 and 162.
- Atheism and Orthodoxy in Modern Russia delivered by Fr. Hilarion Alfeyev at the Orthodox Peace Fellowship retreat in Vézelay, France, 5-7 May 2001
- The Challenge of Atheism by Fr. Stephen Freeman
- Christian Atheism by Fr. Stephen Freeman
- History of the Orthodox Church: The Modern Church: Confrontation with Atheistic Regimes by Aristeides Papadakis, Ph.D.