Anaphora

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==Eucharistic prayer==
 
==Eucharistic prayer==
There are three somewhat overlapping parts to the Eucharistic Prayer: the Thanksgiving, the Anamnesis, and the [[Epiclesis]].  But before the prayer can begin,  there must be solemn expressions of [[love]] and of [[faith]].  Unity in love and in faith is needed  for our self-offering and communion with [[God]].  We first hear: "Let us love one another that with one mind we may confess.  Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the Trinity, one in essence and undivided."  The "kiss of peace" exchanged  by the clergy, and the [[Symbol of Faith]] is chanted.
 
  
===Thanksgiving===
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Despite some variety in the structure of early anaphoras, the “Antiochene” or “West Syrian” pattern that is found in the liturgies of St John Chrysostom, St Basil, and St James, took shape by 400 CE. It contains the following eleven elements in the order given, exemplified with the corresponding text of the anaphora of St John Chrysostom.  
Here is a portion of the prayer from the [[Divine Liturgy]] of St. [[John Chrysostom]] where thanksgiving to [[God the Father]] for all that he has done in [[Christ]] and the [[Holy Spirit|Spirit]]. We remember all things and are grateful to God. Our remembrance and our thanksgiving take us into the very presence of the Kingdom to the Throne of the Father to sing the  [[Trisagion|Thrice-Holy Hymn]]  with the [[Angels|angelic]] choirs. ([[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]] 6: 1-5)
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:''...It is meet and right to sing to thee, to bless thee, to praise thee, to give thanks unto thee, and to worship thee in every place of thy dominion: for thou art God ineffable, inconceivable, invisible, incomprehensible, ever existing and eternally the same, thou and thine Only-begotten Son and thy Holy Spirit. Thou it was who didst bring us from non-existence into being, and when we had fallen away didst raise us up again, and didst not cease to do all things until thou hadst brought us back to heaven, and hadst endowed us with thy kingdom which is to come. '''For all these things we give thanks unto thee,''' and to thine Only-begotten Son, and thy Holy Spirit; for all things of which we know, and of which we know not, and for all the benefits bestowed upon us, both manifest and unseen.''
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1. The '''opening dialogue''' between the presider and the assembly, beginning “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, .
  
:''And '''we thank Thee for''' this liturgy which Thou hast found worthy to accept at our hands, though there stand by Thee thousands of archangels and hosts of angels, the Cherubim and the Seraphim, six-winged, many eyed, who soar aloft, borne on their pinions, singing the triumphant hymn, shouting, proclaiming and saying:''
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2. The '''preface''', which is invariable in the Eastern liturgies, sets forth the governing idea of the anaphora – thanksgiving. “It is meet and right ….”
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:'''''Holy! Holy! Holy! Lord of Sabaoth! Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory! Hosanna in the highest! Blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!'''''
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===Anamnesis===
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3. The '''pre-Sanctus''' is the transition from the preface to the Sanctus.
This narrative culminates in the of the Last Supper, and the words of Christ: "This is my Body ... This is my Blood..."
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This section is called the anamnesis or oblation in that it references Jesus' command, at least implicitly, to "do this in memory of me" and states that the gifts of bread and wine are offered to God in memory of Jesus' life, death, resurrection, and second coming. It culminates in the priest or deacon elevating the bread and wine while the priest exclaims: "Thine own of thine own we offer unto thee on behalf of all and for all."
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4. '''Sanctus''' (Latin for “Holy”) refers to the thrice-Holy hymn of victory: “Holy! Holy! Holy! ….” ([[Book of Isaiah|Isaiah]] 6: 1-5)
  
===Epiclesis===
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5. The '''post-Sanctus''' continues the thanksgiving of the preface, but with particular focus on the Incarnation: “With these blessed powers….”
[[Epiclesis]] is the Invocation or 'calling down' of the Spirit on the Holy Gifts
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==Source==
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6. The '''institution narrative''' recounts Christ’s institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper: “… who, when he had come and fulfilled all the dispensation for us, in the night in which he was given up….” The narrative includes his words over he bread and wine – “This is my body…” and “This is my blood….”
*[http://oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=101 The Orthodox Faith], by the V. Rev. Thomas Hopko
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7. The '''anamnesis''' is the recalling before God of the saving acts of Christ: “Remembering this saving commandment and all those things which have come to pass for us: the Cross, the Tomb, the Resurrection on the third day, the Ascension into heaven, the Sitting at the right hand, and the second and glorious Coming.”
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8. The '''offering''' of the sacrifice to God: “Thine own of Thine own we offer unto Thee, on behalf of all and for all.”
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9. The '''[[epiclesis]]''' is the calling down of the Holy Spirit on the Gifts to transform them into the Body and Blood of Christ.
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10. The '''intercessions''' begin with the commemoration of the saints, including the singing of the Megalynarion, followed by intercessions for the living and those who have fallen asleep in the Lord.
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11. The '''doxology''' is the concluding praise of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit that precedes the Amen of the people.
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==Sources==  
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*R.C.D. Jasper and G.J. Cuming, ''Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed'', third ed. Liturgical Press, 1987. ISBN 0814660851
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*Casimir Kucharek, ''The Byzantine-Slav Liturgy of St John Chrysostom: Its Origin and Evolution''. Alleluia Press, 1971. ISBN 9780911726060
  
 
[[Category:Liturgics]]
 
[[Category:Liturgics]]
  
 
[[ro:Anaforaua]]
 
[[ro:Anaforaua]]

Revision as of 09:10, August 13, 2008

This article forms part of the series on the
Divine Liturgy
Liturgy of the Preparation
Proskomedia
Liturgical objects
Vestments
Liturgy of the Word
Great Litany
Antiphons
Little Entrance
Troparion
Thrice-Holy Hymn
Epistle
Gospel
Homily
Litany of Fervent Supplication
Litany for the Departed
Litany of the Catechumens
Liturgy of the Eucharist
Cherubic Hymn
Great Entrance
Litany of the Completion
Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
Anaphora
Epiclesis
Megalynarion
Lord's Prayer
Communion
Dismissal
Antidoron
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The central prayer of the Eucharist is the anaphora (Greek for "offering up"), although in the West it is also called the "Eucharistic Prayer", the "Canon of the Mass" or "eucharistic canon", or the "Great Thanksgiving".

Eucharistic prayer

Despite some variety in the structure of early anaphoras, the “Antiochene” or “West Syrian” pattern that is found in the liturgies of St John Chrysostom, St Basil, and St James, took shape by 400 CE. It contains the following eleven elements in the order given, exemplified with the corresponding text of the anaphora of St John Chrysostom.

1. The opening dialogue between the presider and the assembly, beginning “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, ….”

2. The preface, which is invariable in the Eastern liturgies, sets forth the governing idea of the anaphora – thanksgiving. “It is meet and right ….”

3. The pre-Sanctus is the transition from the preface to the Sanctus.

4. Sanctus (Latin for “Holy”) refers to the thrice-Holy hymn of victory: “Holy! Holy! Holy! ….” (Isaiah 6: 1-5)

5. The post-Sanctus continues the thanksgiving of the preface, but with particular focus on the Incarnation: “With these blessed powers….”

6. The institution narrative recounts Christ’s institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper: “… who, when he had come and fulfilled all the dispensation for us, in the night in which he was given up….” The narrative includes his words over he bread and wine – “This is my body…” and “This is my blood….”

7. The anamnesis is the recalling before God of the saving acts of Christ: “Remembering this saving commandment and all those things which have come to pass for us: the Cross, the Tomb, the Resurrection on the third day, the Ascension into heaven, the Sitting at the right hand, and the second and glorious Coming.”

8. The offering of the sacrifice to God: “Thine own of Thine own we offer unto Thee, on behalf of all and for all.”

9. The epiclesis is the calling down of the Holy Spirit on the Gifts to transform them into the Body and Blood of Christ.

10. The intercessions begin with the commemoration of the saints, including the singing of the Megalynarion, followed by intercessions for the living and those who have fallen asleep in the Lord.

11. The doxology is the concluding praise of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit that precedes the Amen of the people.

Sources

  • R.C.D. Jasper and G.J. Cuming, Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed, third ed. Liturgical Press, 1987. ISBN 0814660851
  • Casimir Kucharek, The Byzantine-Slav Liturgy of St John Chrysostom: Its Origin and Evolution. Alleluia Press, 1971. ISBN 9780911726060
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