Apostle James the Just

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Saint '''James the Just''' also called '''James Adelphos''' and '''James the Brother of Our Lord'''(died AD 62) was the first [[Bishop]] or [[Patriarch]] of the [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]]. According to the [[Gospel of James|Protevangelium]], James was the son of [[Joseph the Betrothed|Joseph]] - along with the other 'brethren of the Lord' mentioned in the scripture - from a marriage prior to his betrothment to [[Theotokos|Mary]].   
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Saint '''James the Just''', also called '''James Adelphos''' and '''James the Brother of Our Lord''' (died AD 62), was the first [[Bishop]] or [[Patriarch]] of [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]]. According to the [[Gospel of James|Protevangelium]], James was the son of [[Joseph the Betrothed|Joseph]] - along with the other 'brethren of the Lord' mentioned in the scripture - from a marriage prior to his betrothal to [[Theotokos|Mary]].   
 
 
 
==Name==
 
==Name==
[[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]], quoting from [[Hegesippus]] writes that James was “called the Just by all from the time of our Savior to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James.
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[[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]], quoting from [[Hegesippus]], writes that James was "called the Just by all from the time of our Savior to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James."
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He is called '''Adelphos''' (Greek "brother"). Jesus's '[[Brethren of the Lord|brothers]]' — James as well as [[Jude Thomas|Jude]], Simon, and Joses — are mentioned in [[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew]] 13:55, [[Gospel of Mark|Mark]] 6:3, [[Gospel of Luke|Luke]] 6:14 and by [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] in [[Galatians]] 1:19.
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==Life==
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[[Jerome]], ''De Viris Illustribus,'' quotes Hegesippus' account of James from the fifth book of his lost ''Commentaries'':
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:"After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees."
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Paul further describes James as being one of the persons the risen Christ showed himself to ([[I Corinthians]] 15:3-8); then later in I Corinthians, mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in [[Galatians]], Paul lists James with ''Cephas'' (better known as [[Apostle Peter|Peter]]) and [[Apostle John|John]], as the three "pillars" of the Church, and who will minister to "the circumcised" (that is the [[Jew]]s) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the Gentiles (2:9, 2:12).
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[[Acts of the Apostles|Acts]] provides clear evidence that James was an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem. When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem, he asks that James be informed (12:17). When the Christians of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] are concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, they send Paul and [[Apostle Barnabas|Barnabas]] to confer with the church there, and it is James who utters the definitive judgement (15:13ff). And when Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself (21:18).
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A debated passage, often characterized as a Christian interpolation, in  [[Josephus]]'s ''Jewish Antiquities''  records his death in Jerusalem as having occurred after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Clodius Albinus took office (''Antiquities'' 20,9)— which has thus been dated to AD 62. The high priest Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a council of judges who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning. Josephus reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law," who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter. Their agitations led to Ananus being deposed as high priest.
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Eusebius, while quoting Josephus' account, also records otherwise lost passages from [[Hegesippus]] (see links below), and [[Clement of Alexandria]] (''Historia Ecclesiae'', 2.23). Hegesippus' account apparently varied from what Josephus reports: the [[Pharisees]], upset at his teachings, first threw him from the summit of the Temple in Jerusalem, then stoned him, and at last broke his skull with a fuller's club.
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The ''[[Gospel of James|Protevangelion of James]]'' (or ''Infancy Gospel of James''), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James.
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Saint James is commemorated on [[December 26]], along with David the King and [[Joseph the Betrothed|Saint Joseph]].
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==External links==
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* [http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/hegesippus.html "The martyrdom of James, the brother of the Lord"] Quotes from lost writings of [[Hegesippus]] in [[Eusebius]].
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* [http://www.studylight.org/his/bc/wfj/antiquities/view.cgi?book=20&chapter=9 Flavius Josephus ''Antiquities of the Jews'' Book 20, Chapter 9]
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[[Category:Biblical Saints]]
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[[Category:Saints]]

Revision as of 07:40, April 28, 2005

Saint James the Just, also called James Adelphos and James the Brother of Our Lord (died AD 62), was the first Bishop or Patriarch of Jerusalem. According to the Protevangelium, James was the son of Joseph - along with the other 'brethren of the Lord' mentioned in the scripture - from a marriage prior to his betrothal to Mary.

Name

Eusebius, quoting from Hegesippus, writes that James was "called the Just by all from the time of our Savior to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James."

He is called Adelphos (Greek "brother"). Jesus's 'brothers' — James as well as Jude, Simon, and Joses — are mentioned in Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3, Luke 6:14 and by Paul in Galatians 1:19.

Life

Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, quotes Hegesippus' account of James from the fifth book of his lost Commentaries:

"After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees."

Paul further describes James as being one of the persons the risen Christ showed himself to (I Corinthians 15:3-8); then later in I Corinthians, mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in Galatians, Paul lists James with Cephas (better known as Peter) and John, as the three "pillars" of the Church, and who will minister to "the circumcised" (that is the Jews) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the Gentiles (2:9, 2:12).

Acts provides clear evidence that James was an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem. When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem, he asks that James be informed (12:17). When the Christians of Antioch are concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved, they send Paul and Barnabas to confer with the church there, and it is James who utters the definitive judgement (15:13ff). And when Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself (21:18).

A debated passage, often characterized as a Christian interpolation, in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities records his death in Jerusalem as having occurred after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Clodius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9)— which has thus been dated to AD 62. The high priest Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a council of judges who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning. Josephus reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law," who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter. Their agitations led to Ananus being deposed as high priest.

Eusebius, while quoting Josephus' account, also records otherwise lost passages from Hegesippus (see links below), and Clement of Alexandria (Historia Ecclesiae, 2.23). Hegesippus' account apparently varied from what Josephus reports: the Pharisees, upset at his teachings, first threw him from the summit of the Temple in Jerusalem, then stoned him, and at last broke his skull with a fuller's club.

The Protevangelion of James (or Infancy Gospel of James), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James.

Saint James is commemorated on December 26, along with David the King and Saint Joseph.

External links

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