Ambrose (Pappa-Georgopoli) of Belaya Krinitsa
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Revision as of 12:35, February 28, 2009
The Old Believers (Staroveryi) or Old rituals (Staroobrjadtsyi) or, as they themselves prefer to be called, Ancient Orthodox (Drevlepravoslavnyi), are those Christians remained faithful to the ancient rites, dogmas and ecclesiastical structures of Orthodox Russian, before the changes in the seventeenth century were introduced by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow.
Many of the Ancient Orthodox Many to Siberia and neighboring countries, especially Romania. Most of them have never lost or refused the priesthood, even though some have denied it, and are therefore called "asacerdotali" (Bespopovtsyi): their reaction to the priesthood is not motivated by the innovations of Nikon, But their vision of the imminent kingdom of the Antichrist.
Over time, the Ancient Orthodox priests founded a center at the cemetery Rogozh in Moscow, and later the monastery of Belo-Krinitsa ("white fountain") in Bukovina, then part of Austria, now in Ukraine. Although there were ancient Orthodox bishops ordained by Non-Russian Orthodox Russians prelates, none of them had left successors, because under the reign of Tsar Nicholas I lew laws restricted the reception of converts from the Official Church.
In Austria, he founded the monastery of Belo-Krinitsa, as a place of freedom for the Ancient Orthodox (which carried the name of Lipoveni), thanks to laws enacted in 1783 by the Emperor Joseph II. In Vienna, the Minister of Interior, Conte Kolovrat, and Archduke Ludwig prepared the way for the permission to be given by the Ferdinand in 1844, to invite a foreign bishop to establish its headquarters in Belo-Krinitsa to serve the needs of the Ancients Orthodox in the domains of the Empire.
There existed for generations communities of Ancient Orthodox in Turkey who were European refugees from the violence in Russia, and it was natural that the search for a bishop move between their first steps. According to reports from the Russian government after the mid dell'800 about 4,000 Ancient Orthodox the Empire lived in Austria, mostly in Bukovina, on the border with Russia at the Prut river, and about 36,000 lived the Ottoman Empire. Of the latter, the majority lived in Dobruja north at the Danube delta. To put the monks in contact with the Metropolitan was Osip Semenovich Goncharov, Ataman of Nekrasovtsyi.
In 1811, Andrea was married, and shortly after he was ordained priest in turn by Metropolitan Matthew. In 1814 he lost his wife, who had given him a son, also named George. In 1817 he was elected Igumeno of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity on the island of Halki. Il Patriarca Costantino lo fece protosincello della Chiesa patriarcale greca nel 1827. Patriarch Constantine had him protosincello of the patriarchal Greek Church in 1827. As is clear from a document dated 9 September 1835, he was ordained Metropolitan of Sarajevo in Bosnia by Patriarch Gregory assisted by four other bishops. Remained in place for five years before being removed by the Turks.
A Serb, Costantino Efimovic, was used as an interpreter between the Metropolitan Ambrose and the two ancient Orthodox monks, who examined his orthodoxy, to whom he presented the said document of the patriarch greek. Metropolitan Ambrose and his son then took time to investigate the status of the Russian Orthodox Old canonry and what he was asked, before giving its consent on 15 April 1846.
After a trip along the Danube, the Metropolitan Ambrose and the two monks arrived in Tulcea, Romania in today, where five hundred Nekrasovtsyi, together with the monks of the monastery of Slavo-Rus, their Father and Igumeno Makarij Arkadij Lavrentijevskij presented to the Metropolitan traditional bread with salt. The government requested and obtained from the patriarchate greek a favorable report on the Metropolitan, before giving him permission to establish his residence in their domains. After a meeting to discuss the procedure for settlement of the Metropolitan, on 28 October 1846 he held the office Vigil in honor of St. Nicholas the miracle worker. The following day, after reading the usual profession of faith in the ritual Slavonice ecclesiastical transliterated into Greek characters, the Metropolitan was accepted according to Canon 95 of the Sixth Ecumenical Council. The priest-monaco Ieronim, with the blessing of the first and the new Metropolitan of Belo-Krinitsa and all the Ancient Orthodox Russians, began the Divine Liturgy in which the Metropolitan concelebration.
The Metropolitan read the prayers in his native language, greek, but the deacon and the choir used the Slavonia. Due to the absence of two other bishops, he used two archpriests, a procedure already used before in the history of the Church in cases of necessity, and described in some lives of saints. In August 1847 there was the ordination of Bishop Arkadij by Salvo-Rus, an ancient seat of an Orthodox monastery at Tulcea, which still exists in Romania.
The Russian Foreign Ministry threatened to retaliate the government of the Roman Catholic, if it had not withdrawn the permission of the Ancient Orthodox establish its Metropolia the Empire Habsburg Empire. The Holy Synod, by which the Tsar of the church controlled state nikoniana time since the abolition of the Patriarchate under Peter I, likewise threatened to cut all financial assistance from the patriarchate of Constantinople, if he had not done everything in its power to induce the Metropolitan Ambrose to change its position. Metropolitan Ambrose, however, refused. Certainly the Ancient Orthodox Russians convinced him that the system of the Holy Synod, established in 1700 by Peter I to check the status of the church in place of the patriarch, and with whom they have not wanted to do was not a canon. By decree of Tsar Paul I, the Russian rulers had declared "the Church" and all the bishops of the church had been obliged to honor an oath to that effect.
In response to diplomatic pressure, the Austrian authorities closed the monastery of Belo Krinitsa-March 3 1848, and the Metropolitan Ambrose was sent into exile in Tzill in Styria. After the outbreak of revolutions in Vienna, with the assistance of Count Kolovrat, the Minister mentioned, the monastery of Belo-Krinitsa was reopened at the end of 1848, though the Metropolitan had to remain in exile. The successor of the latter was Antonija (Shutov), which became the first old-Orthodox archbishop of Moscow.
Metropolitan Ambrose lived fifteen years in exile and suffering among people who did not speak either language, but was willing to help in their need for a priesthood. He saw this as the will of God in him. On 28 October 1863 he sent his last official act as primate of the Old Russian Orthodox Archbishop Antonija and all the bishops under his jurisdiction. The document begins with the words: "For the mercy of God, the humble Archbishop and Metropolitan of all the Ancient Orthodox, Ambrose." In the text he expresses regret that he lived so far away from his flock, and that his health did not let it do more, but take your time to discuss many issues relating to the church people under his spiritual care. This document clearly refuted those enemies dell'Antica Orthodoxy that would have us believe that the Holy Metropolitan has concluded his days by rejecting his flock. Metropolitan Kirill held his funeral at Belo officio-Krinitsa, but the Metropolitan was buried in the greek orthodox cemetery in Trieste. His pastoral staff is now in Moscow and has been safeguarded in the Archbishop Alimpij used as the first Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia.
In 1899 the Patriarch of Constantinople established a commission to study the issue of Metropolitan Ambrose and his acceptance of the primacy of the Church-Old Russian Orthodox. The committee issued a decree of recognition of the hierarchy established by Metropolitan Ambrose, decree restless Pobedonostsev, the prosecutor of the secular church of the Holy Synod of the Russian state.
At a joint synod held at the Monastery of Belo-Krinitsa 150 years after its acceptance of the primacy, Metropolitan Ambrose was canonized on 11 November 1996, in the presence of both his successors, Metropolitan Belo Leontij-Krinitsa and the Metropolitan Alimpij of Moscow and All Russia. The day of his feast was assigned to October 30 (November 12, according to the new calendar) each year. On 18/31 May 2000 was the exhumation of the relics and their translation from Trieste to a Brail, Romania.